lundi 4 juillet 2016

Saint AGGÉE et saint OSÉE, prophètes


Aggée

Osée

Saints Aggée et Osée

prophètes (6ème s. av JC.)

Aggée est un prophète contemporain de la reconstruction du Temple de Jérusalem, vers 520 av. J.C. et il exhorte le gouverneur Zorobabel et le grand-prêtre Josué à le reconstruire. Osée est lui aussi un prophète vivant à une époque où se succèdent les révolutions de palais dans le Royaume du Nord d'Israël. Au travers des péripéties de sa vie familiale, il découvre l'amour du Seigneur pour son Peuple et nous transmet cette découverte.

Ils sont fêtés dans le martyrologe romain au 16 décembre et au 17 octobre.





LE PROPHÈTE AGGÉE

       En 538, Cyrus le Perse qui réside à Babylone autorise les juifs à rentrer à Jérusalem et à reconstruire le Temple. Un an plus tard, une caravane arrive à Jérusalem sous la conduite de Josué le grand prêtre et de Zorobabel, un prince de Juda. Près de 50 000 personnes arrivent ainsi à Jérusalem.

Ils sont mal accueillis par les Juifs restés au Pays au moment de la déportation, et les non-juifs. Décidés à reconstruire le temple, c'est quelques mois après leur retour d'exil qu'ils offrent leur premier sacrifice sur l'autel rebâti. Mais les Samaritains essaient de s'immiscer dans les travaux. Rejetés par les juifs, ils font tout pour faire capoter la reconstruction.

Les juifs sont confrontés à des menaces, à des interventions armées, à des manœuvres politiques. Cyrus est loin. Pendant 16 ans, ils arrêteront la construction du Temple devant les difficultés qu'ils rencontrent. C'est alors que surgit le prophète Aggée. Darius est le nouveau roi de Perse. Pour encourager les juifs, le prophète Aggée (son nom signifie "ma fête", c'est tout un symbole !) adresse quatre oracles à Zorobabel le gouverneur.

(1-1-11)- Le premier oracle est une invitation à reconstruire le Temple, la famine actuelle qui parcourt le Pays est due au fait que les juifs ont été plus empressés à reconstruire leurs maisons que celle de Dieu. Face au découragement le prophète ranime les courages : «maintenant sois fort, Zorobabel, et sois fort Josué, et soyez forts, vous, tout le peuple du pays… travaillez et ne craignez pas» (Ag 2,4-5). C'est aussi un message pour nous les chrétiens, qui aujourd'hui sommes invités à travailler à l'œuvre de Dieu en travaillant dans l'Église, représentée par le Temple de Jérusalem .

(2,1-9-) Le deuxième oracle annonce que malgré les apparences, la splendeur du nouveau temple sera plus grande que celle du temple de Salomon. «Je remplirai cette maison de gloire… et la dernière gloire de cette maison sera plus grande que la première, dit le Seigneur des armées, et dans ce lieu, je donnerai la paix, dit le Seigneur des armées» (Aggée 2;7). C'est une prophétie, car au-delà des apparences le temple de Zorobabel annonce la cité céleste, la Jérusalem d'en haut, l'épouse de l'Agneau qui descend du ciel «avec en elle la gloire de Dieu» (Ap 21,10).

(2,10-19-) Le troisième oracle, annonce que si le pays a été frappé et si le peuple a eu à souffrir bien des maux, c'est en raison du manque de sainteté de ceux qui travaillent. Le travail doit être accompli avec une pureté intérieure (Ag 2,12-14.)
(2,20-23) Le quatrième oracle est l'objet d'une promesse. Zorobabel descendant de la famille de David, porte en lui les promesses messianiques. «En ce jour là dit le Seigneur des armées, je te prendrai, Zorobabel, fils de Shaeltiel, mon serviteur dit le Seigneur, et je te mettrai comme un cachet. Car je t'ai choisi, dit le Seigneur des armées»(2,23). Zorobabel est un type du Christ, le représentant du résidu devant Dieu.

       Aggée interviendra plusieurs fois encore, en faisant de violents reproches au peuple et aux chefs qui ont abandonné les travaux. Zorobabel et Josué se laissent alors convaincre et reprennent la construction du Temple.

Le prophète Aggée interviendra une nouvelle fois quand le gouverneur perse fera arrêter les travaux. Aggée est ainsi le moteur spirituel de la reconstruction du Temple suivi par le prophète Zacharie. On peut voir également dans la reconstruction du Temple un signe du retour du Règne de Dieu.

SOURCE : http://paroissedelacrau.org/ecritures_saintes/prophete_aggee.html

Aggaeus (Aggeus, Haggai), Prophet (RM)

Died c. 516 BC. The tenth of the Minor Prophets, Haggai belongs to the period after the exile. The purpose of his divine message was to forward the rebuilding of the Temple of Jerusalem (Benedictines).




Sant' Aggeo Profeta


Il santo profeta Aggeo, al tempo di Zorobabel, re di Giuda, ammonì il popolo perché riedificasse la casa del Signore, dove poi sarebbe stata posta l’Arca della Santa Alleanza.

Etimologia: Aggeo = protettore delle abitazioni e delle strade, secondo i latini

Martirologio Romano: Commemorazione di sant’Aggeo, profeta, che, al tempo di Zorobabele, re di Giuda, esortò il popolo a riedificare la casa del Signore, nella quale affluiranno le ricchezze di tutte le genti.

Nel pieno del tempo d’Avvento, il 16 dicembre, il nuovo Martyrologium Romanum pone la “commemorazione di Sant’Aggeo profeta”, annoverato tra i profeti minori dell’Antico Testamento per la brevità dei suoi scritti, ma non per la secondarietà del suo messaggio, e dunque non meno importante al cospetto di Dio.


Il libro biblico a lui attribuito si suddivide principalmente in quattro parti: messaggio a Giosuè ed a Zorobabele (1,1-15); parole di incoraggiamento (2,1-9); la situazione migliorerà (2,10-19); Dio conserverà i capi (2,20-23).In seguito alla caduta di Gerusalemme avvenuta nel 587 a.C., i sopravvissuti furono schiavizzati e deportati in Babilonia. Uno sconvolgimento internazionale provocò il cambio della potenza allora dominante nel mondo, portando così Ciro di Persia ad impossessarsi di ciò che rimaneva della potenza babilonese nel 539 a.C..Tra le prime decisioni di tale sovrano vi fu quella di concedere a tutti quegli ex-prigionieri che lo avessero desiderato di fare ritorno in patria. Un notevole numero di Giudei accettò dunque l’amichevole offerta ed iniziò la ricostruzione della comunità.Essendo però tempi difficili, si dovette procedere alla ricostruzione di mura, città, case e strade, dissodare il terreno ed arruolare un esercito al fine di difendersi dalle incursioni degli ostili popoli vicini.Purtroppo, dopo un entusiastico avvio dei lavori di riedificazione del Tempio di Gerusalemme, l’interesse andò degenerando e tutto venne sospeso nel 536 a.C.. Dopo ben 16 anni di inattività e di interessi contrastanti, il santo profeta Aggeo cominciò a predicare il suo messaggio, incitando la popolazione a riprendere i lavori di modo che Dio tornasse ad avere un degno luogo di culto.I quattro messaggi di Aggeo sono tutti databili attorno al 520 a.C..

