vendredi 27 mars 2015

Saint ROBERT (RUPERT) de SALZBOURG, évêque et missionnaire


Saint Robert ou Rupert de Salzbourg, évêque

Moine bénédictin et évêque de Worms, le duc de Bavière Théodon II le fait venir pour évangéliser sa contrée. Il fonde en Bavière plusieurs abbayes et églises dont celle de Salzbourg, dont il devint l’évêque et où il fut été inhumé en 718. La tradition lui attribue le développement de l’extraction de sel, qui est la richesse de la région.

Saint Rupert de Salzbourg


évêque ( 718)

Rupert ou Robert de Hrodbert. 
Il appartenait à la famille royale mérovingienne, ce pourquoi il fut choisi comme évêque de Worms en Rhénanie. Quand il en fut chassé, il partit évangéliser la Bavière et fonda le monastère Saint Pierre de Salzbourg, ville dont il devint l'évêque et en reste le patron.


- Conférence épiscopale d'Autriche - site en allemand : Le diocèse de Salzburg a été fondé au VIIe siècle grâce aux efforts de Saint Rupert (vers 650-718)

- Archidiocèse de Salzburg - site en allemand

Un internaute nous communique:

"(Du Germanique: «Hrod»: «Gloire» et «Berht»: «Illustre») 

C'est le père spirituel de l'Autriche. Rupert était abbé de Salzbourg; il évangélisa le peuple, mais il prêta un grand respect à la culture autochtone. C'est sous l'impulsion des moines de Rupert que le développement minier de la région prit son essor. Saint Rupert est ordinairement représenté avec un baril de sel, pour rappeler l'impulsion qu'il a donné à l'exploitation de sel de la région."

À Salzbourg en Bavière, vers 718, saint Rupert, évêque. D’abord établi à Worms, il gagna la Bavière à la demande du duc Théodon, fit construire une église et un monastère dans l’ancienne place forte romaine de Juvavum, qu’il gouverna comme évêque et abbé, et d’où il diffusa la foi chrétienne.


Martyrologe romain



Saint Rupert (église Sainte-Catherine de Dornbach)

RUPERT DE SALZBOURG

Évêque, Saint

+ vers 710

27 mars

Rupert, issu du sang royal de France, s'exerça, dès sa jeunesse, à la pratique du jeûne, des veilles et de plusieurs autres sortes de mortifications : il était aussi un modèle de chasteté, de tempérance et de charité envers les pauvres. Son nom devint si célèbre, qu'on venait le consulter de toutes parts. Il éclaircissait les doutes qu'on lui proposait, consolait les affligés, et guérissait les maladies des corps et des âmes. Un mérite si distingué le fit élever sur le siège épiscopal de Worms : mais les habitants de ce diocèse, dont la plupart étaient encore idolâtres, ne purent souffrir un pasteur dont l'éminente sainteté condamnait leurs désordres ; ils l'accablèrent d'outrages, et le chassèrent de la manière la plus indigne.

Théodon, duc de Bavière invita le Saint à venir dans son pays. Rupert arriva à Ratisbonne en 697, et y fut reçu par le duc et par sa cour avec la plus grande distinction. Ayant trouvé partout des cœurs dociles, il ralluma le flambeau de la foi, éteint par les superstitions et par les hérésies qui s'étaient élevées depuis la mort de saint Séverin. Il convertit Ragrintrude, sœur de Théodon, et cette conversion fut suivie de celle du duc et de toute la Bavière. Dieu autorisa, par plusieurs miracles, la doctrine que prêchait le saint missionnaire. Le zèle de Rupert porta aussi la lumière de l'évangile chez les nations voisines.

Le Saint continua ses prédications à Lorch et à Juvave. Il établit son siège épiscopal dans cette dernière ville. Elle était alors presque entièrement ruinée ; mais on la rebâtit, et elle prit le nom de Salzbourg. Le duc Théodon y fit beaucoup d'embellissements, avec de riches donations, qui mirent le Saint en état de fonder un grand nombre d'églises et de monastères. Théodebert ou Diotper, héritier de la piété de son père, augmenta considérablement les revenus de l'église de Salzbourg.

Saint Rupert fit un voyage en France, dans le dessein de se procurer des missionnaires capables de le seconder dans ses travaux apostoliques : il en emmena douze, avec sainte Erentrude, sa nièce. Celle-ci ayant fait à Dieu le sacrifice de sa virginité, il lui donna le gouvernement du monastère de Numberg, dont il était fondateur. Il mourut quelques années après, le jour de Pâques, qui tombait cette année le 27 Mars. Il venait de dire la messe et de prêcher. Il est nommé en ce jour dans les martyrologes. En Autriche et en Bavière, on fait sa principale fête le 25 Septembre. C'est le jour d'une des translations de ses reliques, que l'on voit à Salzbourg, dans l'église qui porte son nom.

SOURCE : Alban Butler : Vie des Pères, Martyrs et autres principaux Saints… – Traduction : Jean-François Godescard.




St Rupert de Salzbourg 

(+ 718)

Apparenté selon la tradition aux mérovingiens, il était évêque de Worms vers 697 quand il partit évangéliser la Bavière. Il y baptisa le duc Théodon de Bavière, ce qui lui permit de continuer à prêcher et à convertir les populations sur une large zone autour du Danube. Il reçut en 699 en cadeau de la part du duc de Bavière les restes ruinés de la ville de Salzbourg, alors appelée Juvavum. Il y promut les mines de sel qui donnèrent à la ville son nouveau nom.