Nel primo di essi, diretto a Giosuè ed a Zorobabele, rispettivamente capi religioso e politico, il profeta rinfaccia alla popolazione di trascorrere troppo tempo in divertimenti mentre il Tempio del Signore è ancora in rovina.Il secondo messaggio era invece indirizzato a coloro che desideravano lavorare, ma temevano che i risultati della loro attività avessero potuto essere insignificanti.Gli ultimi due messaggi denunziarono infine la dilagante corruzione, assicurando la protezione di Dio su coloro che rispondono positivamente alla sua chiamata ed in particolare su Zorobabele.In sostanza il messaggio complessivo e fondamentale del libro di Aggeo è assai semplice: la nostra vita spirituale è più importante di quella materiale. Occorre perciò costruire una dimora per Dio sia esternamente, sia all’interno del proprio cuore, se si desidera godere della benedizione di Dio.



Autore: Fabio Arduino




Duccio di Buoninsegna, Le Prophète Osée, 1309-1311, Siena Cathedral



LE PROPHÈTE OSÉE


       Osée est l'un des 12 «petits prophètes». Il prophétise dans le Royaume d'Israël, dont la capitale est Samarie. Son message se situe après celui d'Amos, qui dénonce l'injustice des chefs qui se cachent sous un vernis de religiosité. Alors que la situation en Israël ne s'est pas améliorée, Osée annonce un jugement de Dieu. Malgré la paix relative, les paysans doivent emprunter à des taux élevés en dépit des lois qui protègent les pauvres (Os 10,13). Ils sont contraints à vendre leurs propriétés. Les puissants, eux, se sont enrichis. La violence et les complots se sont multipliés (2R14:23). Le prophète rappelle l'inconscience du pouvoir politique, l'indignité des prêtres, et l'injustice qui écrase les pauvres. En châtiment, Samarie, la capitale du Royaume du Nord, sera prise en 721.

Le livre :

       Après Jéroboam II, Israël tombe dans l'anarchie. L'Assyrie de son coté relève la tête. (2 Rois 15:18-20). C'est à ce moment là qu'Osée prophétise! Il est le fils de Bééri. C'est un contemporain d'Amos et d'Isaïe. Il prophétise vers 743, prophète du Nord, il appartient à une classe assez riche.

       Dieu demande au prophète de prendre pour femme Gomer, une prostituée qui va lui être infidèle, et que pourtant il ne cesse d'aimer. C'est un signe pour Israël. Comme Osée s'est uni à une prostituée, Dieu s'est uni à un peuple infidèle. Comme Osée a racheté sa femme, ainsi Dieu rachètera son peuple! Osée prend sur lui le péché de son peuple. Solidaire avec Dieu, il est solidaire de ses frères. Ce drame d'Osée s'apparente au célibat forcé de Jérémie, ou au veuvage imposé d'Ezéchiel.

       C'est le symbole de l'amour fou, d'un amour qui toujours pardonne (1Cor 13), qui pardonne tout, qui croit tout, qui espère tout, supporte tout! Ce thème du mariage est commun dans la parole de Dieu à d'autres prophètes. (Jérémie 2:2, 3:1-12; Ezéchiel 16 et 23; ou Esaïe 54:5-10). Jésus lui-même, va plus tard se présenter comme l'époux (Matthieu 22:1-14, 25:1-13), et Paul se servira de ce thème de l'amour du Christ pour l'Église comme modèle de l'amour conjugal (Ep 5,23).

       Osée est le prophète de la miséricorde infinie! La chute du Royaume sera un temps de purification, de nouvelles fiançailles; «Je vais la séduire et l'attirer au désert, et je parlerai à son cœur».

       L'idolâtrie en fait est une prostitution! L'internement de Gomer, son épouse, pour la forcer à revenir à lui, c'est l'image de l'exil qui doit faire revenir Israël à son Dieu. Osée est aussi le prophète de l'espérance. Au-delà de la ruine de son peuple, il sait que Dieu aime son peuple, aussi dépasse-t-il l'événement qu'il subit!

       Mystique, il est allé très loin dans la connaissance intime de Dieu. Son message, qui est celui de la miséricorde, est l'un des plus grands.

Dans le livre on distingue deux parties – Du chapitre 1 à 3, c'est un récit biographique – Du chapitre 4 à 14, des oracles divers.

1.      Chapitres 1 à 3

       C'est une biographie du prophète et de ses aventures conjugales avec une femme infidèle. C'est l'image du culte rendu aux Baals (les seigneurs), des dieux qui ne font pas germer le blé ni produire la vigne. C'est un appel à la repentance (2,8). Dieu, lui, reste fidèle à son amour. Ce message annonce le salut futur en Jésus-Christ, et la réconciliation pour ceux qui font repentance.

2.      Chapitres 4 à 14. Oracles divers

       Cette partie décrit l'infidélité du peuple (accusation suivie de l'annonce du châtiment), son idolâtrie (4:11-14, 8:4-7, 8:13-14, 10:5, 13:1-2). Dieu est méconnu de son peuple, et les sacrifices ne suffisent pas (4:1-3, 8:1, 6:7-11, 9:11-1).

Osée stigmatise la suffisance et la confiance en soi et en sa force (7 :8-12, dans ses alliances (8:8-10 ,10:13-15), et en ses richesses (12:8-9). D'autre part, les prêtres sont corrompus (4:4-10, 5:1-7) et les grands sont remplis d'ambition (7:3-7). D'où le refus d'écouter la Parole de Dieu (9:7-9). Aussi, c'est l'annonce d'un châtiment (5:8-12, 10:9-10, 13:7-11). Mais c'est aussi l'annonce de la bonté de Dieu, et la promesse de pardon et de réconciliation (6:1-6, 14:5-10). Le verset 6 a été cité par Jésus (Matthieu 9:13,12:7) «c'est la miséricorde que je veux, et non les sacrifices». Enfin c'est un appel à la conversion : 6:1, 14:1-4, car Dieu ne cesse d'espérer le retour de son peuple aimé. II croit que c'est encore possible (5:15.)





 Alessandro Bonvicino, Profeta Osea, 1521-1524, 
130 X 128 , Chiesa di San Giovanni Evangelista, Brescia

La souffrance du prophète Osée

La Bible raconte que Dieu demanda à Osée d'épouser une prostituée : "Va prends une femme se livrant à la prostitution et des enfants de prostitution...". Osée obéit à Dieu et épouse Gomer.
La Bible raconte que Dieu demanda à Osée d'épouser une prostituée : "Va prends une femme se livrant à la prostitution et des enfants de prostitution car le pays ne fait que se prostituer en se détournant de Yahvé". (Os 1, 2). Osée obéit à Dieu et épouse Gomer, une prostituée de son pays.
Les enfants d'Osée
Avec Gomer, Osée à trois enfants. Dieu lui demande d'appeler son premier fils Yizréel, ce qui signifie "Dieu sème", et sa fille Lo-Ruhamah "non aimée". Quant au dernier fils, Dieu dit : "Appelle-le du nom de Lo-Ammi ("pas mon peuple"), car vous n'êtes pas mon peuple, et moi je n'existe pas pour vous". La rupture entre Dieu et son peuple, comme entre les époux, semble consommée...
Blessure et colère
Osée est un homme blessé. Gomer lui est infidèle. Elle a des amants et sacrifie aux faux dieux, les Baals.
La tristesse et la colère d'Osée se mêlent en une longue plainte. "Elle n'est plus ma femme et je ne suis pas son mari", crie-t-il. Cette tendresse blessée est aussi celle de Dieu.
Osée pardonne
Mais Osée aime Gomer, malgré ses trahisons. Il l'aime comme Dieu aime son peuple. Pour toujours. Alors il lui pardonne. Il va jusqu'à la racheter, car, dans sa débauche, Gomer s'était faite esclave.
De nouveaux commencements
Le livre d'Osée se termine par un long poème où le prophète renouvelle à son épouse la promesse de leur amour. L'image de l'union conjugale est utilisée pour représenter l'alliance de Dieu avec son peuple. Une alliance sans fin, qui traverse les épreuves et fait confiance à l'avenir.