Il est considéré comme l'apôtre de la Bavière, de la Carinthie et de l'Autriche.


St. Rupert

(Alternative forms, Ruprecht, Hrodperht, Hrodpreht, Roudbertus, Rudbertus, Robert, Ruprecht).

First Bishop of Salzburg, contemporary of Childebert III, king of the Franks (695-711), date of birth unknown; d. at Salzburg, Easter Sunday, 27 March, 718. According to an old tradition, he was a scion of the Frankish Merovingian family. The assumption of 660 as the year of his birth is merely legendary. According to the oldest short biographical notices in the "Mon. Germ. Script.", XI, 1-15, Rupert was noted for simplicity, prudence, and the fear of God; he was a lover of truth in his discourse, upright in opinion, cautious in counsel, energetic in action, far-seeing in his charity, and in all his conduct a glorious model of rectitude. While he was Bishop of Worms, the fame of his learning and piety drew many from far and wide. The report of the bishop's ability reached Duke Theodo II of Bavaria, who had placed himself at the head of the current ecclesiastical movement in Bavaria. Theodo sent Rupert messengers with the request that, he should come to Bavaria to revive, confirm, and propagate the spirit of Christianity there. Despite the work of early missionaries, Bavaria was only superficially Christian; its very Christianity was indeed to some extent Arian, while heathen customs and views were most closely interwoven with the external Christianity which it had retained. St. Rupert acceded to Theodo's request, after he had by messengers made himself familiar with the land and people of Bavaria. St. Rupert was received with great honour and ceremony by Theodo in the old residential town of Ratisbon (696). He entered immediately upon his apostolic labours, which extended from the territory of the Danube to the borders of Lower Pannonia, and upon his missionary journey came to Lorch. Thence he travelled to the lonely shores of the Wallersee, where he built a church in honour of Saint Peter, thereby laying the foundation of the present market-town of Seekirchen in the Newmarket district of Salzburg. From the Roman colony there Rupert obtained an account of the ancient Roman town of Juvavum, upon the site of which there still remained many more or less dilapidated buildings, overgrown with briars and brushwood.

Having personally verified the accuracy of this account concerning the place and position, Rupert requested Theodo, in the interests of his apostolic mission to the country, to give him the territory of Juvavum (which was still a place of considerable commerce) for the erection of a monastery and an episcopal see. The duke granted this petition, bequeathing the territory of Juvavum (the modern Salzburg), two square miles in area, to St. Rupert and his successors. At the foot of the precipice of the Monchberg, where once St. Maximus, a disciple of St. Severin, had suffered martyrdom with his companions (476), St. Rupert erected the first church in Salzburg, the Church of St. Peter, in honour of the Prince of the Apostles, as well as a monastery. Upon the lofty prominences (Nonnberg) to the southeast of the town, where the old Roman fortress once towered, he established a convent of nuns which, like the monastery of the Mönchberg, he placed under the protection and Rule of St. Benedict. To set his institutions upon a solid basis, Rupert repaired home, and returned with twelve companions besides his niece Ehrentraud (Erindruda), whom he made abbess over the Benedictine Convent of Nonnberg, while he with his twelve companions formed the first congregation of the famous Benedictine Monastery of St. Peter at Salzburg, which remains to the present day. St. Rupert thenceforth devoted himself entirely to the work of salvation and conversion which he had already begun, founding in connection therewith many churches and monasteries — e.g., Maxglan, near Salzburg, Maximilianszelle (now Bischofshofen in Pongau), Altotting, and others. After a life of extraordinarily successful activity, he died at Salzburg, aided by the prayers of his brethren in the order; his body reposed in the St. Peterskirche until 24 Sept., 774, when his disciple and successor, Abbot-Bishop St. Virgil, had a portion of his remains removed to the cathedral. On 24 Sept., 1628, these relics were interred by Archbishop Paris von Ladron (1619-54) under the high altar of the new cathedral. Since then the town and district of Salzburg solemnize the feast of St. Rupert, Apostle of Bavaria and Carlnthia, on 24 September.

In Christian art St. Rupert is portrayed with a vessel of salt in his hand, symbolizing the universal tradition according to which Rupert inaugurated salt-mining at Salzburg; this portrayal of St. Rupert is generally found upon the coins of the Duchy of Salzburg and Carinthia. St. Rupert is also represented baptizing Duke Theodo; this scene has no historical foundation. St. Rupert was the first Abbot-Bishop of Salzburg, for, as he established his foundations after the manner of the Irish monks, he combined in his own person the dignities of abbot and bishop. A similar combination of dignities existed also in Ratisbon and Freising. This twofold character of the bishop continued in Salzburg for nearly 300 years until the separation of the dignities was effected in 987 by Archbishop Friedrich I of Salzburg, Count of Chiemgau, the twenty-first Abbot of the Monastery of St. Peter. The period of St. Rupert's activity was until very lately a matter of great discussion. Formerly the opinion was held that the end of the fifth and beginning of the sixth centuries was the age of his missionary work, but, according to the most exhaustive and reliable investigations, the late seventh and early eighth centuries formed the period of his activity. This fact is established especially by the "Breves notitiae Salzburgenses", a catalogue of the donations made to the Church of Salzburg, with notices from the ninth century. In these latter Bishop St. Virgil, whose ministry is referred to 745-84, appears as a direct disciple of St. Rupert. It is forthwith evident that the assumption of the end of the sixth and beginning of the seventh centuries as the period of Rupert's activity is extremely doubtful, even apart from the fact that this view also involves the rejection of the catalogue of the bishops of Salzburg and of Easter Sunday as the day of Rupert's death. Many churches and places bearing Rupert's name, serve as surviving memorials of his missionary activity. A successor of St. Rupert, the present scholarly Abbot of St. Peters in Salzburg, Willibald Hauthaler, has written an interesting work upon this subject entitled "Die dem hl. Rupertus Apostel von Bayern geweihten Kirchen und Kapellen" (with map, Salzburg, 1885).

Schmid, Ulrich. "St. Rupert." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 26 Mar. 2015 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13229a.htm>.




Rupert of Salzburg, OSB B (RM)
(also known as Hrodbert, Robert, Rupprecht)


Died in Salzburg, Austria, on March 27, c. 710-720; feast day formerly March 27; feast of the translation of his relics is kept in Bavaria and Austria on September 25.


There have been varying opinions as to where Rupert was born and when (with variations of 100 years). While more reliable sources make him a Frankish nobleman, others, including Colgan insist he was an Irishman with the Gaelic name Robertach. From his youth he was renowned for his learning, extraordinary virtues, austerity, and charity that sought to impoverish himself to enrich the poor. People came from remote provinces to receive his advice. He would remove all their doubts and scruples, comfort the afflicted, cure the sick, and heal the disorders of souls. His virtuous life led to him being consecrated bishop of Worms, Germany, from where he began his missionary work in southern Bavaria and Austria. (One version says he was expelled by the pagans at Worms, others that he was simply a zealous, evangelical Christian.)

Rupert travelled to Regensburg (Ratisbon) with a small company about 697, perhaps with credentials from the French King Childebert III, or because Duke Theodo of Bavaria had heard of his reputation for miracles and invited him. They went to Duke Theodo, whose permission they needed to proceed. While Theodo was not a Christian, his sister, Bagintrude, is said to have been one. He agreed to listen to their preaching and was converted and baptized. Many of the leading men and women of the land followed the duke's example and embraced Christianity, which had been preached there 200 years earlier by Saint Severinus of Noricum.

Instead of knocking down pagan temples, as many missionaries did, Rupert preferred to consecrate them as Christian churches. For example, those at Regensburg and Altötting were soon altered for Christian services. (It is said that the statue of the Blessed Mother at Altötting was brought there from Ireland by an Irishman named Rupert.) Where there was no suitable temple to adapt churches were built, and Regensburg became primarily Christian. God confirmed Rupert's preaching by many miracles. Soon the missionary work met with such success that many more helpers from Franconia were needed to meet the spiritual needs of Rupert's converts.

The group continued down the Danube, converting still more. After Ratisbon, the capital, the next seat of his labors was Laureacum, now called Lorch, where he healed several diseases by prayer, and won many other souls to Christ. But in neither of these flourishing towns did Rupert establish his bishopric. He made the old, fallen-down town of Juvavum, given to him by the duke of Bavaria, his headquarters. The town was restored and he named it Salzburg (Salt Fortress). There with the help of his companions Saints Virgilius, Chuniald, and Gislar, Rupert founded Saint Peter's church and monastery with a school along the lines of the Irish monasteries.

He made a trip home to gather twelve more recruits. His sister, Saint Ermentrudis, entered a convent he founded at Nonnberg (setting for The sound of music) and became its first abbess. He did much to foster the operation of the salt mines. Rupert, the first archbishop of Salzburg, is considered to be the Apostle of Bavaria and Austria. He died on Easter Day after having said Mass and preached the Good News. Thereafter, he became so renowned that countries such as Ireland claimed him as a native son and celebrate his memory liturgically. The Duchy of Salzburg cast his likeness with that of the Saint Virgilius on the coin of the realm called a rubentaler (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, D'Arcy, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Gougaud, Husenbeth, Kenney, Walsh, White).

The Saint Pachomius Library contains two versions of the Life of Saint Robert.

Rupert's emblem in art is a barrel of salt, because of his association with the reopening of the salt mines. He may be shown holding a basket of eggs; baptizing Duke Theodo(re) of Bavaria; or with Saint Virgilius of Salzburg (Farmer, Roeder, White).