Osee (Hosea), Prophet (RM)

8th century BC. Hosea lived in a period when, as is usual in the history of the world, things were going badly. He seems to have been a contemporary of Isaiah, but his prophecies were directed at his compatriots of Samaria, the destruction of whose kingdom he foretold. The Hebrews who had settled in Judea had reached a high point during the reigns of David and Solomon, but since then they had separated into two kingdoms: the kingdom of the north, Israel, and the southern kingdom of Judah.


The kings of Israel were a poor lot and there was anarchy everywhere--military, political, and religious anarchy. For a country to be defeated in a war is a far smaller tragedy than for a country to lose its sense of vocation, and Hosea lamented this falling-off not only with his preaching but also with his life.

The prophets of the Old Testament were very fond of striking people's imaginations by what we would today call publicity stunts, such as walking half naked through a town with a shaven head and carrying the yoke of an ox. Hosea drew attention to himself by getting married, which may not sound very original in itself but was what God wanted him to do, and God never hesitates to outflank our limited intelligences.

Moreover He ordered Hosea to marry a prostitute--and please don't be scandalized, because you will soon see that this story comes closer to home than you might think. "Go, take a harlot wife," said God (Hosea 1:2), and Hosea obeyed. He married a woman called Gomer, by whom he had a son called Jezreel, and soon after that Gomer returned to her former trade.

Hosea wasn't surprised, but he had known Gomer long enough to come to love her, and to love her with all his heart. She had two more children: a daughter, Lo-ruhamah, which means "not loved," and a son, Lo-ammi, which means "not of my people."

Hosea continued to love Gomer and when God ordered him to take her back he obeyed, buying her for 15 pieces of silver and a barrel and a half of barley. And that is all that we know about him, because that is all that God wanted us to know, just the story of this marriage and of Hosea's great love for a sad, even wretched, despised person. For the story of Hosea's tender love is the story of God's tender love, and in the story of God's love the prostitute is us.

For what is the story of Hosea if not the story of God who loves His people, who is betrayed by His people--even by those who are the most faithful--but Whose love is yet stronger than their betrayal? To make us understand His love God begins by telling us about a marriage and ends by sending His Son to live the Crucifixion. His love was in the beginning and will endure for ever, for God has never brought Himself to hate man completely. Sometimes He leaves man to himself, and that is His greatest punishment (5:15).

Hosea's whole life as well as his book bear witness to this great love of God. Through his mouth we hear God weeping in rage and frustrated love over the sins of mankind: "I will have no pity on her children, for they are the children of harlotry. Yes, their mother has played the harlot; she that conceived them has acted shamefully. . . . " (2:7).

But soon his anger abates and he takes new hope: "Then she shall say, 'I will go back to my first husband; for it was better with me then than now" (2:9). Surely we have here an echo, a herald of that other story, the story of the Prodigal Son, and of his words: "I will arise and go to my father. . . ." (Luke 15:18).
Hosea continues: "So, I will allure her; I will lead her into the desert and speak to her heart. From there I will give her the vineyard she had, and the valley of Achor as a door of hope. She shall respond there as in the days of her youth (Hosea 2:16-17). . . . I will espouse you to me forever. I will espouse you in right and in justice, in love and in mercy (2:21). . . . And I will have mercy upon her that had not obtained mercy; and I will say to them which were not my people, you are my people; and they shall say, You are my God."

This crisis in God's love for His people and for mankind is the theme of the book of Hosea. Neither Hosea nor God would admit defeat; they threatened terrible calamities, they wept over betrayals and desertions, but all the time they were waiting for the great reconciliation. Neither had any illusions about vice and sin; they met it head on, face to face.

They blamed the priests: "My people perish for want of knowledge! Because you have rejected knowledge, I will reject you from my priesthood, since you have ignored the law of your God, I will also ignore your sons (4:6). . . ." After the priests they blamed the folly of the people: "My people ask counsel at their stocks, and their staff declares to them." They blamed the iniquity of the rulers: "The princes of Judah have become like those that move a boundary line (5:10). . . . For I am like a lion to Ephraim, like a young lion to the house of Judah" (5:14)

Nor were Hosea or God deceived by superficial repentance. In one of the finest passages in the Old Testament, Hosea says: "For it is love that I desire, not sacrifice; and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings" (6:6).

"Ephraim," says God, "is a hearth cake not turned (7:8). . . . a silly dove without heart" (7:11). And yet: "How could I give you up, O Ephraim? . . . . My heart is overwhelmed, my pity is stirred. I will not give vent to my blazing anger, I will not destroy Ephraim again; for I am God and not man" (11:8-9).

And so the book of the prophet Hosea ends with the victory of love; and as long as it is read, despair shall never triumph:

"I will heal their defection, I will love them freely, for my wrath is turned away from them. I will be as the dew unto Israel; he shall blossom like the lily, he shall strike root like the Lebanon cedar, and put forth his shoots. His splendor shall be like the olive tree (14:5-7). . . . Straight are the paths of the Lord, in them the just walk, but sinners stumble in them (14:10) (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

SOURCE :  http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0704.shtml



The Holy Prophet Hosea the first of the minor prophets, belonged to the tribe of Issachar. He lived during the ninth Century before Christ, in the kingdom of Israel. He was a contemporary of the holy Prophets Isaiah, Micah and Amos. During this time, many of his fellow Israelites had forgotten the true God, and worshipped idols. The holy Prophet Hosea attempted to turn them again to the faith of their Fathers by his wise counsels. Denouncing the iniquities of the people of Israel (i.e. the northern kingdom Israel), the prophet proclaimed to them great misfortunes from a foreign people and their removal into captivity by Assyria.


Almost a thousand years before the coming of the Savior, and through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, the prophet foretold the end of sacrificial offerings and of the priesthood of Aaron (Hos. 3:4-5), and that the knowledge of the True God would spread through all the earth (Hos. 2:20-23). Hosea spoke also about Christ, how He would return from out of Egypt (Hos. 11:1; compare Mt. 2:15), that He would be resurrected on the third day (Hos. 6 and especially Hos.6:2; compare with 1 Cor.15:4), and that He would conquer death (Hos.13-14. Compare 1 Cor.15:54-55).

The prophesies of St Hosea are included in the book that bears his name. The prophetic service of St Hosea continued for more than sixty years. The God-inspired prophet died in deep old age, having devoted all his life to fulfilling the Will of God.





Sant' Osea Profeta


Israele, VIII sec. A.C.

San Osea è il profeta ebraico Hoseah (=salvato dal Signore), vissuto nell'VIII secolo prima di Cristo. Figlio di Beerì, Osea è originario del regno del nord, Osea inizia la sua predicazione sotto Geroboamo II e la prosegue sotto i successori di questo. Il dramma personale di Osea, che lo spinge alla sua azione profetica è raccontato nei primi tre capitoli del libro della Bibbia che porta il suo nome. Probabilmente Osea aveva sposato una donna che amava e che l'aveva abbandonato, ma egli ha continuato ad amarla e l'ha ripresa dopo averla messa alla prova. E' evidente il parallelismo tra Dio e il popolo d'Israele, che conme una donna infedele ha provocato le ire del suo sposo divino. Osea condanna le classi dirigenti di Israele, i re che hanno fatto scelte laiche e mondane e i sacerdoti che hanno abbandonato lo zelo al loro ministero, conducendo il popolo alla rovina. Egli tuona contro le ingiustizie e le violenze, ma soprattutto contro l'infedeltà religiosa, un messaggio vecchio di quasi tre milleni, ma sempre attuale.

Etimologia: Osea = salvato dal Signore, dall'ebraico

Martirologio Romano: Commemorazione di sant’Osea, profeta, che, non solo con le parole, ma anche con la vita, mostrò all’infedele popolo di Israele il Signore come Sposo sempre fedele e mosso da infinita misericordia.