SOURCE : http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0329.shtml

On March 27 the Catholic Church remembers the monk and bishop Saint Rupert, whose missionary labors built up the Church in two of its historic strongholds, Austria and Bavaria.
During his lifetime, the “Apostle of Bavaria and Austria” was an energetic founder of churches and monasteries, and a remarkably successful evangelist of the regions – which include the homeland of the Bavarian native Pope Benedict XVI.
Little is known about Rupert's early life, which is thought to have begun around 660 in the territory of Gaul in modern-day France. There is some indication that he came from the Merovignian royal line, though he embraced a life of prayer, fasting, asceticism and charity toward the poor.
This course of life led to his consecration as the Bishop of Worms in present-day Germany. Although Rupert was known as a wise and devout bishop, he eventually met with rejection from the largely pagan population, who beat him savagely and forced him to leave the city.
After this painful rejection, Rupert made a pilgrimage to Rome. Two years after his expulsion from Worms, his prayers were answered by means of a message from Duke Theodo of Bavaria, who knew of his reputation as a holy man and a sound teacher of the faith.
Bavaria, in Rupert's day, was neither fully pagan nor solidly Catholic. Although missionaries had evangelized the region in the past, the local religion tended to mix portions of the Christian faith – often misunderstood along heretical lines – with native pagan beliefs and practices.
The Bavarian duke sought Rupert's help to restore, correct, and spread the faith in his land. After sending messengers to report back to him on conditions in Bavaria, Rupert agreed. The bishop who had been brutally exiled from Worms was received with honor in the Bavarian city of Regensburg.
With the help of a group of priests he brought with him, Rupert undertook an extensive mission in Bavaria and parts of modern-day Austria. His missionary journeys resulted in many conversions, accompanied by numerous miracles including the healing of diseases.
In Salzburg, Rupert and his companions built a great church, which they placed under the patronage of St. Peter, and a monastery observing the Rule of St. Benedict. Rupert's niece became the abbess of a Benedictine convent established nearby.
Rupert served as both the bishop of Salzburg and the abbot of the Benedictine monastery he established there. This traditional pairing of the two roles, also found in the Irish Church after its development of monasticism, was passed on by St. Rupert's successors until the late 10th century.
St. Rupert died on March 27, Easter Sunday of the year 718, after preaching and celebrating Mass.
After the saint's death, churches and monasteries began to be named after him – including Salzburg's modern-day Cathedral of St. Rupert (also known as the “Salzburg Cathedral”), and the Church of St. Rupert which is believed to be the oldest surviving church structure in Vienna.


March 27

St. Rupert, or Robert, Bishop of Saltzbourg, Confessor



HE was, by birth, a Frenchman, and of royal blood; but still more illustrious for his learning, and the extraordinary virtues he practised from his youth. He exercised himself in austere fasting, watching, and other mortifications; was a great lover of chastity and temperance; and so charitable as always to impoverish himself to enrich the poor. His reputation drew persons from remote provinces to receive his advice and instructions. He removed all their doubts and scruples, comforted the afflicted, cured the sick, and healed the disorders of souls. So distinguished a merit raised him to the episcopal see of Worms. But that people, being for the most part, idolaters, could not bear the lustre of such sanctity, which condemned their irregularities and superstitions. They beat him with rods, loaded him with all manner of outrages, and expelled him the city. But God prepared for him another harvest. Theodon, duke of Bavaria, hearing of his reputation and miracles, sent messengers to him, earnestly beseeching him to come and preach the gospel to the Baioarians, or Bavarians. This happened two years after his expulsion from Worms; during which interval he had made a journey to Rome. He was received at Ratisbon by Theodon and his court with all possible distinction, in 697, and found the hearts both of the nobles and people docile to the Word of God. The Christian faith had been planted in that country two hundred years before, by St. Severinus, the apostle of Noricum. After his death, heresies and heathenish superstitions had entirely extinguished the light of the gospel. Bagintrude, sister of duke Theodon, being a Christian, disposed her brother and the whole country to receive the faith. Rupert, with the help of other zealous priests, whom he had brought with him, instructed, and, after a general fast, baptized the duke Theodon and the lords and people of the whole country. God confirmed his preaching by many miracles. He converted also to Christianity the neighbouring nations. After Ratisbon, the capital, the second chief seat of his labours was Laureacum, now called Lorch, 1 where he healed several diseases by prayer, and made many converts. However, it was not Lorch, nor the old Reginum, thence called Regensbourg, now Ratisbon, the capital of all those provinces, that was pitched upon to be the seat of the saint’s bishopric, but the old Juvavia, then almost in ruins, since rebuilt and called Saltzbourg. The duke Theodon adorned and enriched it with many magnificent donations, which enabled St. Rupert to found there several rich churches and monasteries. After that prince’s death, his son, Theodebert, or Diotper, inheriting his zeal and piety, augmented considerably the revenues of this church. St. Rupert took a journey into France to procure a new supply of able labourers, and brought back to Saltzbourg twelve holy missionaries, with his niece St. Erentrude, a virgin consecrated to God, for whom he built a great monastery, called Nunberg, of which she was the first abbess. 2 St. Rupert laboured several years in this see, and died happily on Easter-day, which fell that year on the 27th of March, after he had said mass and preached; on which day the Roman and other Martyrologies mention him. His principal festival is kept with the greatest solemnity in Austria and Bavaria on the 25th of September, the day of one of the translations of his relics, which are kept in the church under his name in Saltzbourg. Mabillon and Bulteau, upon no slight grounds, think this saint to have lived a whole century later than is commonly supposed, and that he founded the church of Saltzbourg about the year 700. See his life, published by Canisius, Henschenius, and Mabillon, with the notes of the last-mentioned editor.
  1



Note 1. A village on the Danube, in the midway between Ratisbon and Vienna, the capital of Eastern Bavaria, at present Austria. 

Note 2. The bishop of Saltzbourg was, under Charlemagne, made an archbishop and metropolitan of Bavaria, Austria, and its hereditary territories. He is one of the first ecclesiastical princes of the empire, and is elected by the canons of the cathedral, who are all of noble extraction.

Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73).  Volume III: March. The Lives of the Saints.  1866.

SOURCE : http://www.bartleby.com/210/3/272.html


ANONYMOUS: Lives of Sts. Robert (Rupert) and Erendruda

THE SAINT PACHOMIUS ORTHODOX LIBRARY

This document is in the public domain. Copying it is encouraged.

TWO LIVES OF STS. RUPERT (ROBERT) AND ERENDRUDA (ERENTRAUD)

Translated by Karen Rae Keck

INTRODUCTORY NOTE: HOLY AUSTRIA

Recently more and more people have come to know and to love the Orthodox saints of the West. We would like to introduce two such saints, Rupert of Salzburg and the nun Erendruda, whose lives have apparently not previously appeared in English. (``Rupert'' is the German spelling of ``Hrodibert'', rendered ``Robert'' in French and English.)

While the Roman provinces of Noricum and Pannonia had been strongholds of the early church - St. Martin of Tours,for example, was a native of Burgen- land - the barbarian invasions hit them with such violence that Christianity eventually almost disappeared. The re-introduction of the faith was due largely to Theodo I, Duke of Bavaria in the late 600s. St. Rupert was not the only Frankish missionary whom Theodo brought into his territory; another, St. Emmeramus, met a martyr's death when, to help a distressed princess, he pre- tended to be the father of her illegitimate child, thus permitting her lover to escape the vengeance of the clan.

Although Rupert was a Frank, tradition also associates him with Ireland; certainly the old Roman city of Juvavia (Salzburg), which he refounded as his headquarters, quickly became a center of Irish missionary activity in Central Europe. The Austrian church was pervaded with Celtic influence, and was even organized on Celtic lines under ``abbot-bishops'' in succession from Rupert. The most famous was St. Virgil the Geometer, otherwise Feargal O'Neill from Leinster. St. Virgil is remembered today mostly as an astronomer who shocked his more intellectually staid contemporaries by speculating about the habitibility of the Antipodes; he was also an outstanding Orthodox hierarch who evidently tolerated the use of the vernacular at baptismal services and launched, in Carinthia and Slovenia, one of the first attempts to evangelize the Slavs.

The Austrian Church did not long retain its free-spirited identity. Four years after St. Virgil's passing, the Austro-Bavarian duchy was conquered by Charlemagne and rapidly integrated into the European mainstream. The abbot-bishops gradually changed from spiritual leaders into worldly poten- tates, Electors of the Western Empire. By a terrible irony, the inheritors of the mantle of St. Virgil became the chief opponents and persecutors of Cyril and Methodius whom he had foreshadowed. Nevertheless, although Austria and Bavaria have not been Orthodox for a thousand years, the saints of the Orthodox period still live in Christ, interceding for their countries and all humanity. May the reader of the following Lives be saved through the prayers of Saints Rupert and Erendruda!

--N. Redington

THE LIFE OF SAINT RUPERT OF SALZBURG, APOSTLE TO BAVARIA AND AUSTRIA
(March 27)

1. Today is the feast of St. Rupert, a most holy and blessed man. This feast reminds us of his passing into joyful paradise; it shows forth mystical gladness to devout minds. It renews delight in our hearts while the course of years runs. As the Scriptures say, "The righteous shall be in everlasting remembrance." He who passes into the angels' joy is made worthy of men's remembrance: as the Scriptures say, "A wise son is the glory of the father", and how great is his glory, who redeemed so many barbarian nations by the knowledge of God in Christ Jesus through the Gospel!

2. When Childebert the king of the Franks was in the second year of his reign, the Bishop of Worms was the Holy Confessor Rupert, who was born into the ranks of the Frankish nobility, but was nobler in faith and piety. He was gentle and chaste, simple and prudent, devout in praise of God, full of the Holy Spirit. He was also provident in his plans and righteous in his judgement. He was secure in the strength of both his right and left arms, and his good deeds shaped his flock in his own image, because he admonished them with his words and the example of his works confirmed them. He frequently kept vigils; then he weakened himself with fasting. He adorned his work with compassion. He gave away his riches that the poor might enrich themselves, because he believed himself to be one who should receive the naked and poor.

3. Therefore, when the exceeding fame of this most venerable man had spread to the ends of the universe, very famous men, not only in that region but from other nations, poured in to hear his most holy teaching. Some in anxious sorrow came to receive consolation through his pious conversation, and others from the church came to hear pure truth from him. Many were freed from the snares of the ancient enemy by his loving dedication, and they started out on the way to eternal life. But the unfaithful, who were often numerous in the vicinity of Worms, not understanding his sanctity, exiled him from the city in great shame. They afflicted him with terrible sufferings and beat him with rods. At that time Theodo, the Duke of Bavaria, hearing about the miracles which this most holy holy man had done, and about his blessedness, desired to see him, and, having sent resolutely his very best men, he summoned him: how long might he consent to visit the regions of Bavaria, and could he instruct him in the way of life-giving faith? The blessed bishop, when he saw such a legion of questions, and knew that these came from Divine dispensation, thanked the Merciful One, because " those who sat in the darkness and the shadow of death" longed to know the author of life, Jesus Christ.