Il ‘Martirologio Romano’, ricorda al 17 novembre il profeta Osea, l’ebraico Hoseah, il cui nome significa “salvato dal Signore”.


Osea apre nella Bibbia la serie dei cosiddetti “Profeti Minori”, ma in realtà la sua è una testimonianza di alto profilo e si basa su un’esperienza personale e familiare, che viene presa a simbolo religioso per tutto il popolo ebraico.

Contemporaneo del profeta Amos, Osea visse e operò nel regno settentrionale d’Israele, di cui era anche originario, nella seconda metà dell’VIII secolo a.C.; più precisamente predicò al popolo la Parola di Dio, in un periodo di tempo racchiuso tra il 750 e il 754 a.C., mentre si maturava la rovina di quel regno scismatico (721 a.C.) che si era separato dal regno di Giuda, dopo la morte di Salomone (931 a.C.).

Figlio di Beeri, Osea scrisse i suoi oracoli profetici al tempo di Ezechia re di Giuda e di Geroboamo II re d’Israele; il libro omonimo consta di 14 capitoli, i cui primi tre, sviluppano la sofferta storia personale e familiare del profeta.

Dietro ordine di Dio, egli sposò una prostituta di nome Gomer, figlia di Diblaim (forse era una sacerdotessa dei culti della fertilità a sfondo sessuale, del dio Baal dei cananei), dalla quale ebbe tre figli dai nomi simbolici, il primo Izreel, dal nome della città dove abitavano d’estate i re d’Israele; la seconda figlia ebbe il nome chiesto da Dio di “Non-amata” e il terzo il nome sempre dettato da Dio, di “Non-popolo-mio”.

E la situazione familiare di Osea sarà il filo conduttore di tutto il Libro, perché la moglie Gomer, pur essendo amata dal profeta, dopo qualche tempo riprese a prostituirsi con numerosi amanti, abbandonando il marito ed i figli; i cui nomi simbolici riflettono la dolorosa situazione familiare.

Ma l’amore di Osea per la moglie infedele, gli fa superare il furore che ne scaturiva, convincendo Gomer a ritornare in famiglia dove c’era amore e perdono; nel capitolo 3 egli descrive così la ricongiunzione: 

[Il Signore mi disse: “Và di nuovo, ama la donna amata da suo marito, benché adultera, come il Signore ama i figli d’Israele, benché essi si volgano verso altri dei e amino le schiacciate di uve passe”. Io dunque me la comprai per quindici pezzi d’argento e una misura e mezza di orzo. Poi le dissi: “Per un lungo periodo rimarrai al tuo posto con me, non ti prostituirai e non sarai di un altro e neppure io verrò da te”.

Perché per un lungo periodo i figli d’Israele saranno senza re e senza principe, senza sacrificio e senza stele… Dopo ciò i figli d’Israele si convertiranno, cercheranno il Signore loro Dio e Davide loro re, trepidanti accorreranno al Signore e ai suoi beni, alla fine dei giorni]. 

È evidente il parallelismo tra Dio e il popolo d’Israele, che come una moglie infedele ha provocato le ire del suo Sposo divino; per la prima volta nella Bibbia, Dio viene esaltato come lo Sposo del suo popolo, perché l’alleanza che lo lega ad esso, è un patto d’amore.

Il profeta Osea nei capitoli successivi, condanna le classi dirigenti d’Israele, i re che hanno fatto scelte laiche e mondane e i sacerdoti che hanno abbandonato lo zelo, trascurando il loro ministero, portando il popolo alla rovina.

Egli si scaglia contro le violenze e le ingiustizie, soprattutto contro l’infedeltà religiosa, ma poi il profeta, con pagine di eccezionale vigore, descrive l’amore di Dio con mirabili accenti di intimità e tenerezza, che sebbene tradito, continua vivo e pieno di sollecitudine, al fine di ricondurre a sé il popolo infedele.

A partire da Osea, la raffigurazione dell’alleanza tra Jahvé e Israele, non sarà più modellata, come al Sinai, sulla base di un rapporto tra un re e un suo vassallo, cioè un rapporto ‘politico’ tra due personaggi; viene invece rappresentata come una relazione d’amore tra due sposi, con aspetti di comunione, spontaneità, intimità; tema che verrà ripreso dai profeti successivi, sia pure in forme diverse, costituendo un simbolismo efficace anche per il Nuovo Testamento.

Al di là del simbolismo, con cui Osea ha scritto il suo oracolo profetico, per richiamare l’infedele popolo d’Israele, gli studiosi sono concordi nel ritenere vere le disavventure familiari del profeta, che egli trasfigura facendole diventare una parabola dell’intera vicenda del popolo, che di fronte all’amore fedele da parte del Signore, la “sposa” Israele, aveva risposto con l’infedeltà dell’idolatria cananea, definita appunto come prostituzione e adulterio.

Autore: Antonio Borrelli


dimanche 3 juillet 2016

Sain ANATOLE (ANATOLIUS) d'ALEXANDRIE (de LAODICÉE), évêque

Saint Anatole

évêque en Syrie (3ème s.)

Originaire d'Alexandrie en Égypte où il enseigna les sciences humaines et la philosophie. Sacré évêque par Théoctecne de Césarée de Palestine. Alors qu'il se rendait au concile d'Antioche, il passa par Laodicée où les chrétiens, dont l'évêque venait de mourir, le retinrent. (source 'Catholicisme')


À Laodicée en Syrie, commémoraison de saint Anatole, évêque au IIIe siècle, qui a laissé des écrits dignes d’être admirés non seulement par les hommes pieux, mais aussi par les philosophes.

Martyrologe romain


Saint Anatole de Laodicée

Évêque de Laodicée (Syrie)

Fête le 3 juillet

Alexandrie, Égypte – † v. 282

Autre mention : 2 juillet

Mathématicien et théologien de la Pâque, saint Anatole, originaire d’Alexandrie, fut évêque de Laodicée de Syrie, actuelle Lattaquié, vers l’an 269. Une partie de ses traités sur l’arithmétique existe encore. Directeur de l’école aristotélicienne d’Alexandrie, il excella comme philosophe et comme mathématicien. Saint Jérôme fait l’éloge de ses ouvrages.


ANATOLE D'ALEXANDRIE, évêque de Laodicée en Syrie, florissait sous les empereurs Carus et Probus. Il possédait d'immenses connaissances en mathématiques, en astronomie , en grammaire, en rhétorique et en dialectique. Son livre sur la Pâques et ses leçons d'arithmétique nous donnent une idée de l'étendue de son génie.

Saint JÉRÔME. Tableau des écrivains ecclésiastiques, ou Livre des hommes illustres.


Anatolius d'Alexandrie ou Saint Anatole (deuxième moitié du IIIe siècle ap. J.-C.), chrétien, out une grande réputation scientifique et occupa à Alexandrie la chaire de philosophie aristotélique. Il y eut comme élève le païen Jamblique, et s'y trouvait au moment du siège du Bruchium par Théodote, sous le règne de Gallien. Un peu après, vers 270, il fut nommé évêque de Laodicée de Syrie, en remplacement d'Eusèbe. Il mourut avant la persécution de Dioclétien (303).

Eusèbe (Hist. eccl., VII, 32), donne un extrait de ses Règles pour la Pâque et lui attribua de nombreux écrits, notamment dix livres d'Introductions arithmétiques. Ces livres, dont il nous reste de nombreux fragments dans les Théologoumènes arithmétiques, paraissent avoir été une compilation des spéculations mystiques des pythagoriciens sur les dix premiers nombres. D'autres fragments, sur les mathématiques en général, provenant d'un autre ouvrage d'Anatolius, se trouvent dans une compilation publiée, sous le titre : Anonymi varia collectiones, par Hultsch dans son édition de Héron (Berlin, 1864). Aux fragments qui portent expressément le nom d'Anatolius doivent être ajoutés la plupart de ceux de la même collection qui ne sont pas tirés de Proclus et notamment ceux que Hultsch a attribués à Geminos

Le Comput pascal d'Anatolius, que citent Bède et Raban Maur, existe en latin (ancienne version de Rufin) et a été édité par Gilles Boucher à Anvers , 1634. L'authenticité en a été contestée. On a également mis en doute que l'Anatolius, maître de Jamblique (d'après Eunape) et auteur des fragments des Théologoumènes, fût le même que le chrétien, évêque de Laodicée. (Paul Tannery).


FRAGMENT

D'ANATOLIUS.


Anatolius d'Alexandrie ou Saint Anatole (deuxième moitié du IIIe siècle après J.-C.), chrétien, out une grande réputation scientifique et occupa à Alexandrie la chaire de philosophie aristotélique. Il y eut comme élève le païen Jamblique, et s'y trouvait au moment du siège du Bruchium par Théodote, sous le règne de Gallien. Un peu après, vers 270, il fut nommé évêque de Laodicée de Syrie, en remplacement d'Eusèbe. Il mourut avant la persécution de Dioclétien (303).
Eusèbe (Hist. eccl., VII, 32), donne un extrait de ses Règles pour la Pâque et lui attribua de nombreux écrits, notamment dix livres d'Introductions arithmétiques. Ces livres, dont il nous reste de nombreux fragments dans les Théologoumènes arithmétiques, paraissent avoir été une compilation des spéculations mystiques des pythagoriciens sur les dix premiers nombres. D'autres fragments, sur les mathématiques en général, provenant d'un autre ouvrage d'Anatolius, se trouvent dans une compilation publiée, sous le titre : Anonymi varia collectiones, par Hultsch dans son édition de Héron (Berlin, 1864). Aux fragments qui portent expressément le nom d'Anatolius doivent être ajoutés la plupart de ceux de la même collection qui ne sont pas tirés de Proclus et notamment ceux que Hultsch a attribués à Géminus. 
Le Comput pascal d'Anatolius, que citent Bède et Raban Maur, existe en latin (ancienne version de Rufin) et a été édité par Gilles Boucher à Anvers, 1634. L'authenticité en a été contestée. On a également mis en doute que l'Anatolius, maître de Jamblique (d'après Eunape) et auteur des fragments des Théologoumènes, fût le même que le chrétien, évêque de Laodicée. (Paul Tannery).
TEXTE


Qu'est-ce que les mathématiques ?
Aristote, pensant que la philosophie prise dans son ensemble embrasse la théorie et la pratique, et divisant la pratique en morale et en politique, et la théorie en théologie, en physique et en mathématiques, montre bien clairement et doctement que les mathématiques font partie de la philosophie.
Les Chaldéens ont inventé l'astronomie, tes Égyptiens la géométrie et l'arithmétique.
D'où les mathématiques ont-elles tiré leur nom?
Les Péripatéticiens, déclarant qu'on peut comprendre la rhétorique, la poétique et toute la musique vulgaire, sans en avoir pris des leçons, mais qu'on ne peut acquérir la connaissance d'aucun des objets nommés proprement, sans avoir pris d'abord-des leçons sur ces objets, pensaient que pour cette raison la théorie de ces mêmes objets avait reçu le nom de mathématiques. Mais on dit que ce nom fut donné spécialement à la géométrie et à l'arithmétique seules par les disciples de Pythagore. Car anciennement chacune de ces deux sciences était nommée à part, et elles n'avaient point de nom commun. Or ils les nommèrent ainsi, parce qu'ils y trouvèrent le caractère scientifique et l'aptitude à être enseignées; car ils voyaient qu'elles roulaient sur des objets éternels, immuables et purs de tout mélange, et ils pensaient que c'étaient là les seuls objets où la science pût se rencontrer. Mais, à une époque plus récente, on a donné à ce mot une plus grande extension, parce qu’on a pensé que le mathématicien devait s’occuper, non seulement de la matière incorporelle et idéale, mais encore de ce qui touche à la matière corporelle et sensible. En effet, il doit être habile dans la théorie du mouvement des astres, de leurs vitesses, de leurs grandeurs, de leurs figures et de leurs distances. Il doit, en outre, savoir considérer les diverses modifications de la vue : il doit savoir scruter les causes pour lesquelles les objets ne paraissent pas à toute distance ce qu’ils sont, ni tels qu’ils sont en réalité, gardant, il est vrai, leurs rapports mutuels, mais produisant de fausses apparences en ce qui concerne leurs positions et leur ordre, soit dans le ciel et dans l’air, soit dans les miroirs et dans toutes les surfaces polies, soit enfin dans ceux des objets visibles qui sont transparents et dans tous les corps de cette nature. On pensait, de plus, que le mathématicien devait être mécanicien et habile dans la géodésie (géométrie pratique) et dans la logistique (arithmétique pratique), et qu’il devait aussi s'occuper des causes de l'union mélodieuse des sons et de leur combinaison dans la mélodie. Or ces objets sont corporels, ou du moins sont au dernier rang parmi ceux qui s'élèvent au-dessus de la matière sensible.
Qu'est-ce que les mathématiques?
Les mathématiques sont la science qui s'applique à la théorie des objets perceptibles à la fois par l'intellect et par la sensation, de manière à pouvoir transmettre les notions relatives à ces objets. Et quelqu'un a remarqué, avec non moins d'esprit que de justesse, que c'est de la science mathématique qu'il convient de dire : « petite d'abord, elle s'élance, et bientôt elle a dressé sa tête dans le ciel, tandis que ses pieds foulent le sol. » En effet, les mathématiques partent du point et de la ligne, mais elles embrassent l'étude du ciel, de la terre et de l'univers entier.
Combien y a-t-il de parties des mathématiques?
La branche la plus relevée et la première des mathématiques se divise en deux parties principales : l'arithmétique et la géométrie. Celle qui s'occupe des choses sensibles se divise en six parties : la logistique (art du calcul arithmétique), la géodésie (géométrie pratique), l'optique, la canonique (science du canon musical, qui est le type des valeurs numériques des sons), la mécanique et l'astronomie. Mais, ni ce qu'on nomme la tactique, ni l'art de l'architecte, ni la musique vulgaire, ni l'étude des apparences visibles, ni la mécanique (pratique) qui porte le même nom que la mécanique par excellence, ne sont, comme quelques-uns le croient, des parties des mathématiques : c'est ce que nous montrerons clairement et avec méthode dans la suite de cet ouvrage.
Le cercle a huit solides, six plans et quatre angles.[1]
Quelles sont les parties des mathématiques les plus rapprochées les unes des autres?
Ce qui se rapproche le plus de l'arithmétique (théorique), ce sont la logistique (art du calcul) et la canonique (calcul de la valeur numérique des sons musicaux); car l'arithmétique, ayant pris pour unité une certaine quantité, procède suivant les rapports, les nombres et les proportions. Ce qui se rapproche le plus de la géométrie, ce sont l'optique et la géodésie. La mécanique et l'astronomie se rapprochent beaucoup de l'arithmétique et de la géométrie à la fois.
Les mathématiques tirent leurs principes de l'hypothèse et roulent sur l'hypothèse. Le mot hypothèse a trois significations ou plus encore. Par exemple, on nomme hypothèse la péripétie dramatique, et c'est ainsi qu'on dit les hypothèses (ou sujets) des drames d'Euripide. D'après une autre signification, on nomme hypothèse la recherche des cas particuliers dans la rhétorique, et c'est ainsi que les sophistes disent : il faut poser une hypothèse (un fait particulier auquel la thèse générale s'applique). Par une troisième variété de signification, on nomme hypothèse le principe de la démonstration consistant en un postulatum d'où l'on tire une conséquence : c'est ainsi qu'on dit que Démocrite prenait pour hypothèse les atomes et le vide, et Asclépiade les masses et les pores. La science mathématique roule sur le troisième genre d’hypothèse.
Ce n'était pas Pythagore seul qui honorait l'arithmétique ; ses familiers aussi l'honoraient, en disant : « Tout est fait à l'image du nombre ».
L'arithmétique a pour but et pour résultat principalement la théorie scientifique, but le plus grand et le plus beau de tous, et, comme conséquence de ce premier résultat, elle fait connaître collectivement les nombres des accidents de la substance finie.
A qui est due chaque invention en mathématiques?[2]
Suivant ce qu'Eudème raconte dans son ouvrage sur l'astronomie, Œnopide le premier découvrit la ceinture du zodiaque et la période de la grande année (c'est-à-dire du cycle luni-solaire). Thalès le premier sut en quoi consiste l'éclipsé du soleil, et que la période qui ramène le soleil aux points solsticiaux n'est pas toujours égale. Anaximandre le premier découvrit que la terre est suspendue en l'air vers le centre du monde, et qu'elle s'agite dans le voisinage de ce point (de manière à produire les tremblements de terre. Anaximène découvrit que la lune tire sa lumière du soleil, et comment elle s'éclipse. A ces découvertes, d'autres ajoutèrent les découvertes suivantes : que les astres fixes exécutent leur révolution (diurne) autour de l'axe immobile qui passe par les pôles (de l'équateur), mais que les planètes exécutent leur révolutions (propres) autour de l’axe perpendiculaire au plan du zodiaque (c’est-à-dire de l’écliptique), et que l’axe des astres fixes et l’axe des planètes sont éloignés l’un de l’autre d’un côté du polygone (régulier) de quinze côtés (inscrit au cercle), c'est-à-dire de vingt quatre degrés.