4. Consequently, he sent his own priests, as if they were rays of faith, with the ambassadors before him to the Duke, and he himself, after a short time, undertook the journey to Bavaria. When the Duke heard the news, he was overcome with great joy, and he and a large retinue hastened to meet St. Rupert. In the city of Regensburg, he with the greatest zeal overtook the saint. Then St. Rupert, not saying he was hungry, instructed the Duke in the mysteries of the heavens, and he strengthened him in the true faith. He made the Duke renounce the cult of idols, and he baptized him in the name of the Holy and Indivisible Trinity. The nobles and the people, whether gentry or plebians, were baptized with him, praising Jesus Christ the Saviour of the world, who considered them worthy to be called wonderously into His light from their darkness through His own confessor, the most blessed Rupert. Through his word, their darkened hearts were lit up, and the breasts of the unfaithful thirsted for the fountain of life.

5. When the saint had demonstrated the Divine grace by baptizing the Duke and his people, Theodo understood the sacrament of saving baptism. He begged the saint, and Rupert boarded a ship and sailed up the River Danube. Through the towns, villas, and forts, he declared the gospel of Christ in a free voice. To the ends of Noricum, into the lower parts of Pannonia, he himself brought the light of Christ's ministry, placed as it were like a bright lamp above a candelabra. Then, having returned through the land, he entered Lauriacum (Lorch on the River Enns), in whose water he converted many who were regener- ated in baptism from the cult of idols. In the name of the Lord he cleansed more who had been oppressed by various weaknesses. After he had left Lauriacum, he saw with fervor the errors of the race in that region; he boldly undertook to destroy idols, to smash images, to proclaim everywhere the divinity of the Lord Jesus Christ as well as His sacred incarnation, that they might believe Him to be at once God and man; who was truly begotten of the Father before the Morning Star; who is the Word of God truly born of a virgin mother in the latter days for the salvation of humanity; who illumines all men who come into the world.

6. But when the man of God considered whether to become the Bishop according to the entreaties of the Duke and his people, he went to the stagnant waters of the Wallersee, where a church had been built in honor of the chief apostle Peter. He moved from there to the Juvavian (Salzach) River where once the city of Juvavia stood, which had been erected in ancient, miserable times. Among the Bavarian cities it had held noble eminence, but by this time it had been overrun by thickets and few people lived in the near-ruins. The servant of God considered this suitable for his episcopal cathedral, because being among the mountains it was remote from the tumult of the crowds. He entrusted himself with propriety to the Duke, and recounted to him with great enthusiasm his plan to build a basilica there in honor of the blessed Peter, Chief of the Apostles, and endowed with all the splendors necessary by the generosity of Theodo. Afterward having ordained priests, he made all of them celebrate the daily offices in an agreeable order. The holy man of God wished to supplement his site, so he asked the Duke for more money, and with the appropriate legal formalities bought the manor of Piding for thousands of solidi. Thus, successively, by the aid of God and the bequests of kings or dukes or faithful men, the establishment began to grow.

7. Later after a certain number of days worthy men told the blessed hierarch something of great wonder which had happened when they had gone into the unnamed wilderness area now called Bongotobum (Pongau). Three or four times they had seen heavenly portents of fiery lamps, and they had experienced the smell of sweet and wonderful aromas there. So the pious bishop sent the priest Domingus to that same place, because of all the marvels which were present on top of these portents. He hoped that the priest would diligently test the truth of such signs by setting in that place a wooden cross which the holy one had blessed and constructed with his own hand. Domingus, when he arrived, at once began the First Hour with the religious who had come with him. They saw a bright lamp emitted from the sky descend and light up the entire region as if it were the sun. Domingus saw this vision on three nights, accompanied with the sweetness of a wondrous odor. He erected the blessed cross in that same place, and it moved back above the hut toward St. Rupert, confirming the first assertion with a sure report! St. Rupert, communicating his design to Theodo, went away into the wilderness to the very same place, and seeing that it was suitable for human habitation he began to cut down aged oaks, and to bring heavy material back into the plain of level ground, that he might build a church with dwellings for the servants of God.

8. At that time, Theodo fell into ill health, and as he felt the end of his life approaching, he called to his bedside his son Theodobert. He appointed him to be the Duke of Noricum, admonishing him to obey St. Rupert and to aid him conscientiously in his divine work, as well as to raise up aptly the sacred place of the Juvavian church with love, honor, and dignity. He adjured him also to honor it and exalt it. When he had instructed his son with these doctrines and all that he desired, he closed his last day and fell asleep in the Lord. After this, the Duke Theodobert continued to go with his best men to St. Rupert, because his sanctity was worth seeing. Coming to the saint in his far hermitage, the Duke showered him with pious affection, and he went to the church which the saint had built there. The Duke donated three milestones in honor of St. Maximilian. He also gave property on all sides of the forest, as well as an Alpine villa. He contributed other gifts to nurture the monks, whom the most blessed Rupert had ordained to the service of God.

9. When these things had been done, the man of God saw that the height of Bavarian dignity had submitted himself to the yoke of Christ but had left worldly matters to the errors of the clan. Therefore he accompanied the Duke to his homeland. From thence Rupert returned with twelve of his special friends (among whom were Kuniald and St. Gisilarius, both priests and both holy men). His neice St. Erendruda, a virgin dedicated to Christ, accompanied them to the city of Juvavia. There in the high fortress of the city he built a monastery in honor of Our Lord Jesus Christ the Saviour and His sacred Mother, the Ever-Virgin Mary. He placed in that same monastery St. Erendruda, that she might serve the King of Heaven. And with the support of Duke Theodobert, who gave many gifts to the community, he developed their social life rationally in all things.

10. When these things had been done, the blessed man became eager to complete the teaching he had begun with the help of the High Priest. Escorted by his flock, he resolved to visit his followers in the Norican kingdom. Leaving the city of Juvavia and visiting the people on whom the light of faith had not yet shown, he sowed the wheat of faith amidst the grass. The deception of the devil fled from the hearts of these barbarian hordes, and Rupert sowed there faith, love, mercy, and humility, for through these Christ, the giver and source of all good, is able to enter the domicile of the human mind. When he had travelled to the ends of Bavaria, he had converted all to faith in Christ, and had strengthened those who remained steadily faithful. Having sent out several priests and men of God who brought the Divine Mysteries to the people, he was eager to go back to Juvavia. Because he was full of the spirit of prophecy, he knew that the day of his calling was at hand. He told this to his disciples, who showed sadness and consternation. This was the reason that there was much weeping and great mourning when he left the brand-new Christian people.

11. He, however, with the hope that had been established by Christ, commended the city, the Norican people, and all who had turned to faith in Christ to the Most High and All-Knowing God, and he chose Vitale, a holy man whom the people themselves had accepted, as his successor. When the forty days of Lent had been observed, Bishop Rupert, the man of God, began to be exhausted by a high fever. When the most holy day of the Resurrection of Our Saviour Jesus dawned, he celebrated the solemn liturgy, and he was fortified for the journey with the sacred body of Christ. By his mellifluous admonitions to natural piety and his last words of love, he strengthened his brothers and sons. Then, amidst the holy tears of the band, amidst the weeping of the holy ones: the death rattle. He returned his most pure soul to God. The host of angels heard from the saints in the heavens and bore his holy soul with a melodious voice to eternal happiness. Thus he rested in peace. He whose life was praiseworthy and blameless was in death equally blessed. Thus it is written: " Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of his saints," whom the angels bear into heaven. Frequent miracles were attributed to him, for God was gracious through the body of this holy man in visitations. His intercessions adorned his faithful and the Church through innumerable miracles. Indeed the Blessed God - one in three persons - lives and reigns; to Him be all praise and glory unto the ages of ages. Amen.

THE LIFE OF SAINT RUPERT, CONTAINING THE LIFE OF SAINT ERENDRUDA OF SALZBURG

(June 30)

1. The blessed and pious confessor of Christ, Rupert, was born of a noble and royal family of the Franks, but he was far nobler in faith and in devoutness. He was a man prudent, gentle, and truthful in his conversation, just in his judgement, and circumspect in his counsels. He was known for his charity, and in the universe of morals he stood out in his honesty. Indeed many flocked to his most sacred teaching, and they received the proclamation of eternal salvation from him. When the report of his blessed conversation grew far and wide, he found in his acquaintance the Duke of Bavaria, Theodo, who asked of the man of God as many intercessions as he was able. He began to ask through his distinguished messengers that the saint might consent to visit his province with his blessed teaching. To this the preacher of truth, stung by divine love, gave his assent, and, having first arranged his affairs, he consented to go to the flock of Christ which would be gained because of him.

2. When the Duke had heard this preaching, he was overwhelmed with great joy, and continued with his attendents on the way to meet the blessed saint and doctor with all honor and dignity, as much as he possibly could. He caught up with him in the city of Regensburg. The blessed man began to admonish him soon about Christian conversation and to instruct him in the universal faith. Thus, he converted the Duke and many other noble men to the true faith, and he baptized them. He confirmed them in the holy religion. Praying, the Duke allowed the holy man to choose a place, pleasing to himself and to his followers: whichever place he desired, so that he could build a church and complete all the other things needed for the work of the Church. The man of God, having accepted the Duke's permission, seized the chance to sail down the Danube valley until he came to the city of Lorch, where he proclaimed the same doctrine of the holy life. Many there who were ill, many who were languishing in oppression, were cleansed by the strength of God.

3. Passing through all the Alpine region, he came at length to the kingdom of the Carinthians. Being asked, he converted that kingdom and cleansed it with the baptism of Christ. Climbing the highest mountain, called Tauern (Mons Durus), he preached to the Vandals and attained the greatest fruit graciously given by the Lord. He also built there many churches, and he established several monasteries. At last, having charged his disciples, religious, priests, and clergy to keep the Christian faith, he returned to the territory of Passau. Having come back, he began to travel around the province. He reached a certain lake which is called the Wallersee, where he had built and consecrated a church in honor of the Apostle Peter. There often the renowned Duke distributed his personal possessions in the same place where he originally met the saint on his rounds.

4. Afterward another place came to the attention of St. Rupert. It was up the River Salzach, or as it was known in olden times, the Juvavian Stream. It had been named in the time of the Roman emperors, and a beautiful little house had been built, which was now discovered hidden in the trees. Hearing this, the man of God wished to look at it with his own eyes and experience the truth about the thing, because he thought that it would profit the faithful souls. Giving thanks to divine grace, he began to ask Duke Theodo that he might bestow his authority upon this place, to exorcize and purify it and to establish a church according to his pleasure. The Duke at once consented, bestowing possessions over two leucas in length and width, that he might do what was useful to the Church. Then St. Rupert began to renew the place (Salzburg), building a beautiful church to the First God, which he dedicated in honor of St. Peter, the foremost of the Apostles: and he built finally a cloister with other houses for the use of religious men, orderly throughout. Afterward he ordained priests, and he instituted daily solemn observance of the canonical hours. St. Rupert wished to increase the places of service to God. With the help of God, from the gift of the King and Duke, and by the behests of faithful men, the places began to grow.