[1] Les huit solides engendres par le cercle sont sans doute le cône, le cône tronqué, le cylindre à bases perpendiculaires sur l'axe, le cylindre à bases obliques d'axe, la sphère, l'onglet sphérique, le segment sphérique et le secteur sphérique. Les six plans engendrés par le cercle sont sans doute le cercle, le demi-cercle, le segment déterminé par une seule corde et plus grand que le demi-cercle, le segment déterminé par une seule corde et plus petit que le demi-cercle, le segment compris entre deux cordes et le secteur compris entre deux rayons. Les quatre angles à considérer dans le cercle sont sans doute l'angle an centre, l'angle à la circonférence, l'angle dont un des cotés est un diamètre et dont le sommet est en deçà du centre, l'angle dont an des côtés est un diamètre et dont le sommet est au delà du centre.

[2] Ici commence le chapitre xl de l'Astronomie de Théon de Smyrne.





Anatolius of Alexandria B (RM)



Born in Alexandria, Egypt; died c. 283. Anatolius, one of the greatest scholars of his age, headed the Aristotelian school at Alexandria. Fragments of the 10 volumes on mathematics that he wrote have come down to us, and he was also a master of geometry, physics, rhetoric, dialectic, astronomy, and philosophy. Hypercritical Saint Jerome commends his work, which should be considered high praise indeed. Constantly seeking to improve his knowledge and understanding, he turned his inquiring mind to every subject that came to hand, and not least to the mysteries of God, without whom his studies and life would have been meaningless. He viewed learning as a spiritual as well as an intellectual discipline, for it taught honesty and respect for the truth, gave the student a sense of the infinite magnitude of God's work, and filled the soul with humility.


Despite his reputation as the leading scholar of a town famed for its scholarship, Anatolius was never conceited or arrogant. If he sometimes considered ignorance, particularly among Christians, as almost a sin, he nevertheless showed a sincere friendship for poor and uneducated people. Instead of snubbing them, he humbly set himself to learn from them, for there was always something new to be learned, some truth about man or nature.

As a scholar, and more importantly as a Christian, he knew that no piece of God's handiwork should be passed by with indifference. Though his reason and intellect were the principal instruments he used in his search for truth, he also understood their limitations when confronted with the wider mystery of God.

His intelligence and his willingness to serve his fellow man led him to accept several important posts in the administration of his city, which at the time was part of the Roman Empire. It was thanks to him that in 263 a large number of its inhabitants was saved from starvation. A few years earlier Emilian had seized power in Alexandria and had himself proclaimed emperor, but a Roman army under Theodosius was quickly dispatched against him. Theodosius laid siege to the town, which was not expected to be able to hold out for long.

Making use of his friendship with Eusebius, a deacon who later became bishop of Laodicea, and who had accompanied the Roman army, Anatolius obtained permission for all the women, children, old men and sick people to leave Alexandria. This proved to be a tactical victory as well as an act of mercy. The besieged forces, relieved of the burden of feeding useless mouths and of caring for those who could not bear arms, were able to prolong their resistance.

Perhaps because he had dangerously compromised himself in this affair, Anatolius then left Alexandria and went to Caesarea in Palestine, where his fame had already preceded him. Theoctenes, the bishop of Caesarea, esteemed him so highly that he consecrated him as his successor and at once passed on to him a large part of his responsibilities.

In 268, they were both summoned to the Council of Antioch, but as they were passing through Laodicea they were politely but firmly stopped by the clergy and people. Eusebius, their bishop, had just died and they saw Anatolius's sudden arrival as a gift from God. Anatolius had no choice but to accept, and it was as bishop of Laedicea that he died (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

In art, Saint Anatolius is portrayed as a bishop with globes and mathematical books (Roeder).


St. Anatolius

Bishop of Laodicea in Syria, one of the foremost scholars of his day in the physical sciences and in Aristotelean philosophy. There are fragments of ten books on arithmetic written by him, and also a treatise on the time of the Paschal celebration. A very curious story is told by Eusebius of the way in which Anatolius broke up a rebellion in a part of Alexandria known as time Bruchium. It was held by the forces of Zenobia, and being strictly beleaguered by the Romans was in a state of starvation. The saint, who was living in the Bruchium at the time, made arrangements with the besiegers to receive all the women and children, as well as the old and infirm, continuing at the same time to let as many as wished profit by the means of escaping. It broke up the defence and the rebels surrendered. It was a patriotic action on the part of the saint, as well as one of great benevolence, in saving so many innocent victims from death. In going to Laodicea he was seized by the people and made bishop. Whether his friend Eusebius had died, or whether they both occupied the see together, is a matter of much discussion. The question is treated at length in the Bollandists. His feast, like that of his namesake the Patriarch of Constantinople, is kept on 3 July.

Sources
Acta SS., I, July; MICHAUD, Biog. Univ.; BARING-GOULD, Lives of the Saints (London, 1872).

Campbell, Thomas. "St. Anatolius." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 3 Jul. 2016 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01457c.htm>.

Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by W.S. French, Jr.

Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. March 1, 1907. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York.


Saint Anatolius of Alexandria

Also known as
  • Anatolius of Laodicea
Profile

Noted scientist, philosopher, scholar, teacher, and writer. He wrote ten books on mathematics alone, and Saint Jerome praised his scholarship and writing. Head of the Aristotlean school in Alexandria, Egypt. However, he was known not just as a scholar but as a humble and deeply religious man. Ignorance horrified him, and part of his work with the poor was to educate them. Held a number of government posts in Alexandria.

During a rebellion against the Roman authorities in 263, the area of Alexandria was under seige, resulting in the starvation of both rebels and citizens who had nothing to do with the uprising. Anatolius met with the Romans and negotiated the release of non-combatant children, women, the sick, and the elderly, saving many, and earning him a reputation as a peacemaker. The rebels, freed of caring for the non-combatants, were able to fight even longer. However, when they lost, Anatolius found himself with enemies on each side of the conflict, and he decided to leave Alexandria.

Anatolius emigrated to Caesaria, Palestine. His reputation as a scholar and Christian had preceeded him, and he became assistant and advisor to the bishop. In 268, while en route to the Council of Antioch, he passed through Laodicea, Syria. Their bishop, Saint Eusebius of Laodicea, had just died, they saw Anatolius’ arrival as a gift from God, and insisted that he assume the bishopric. He accepted, and spent his remaining fifteen years there.

Born

Saint Anatolius of Laodicea

His Homegoing date was 283 A.D.



Bishop of Laodicea in Syria, one of the foremost scholars of his day in the physical sciences and in Aristotelean philosophy. There are fragments of ten books on arithmetic written by him, and also a treatise on time of the Paschal celebration. A very curious story is told by Eusebius of the way in which Anatolius broke up a rebellion in a part of Alexandria known as the Bruchium. It was held by the forces of Zenobia, and being strictly beleaguered by the Romans was in a state of starvation. The saint, who was living in the Bruchium at the time, made arrangements with the besiegers to receive all the women and children, as well as the old and infirm, continuing at the same time to let as many as wished profit by the means of escaping. It broke up the defence and the rebels surrendered. It was a patriotic action on the part of the saint, as well as one of great benevolence, in saving so many innocent victims from death. In going to Laodicea he was seized by the people and made bishop. Whether his friend Eusebius had died, or whether they both occupied the see together, is a matter of much discussion. The question is treated at length in the Bollandists. His feast, like that of his namesake the Patriarch of Constantinople, is kept on 3 July.


THE PASCHAL CANON OF ANATOLIUS OF LAODICEA

I

As we are about to speak on the subject of the order of the times and alternations of the world, we shall first dispose of the positions of diverse calculators; who, by reckoning only by the course of the moon, and leaving out of account the ascent and descent of the sun, with the addition of certain problems, have constructed diverse periods,(2) self-contradictory, and such as are never found in the reckoning of a true computation; since it is certain that no mode of computation is to be approved, in which these two measures are not found together. For even in the ancient exemplars, that is, in the books of the Hebrews and Greeks, we find not only the course of the moon, but also that of the sun, and, indeed, not simply its course in the general,(3) but even the separate and minutest moments of its hours all calculated, as we shall show at the proper time, when the matter in hand demands it. Of these Hippolytus made up a period of sixteen years with certain unknown courses of the moon. Others have reckoned by a period of twenty-five years, others by thirty, and some by eighty-four years, without, however, teaching thereby an exact method of calculating Easter. But our predecessors, men most learned in the books of the Hebrews and Greeks,-I mean Isidore and Jerome and Clement,-although they have noted similar beginnings for the months just as they differ also in language, have, nevertheless, come harmoniously to one and the same most exact reckoning of Easter, day and month and season meeting in accord with the highest honour for the Lord's resurrection.(4) But Origen also, the most erudite of all, and the acutest in making calculations,-a man, too, to whom the epithet <greek>kalkenths</greek>(5) is given,-has published in a very elegant manner a little book on Easter. And in this book, while declaring, with respect to the day of Easter, that attention must be given not only to the course of the moon and the transit of the equinox, but also to the passage (transcensum) of the sun, which removes every foul ambush and offence of all darkness, and brings on the advent of light and the power and inspiration of the elements of the whole world, he speaks thus: In the (matter of the) day of Easter, he remarks, I do not say that it is to be observed that the Lord's day should be found, and the seven (6) days of the moon which are to elapse, but that the sun should pass that division, to wit, between light and darkness, constituted in an equality by the dispensation of the Lord at the beginning of the world; and that, from one hour to two hours, from two to three, from three to four, from four to five, from five to six hours, while the light is increasing in the ascent of the sun, the darkness should decrease.(7) ... and the addition of the twentieth number being completed, twelve parts should be supplied in one and the same day. But if I should have attempted to add any little drop of mine (8) after the exuberant streams of the eloquence and science of some, what else should there be to believe but that it should be ascribed by all to ostentation, and, to speak more truly, to madness, did not the assistance of your promised prayers animate us for a little? For we believe that nothing is impossible to your power of prayer, and to your faith. Strengthened, therefore, by this confidence, we shall set bashfulness aside, and shall enter this most deep and unforeseen sea of the obscurest calculation, in which swelling questions and problems surge around us on all sides.

II.

There is, then, in the first year, the new moon of the first month, which is the beginning of every cycle of nineteen years, on the six and twentieth day of the month called by the Egyptians Phamenoth.(9) But, according to the months of the Macedonians, it is on the two-and-twentieth day of Dystrus. And, as the Romans would say, it is on the eleventh day before the Kalends of April. Now the sun is found on the said six-and-twentieth day of Phamenoth, not only as having mounted to the first segment, but as already passing the fourth day in it. And this segment they are accustomed to call the first dodecatemorion (twelfth part), and the equinox, and the beginning of months, and the head of the cycle, and the starting-point (1) of the course of the planets. And the segment before this they call the last of the months, and the twelfth segment, and the last dodecatemorion, and the end of the circuit (2) of the planets. And for this reason, also, we maintain that those who place the first month in it, and who determine the fourteenth day of the Paschal season by it, make no trivial or common blunder.

III.

Nor is this an opinion confined to ourselves alone. For it was also known to the Jews of old and before Christ, and it was most carefully observed by them.(3) And this may be learned from what Philo, and Josephus, and Musaeus have written; and not only from these, but indeed from others still more ancient, namely, the two Agathobuli,(4) who were surnamed the Masters, and the eminent Aristobulus,(5) who was one of the Seventy who translated the sacred and holy Scriptures of the Hebrews for Ptolemy Philadelphus and his father, and dedicated his exegetical books on the law of Moses to the same kings. These writers, in solving some questions which are raised with respect to Exodus, say that all alike ought to sacrifice the Passover(6) after the vernal equinox in the middle of the first month. And that is found to be when the sun passes through the first segment of the solar, or, as some among them have named it, the zodiacal circle.

IV.

But this Aristobulus also adds, that for the feast of the Passover it was necessary not only that the sun should pass the equinoctial segment, but the moon also. For as there are two equinoctial segments, the vernal and the autumnal, and these diametrically opposite to each other, and since the day of the Passover is fixed for the fourteenth day of the month, in the evening, the moon will have the position diametrically opposite the sun; as is to be seen in full moons. And the sun will thus be in the segment of the vernal equinox, and the moon necessarily will be at the autumnal equinox.
V.
I am aware that very many other matters were discussed by them, some of them with considerable probability, and others of them as matters of the clearest demonstration,(7) by which they endeavour to prove that the festival of the Passover and unleavened bread ought by all means to be kept after the equinox. But I shall pass on without demanding such copious demonstrations(on subjects(8)) from which the veil of the Mosaic law has been removed; for now it remains for us with unveiled face to behold ever as in a glass Christ Himself and the doctrines and sufferings of Christ. But that the first month among the Hebrews is about the equinox, is clearly shown also by what is taught in the book of Enoch.(9)

VI.