5. The man of God, seeing the flock of the Lord depart over the precipice of vices because of the longings of the women, prayed to God in his heart, saying, ``Lord, if it is good in your eyes, I will pick for myself other people fit for your service and refinement, through whom the practice of your good life may become attractive to the women, and, as well, to the men.'' He had in his country, that is, Vangionum in the state of Wormatia, known a certain noble virgin, consecrated from the cradle to God. Her name was Erendruda (Erentraud), and he wanted to send for her that she with others might found a religious order for women. He built a place and a mansion appropriate for the chaste in the Juvavian fort, and he gave it to the charge of the Theotokos. When it was completed, he went to call Erendruda to himself, and great joy came over the face of the blessed Rupert, because he had lived to see this before the day of his death. Therefore the holy priest led her into the oratory, which was consecrated to the Theotokos, and said: ``Lady Sister, do you know why I have asked you here?'' She replied: ``Yes, Father, I know, for Our Lord Jesus Christ has revealed it to my spirit, saying: Go in peace as you are called. Behold I will be with you, and I will lead to myself through you many women's souls, whom you shall guide by your example to the true religious path, coming to me.'' When he heard this, the blessed priest rejoiced greatly in God.

6. After a short time, many virgins and noble matrons came to the virgin Erendruda, and she led them with such discernment that in a brief time all showed their learning and gave appropriate service to God. Such was the virgin Erendruda in custom that she reckoned wealth to herself whatever solace any disciple of hers received as a divine gift. Such was she in prayer, that she considered it her whole health. Such was she in aspect, that whether she met good people or bad, she thought herself lower than they. What is to be remembered of the constancy and restraint of her life, of her largesse in almsgiving, of her rectitude, of her steadfastness in vigil and her sanctity in all of religious life? If at first she was not strong in one or another of these, it ought to be overlooked rather than investigated.
7. At length, when the blessed Rupert knew by divine revelation that his death was at hand, he said to Blessed Erendruda, whom he had called to him: ``My beloved sister, my private conversation is to you; I pray that you will tell none of this, as I have told you a secret. It has pleased God to show me my departure from this Earth, and now I ask, Lady Sister, that you pray for my soul when God sees fit to call it to His peace.'' The holy virgin responded with tears: ``If it is true as you say, master, arrange that I die before you do!'' The bishop said to her: ``Sister, most dear one! You should not wish to hasten to an inopportune death, nor to choose your exit while sin is great. Our end has not been fixed in our wishes, but in divine providence.'' The holy virgin prostrated herself at the feet of the priest and begged him: ``Father, master, I ask you to remember that you have led me here from my own country, and now you wish to leave me a poor orphan. I ask only one thing of you, that if I am not worthy to depart before you or with you, at least intercede as a witness with God that I may be worthy of the passing wished for!'' The most holy priest Rupert granted these requests, and when for a long time they had joined in talk sweetly about eternal life, and they had wept together, they said a final sad farewell.

8. The blessed Rupert celebrated the liturgy before the entire church on the day of the Resurrection of the Lord. He gave a homily to the people, and distributed the Body and Blood of Christ. He gave the blessing and benediction. When the Mass was ended, he fell down in prayer. Commending his spirit into the hands of the Heavenly Father, he fell asleep in the Lord on the twenty-seventh day of March. He was buried in the Basilica of Sts. Peter and Paul, which he had himself consecrated to their honor. The entire population of Noricum mourned him, because he had been an apostle to that race, and he had never grieved anyone in any way. After this, the blessed Erendruda sat night and day in the oratory and prayed to the Lord with tears for the soul of her now dead friend Rupert. She kept watchful vigils and awaited the gift of promised consolation. At last one night the holy Rupert came to her in a vision and said: ``I have come, beloved sister, to the kingdom of Christ, for which I have labored for a long time.'' Wide awake, she gave thanks to God, and at once she began to feel ill. She called together all the sisters; she exhorted them; she received the Sacrament of the Church. After they had exchanged the sweet kiss of peace, she gave up her spirit. After this, her sacred body, preserved with spices, was buried in the Monastery of the Most Holy Theotokos with great veneration on the thirtieth day of June.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE

The Latin texts of the lives translated here can be found in the * Acta Sanctorum * of the Bollandists under March 27. Another, possibly older, Latin life of Rupert is given in Vol. 6 of the Merovingian series of *Monu- menta Germaniae Historica* and excerpts in Latin from other lives are in John Colgan's * Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae * (Louvaine, 1647). An English translation of a few sentences from the Life of Erendruda occurs in *Butler's Lives of the Saints* by Thurston and Attwater under June 30.

An extremely recent secondary source on Austria-Bavaria in Merovingian and Carolingian times is * Germany in the Early Middle Ages * by T. Reuter (London: Longman,1991). Some material on the Austro-Irish Church can be found in John T. McNeill's * The Celtic Churches * (University of Chicago, 1974).

The St. Pachomius Orthodox Library, 1994

O Lord, have mercy on Thy servants Karen, Norman, and the Archpriest Robert.

THE END, AND TO GOD BE THE GLORY!