And, therefore, in this concurrence of the sun and moon, the Paschal festival is not to be celebrated, because as long as they are found in this course the power of darkness is not overcome; and as long as equality between light and darkness endures, and is not diminished by the light, it is shown that the Paschal festival is not to be celebrated. Accordingly, it is enjoined that that festival be kept after the equinox, because the moon of the fourteenth,(10) if before the equinox or at the equinox, does not fill the whole night. But after the equinox, the moon of the fourteenth, with one day being added because of the passing of the equinox, although it does not extend to the true light, that is, the rising of the sun and the beginning of day, will nevertheless leave no darkness behind it. And, in accordance with this, Moses is charged by the Lord to keep seven days of unleavened bread for the celebration of the Passover, that in them no power of darkness should be found to surpass the light. And although the outset of four nights begins to be dark, that is, the 17th and 18th and 19th and 20th, yet the moon of the 20th, which rises before that, does not permit the darkness to extend on even to midnight.

VII.

To us, however, with whom it is impossible for all these things to come aptly at one and the same time, namely, the moon's fourteenth, and the Lord's day, and the passing of the equinox, and whom the obligation of the Lord's resurrection binds to keep the Paschal festival on the Lord's day, it is granted that we may extend the beginning of our celebration even to the moon's twentieth. For although the moon of the 20th does not fill the whole night, yet, rising as it does in the second watch, it illumines the greater part of the night. Certainly if the rising of the moon should be delayed on to the end of two watches, that is to say, to midnight, the light would not then exceed the darkness, but the darkness the light. But it is clear that in the Paschal feast it is not possible that any part of the darkness should surpass the light; for the festival of the Lord's resurrection is one of light, and there is no fellowship between light and darkness. And if the moon should rise in the third watch, it is clear that the 22d or 23d of the moon would then be reached, in which it is not possible that there can be a true celebration of Easter. For those who determine that the festival may be kept at this age of the moon, are not only unable to make that good by the authority of Scripture, but turn also into the crime of sacrilege and contumacy, and incur the peril of their souls; inasmuch as they affirm that the true light may be celebrated along with something of that power of darkness which dominates all.

VIII.

Accordingly, it is not the case, as certain calculators of Gaul allege, that this assertion is opposed by that passage in Exodus,(1) where we read: "In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the first month, at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread until the one-and-twentieth day of the month at even. Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses." From this they maintain that it is quite permissible to celebrate the Passover on the twenty-first day of the moon; understanding that if the twenty-second day were added, there would be found eight days of unleavened bread. A thing which cannot be found with any probability, indeed, in the Old Testament, as the Lord, through Moses, gives this charge: "Seven days ye shall eat unleavened bread."(2) Unless perchance the fourteenth day is not reckoned by them among the days of unleavened bread with the celebration of the feast; which, however, is contrary to the Word of the Gospel which says: "Moreover, on the first day of unleavened bread, the disciples came to Jesus."(3) And there is no doubt as to its being the fourteenth day on which the disciples asked the Lord, in accordance with the custom established for them of old, "Where wilt Thou that we prepare for Thee to eat the Passover?" But they who are deceived with this error maintain this addition, because they do not know that the 13th and 14th, the 14th and 15th, the 15th and 16th, the 16th and 17th, the 17th and 18th, the 18th and 19th, the 19th and 20th, the 20th and 21st days of the moon are each found, as may be most surely proved, within a single day. For every day in the reckoning of the moon does not end in the evening as the same day in respect of number, as it is at its beginning in the morning. For the day which in the morning, that is up to the sixth hour and half, is numbered the 13th day of the month, is found at even to be the 14th. Wherefore, also, the Passover is enjoined to be extended on to the 21st day at even; which day, without doubt, in the morning, that is, up to that term of hours which we have mentioned, was reckoned the 20th. Calculate, then, from the end of the 13th(4) day of the moon, which marks the beginning of the 14th, on to the end of the 20th, at which the 21st day also begins, and you will have only seven days of unleavened bread, in which, by the guidance of the Lord, it has been determined before that the most true feast of the Passover ought to be celebrated.

IX.

But what wonder is it that they should have erred in the matter of the 21st day of the moon who have added three days before the equinox, in which they hold that the Passover may be celebrated? An assertion which certainly must be considered altogether absurd, since, by the best-known historiographers of the Jews, and by the Seventy Elders, it has been clearly determined that the Paschal festival cannot be celebrated at the equinox.

X.

But nothing was difficult to them with whom it was lawful to celebrate the Passover on any day when the fourteenth of the moon happened after the equinox. Following their example up to the present time all the bishops of Asia-as themselves also receiving the rule from an unimpeachable authority, to wit, the evangelist John, who leant on the Lord's breast, and drank in instructions spiritual without doubt-were in the way of celebrating the Paschal feast, without question, every year, whenever the fourteenth day of the moon had come, and the lamb was sacrificed by the Jews after the equinox was past; not acquiescing, so far as regards this matter, with the authority of some, namely, the successors of Peter and Paul, who have taught all the churches in which they sowed the spiritual seeds of the Gospel, that the solemn festival of the resurrection of the Lord can be celebrated only on the Lord's day. Whence, also, a certain contention broke out between the successors of these, namely, Victor, at that time bishop of the city of Rome, and Polycrates, who then appeared to hold the primacy among the bishops of Asia. And this contention was adjusted most rightfully by Irenaeus,(1) at that time president of a part of Gaul, so that both parties kept by their own order, and did not decline from the original custom of antiquity. The one party, indeed, kept the Paschal day on the fourteenth day of the first month, according to the Gospel, as they thought, adding nothing of an extraneous kind, but keeping through all things the rule of faith. And the other party, passing the day of the Lord's Passion as one replete with sadness and grief, hold that it should not be lawful to celebrate the Lord's mystery of the Passover at any other time but on the Lord's day, on which the resurrection of the Lord from death took place, and on which rose also for us the cause of everlasting joy. For it is one thing to act in accordance with the precept given by the apostle, yea, by the Lord Himself, and be sad with the sad, and suffer with him that suffers by the cross, His own word being: "My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death; "(2) and it is another thing to rejoice with the victor as he triumphs over an ancient enemy, and exults with the highest triumph over a conquered adversary, as He Himself also says: "Rejoice with Me; for I have found the sheep which I had lost."(3)

XI.

Moreover, the allegation which they sometimes make against us, that if we pass the moon's fourteenth we cannot celebrate the beginning of the Paschal feast in light,(4) neither moves nor disturbs us. For, although they lay it down as a thing unlawful, that the beginning of the Paschal festival should be extended so far as to the moon's twentieth; yet they cannot deny that it ought to be extended to the sixteenth and seventeenth, which coincide with the day on which the Lord rose from the dead. But we decide that it is better that it should be extended even on to the twentieth day, on account of the Lord's day, than that we should anticipate the Lord's day on account of the fourteenth day; for on the Lord's day was it that light was shown to us in the beginning, and now also in the end, the comforts of all present and the tokens of all future blessings. For the Lord ascribes no less praise to the twentieth day than to the fourteenth. For in the book of Leviticus(5) the injunction is expressed thus: "In the first month, on the fourteenth day of this month, at even, is the Lord's Passover. And on the fifteenth day of this month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the Lord. Seven days ye shall eat unleavened bread. The first day shall be to you one most diligently attended(6) and holy. Ye shall do no servile work thereon. And the seventh day shall be to you more diligently attended(7) and holier; ye shall do no servile work thereon." And hence we maintain that those have contracted no guilt(8) 'before the tribunal of Christ, who have held that the beginning of the Paschal festival ought to be extended to this day. And this, too, the most especially, as we are pressed by three difficulties, namely, that we should keep the solemn festival of the Passover on the Lord's day, and after the equinox, and yet not beyond the limit of the moon's twentieth day.

XII.

But this again is held by other wise and most acute men to be an impossibility, because within that narrow and most contracted limit of a cycle of nineteen years, a thoroughly genuine Paschal time, that is to say, one held on the Lord's day and yet after the equinox, cannot occur. But, in order that we may set in a clearer light the difficulty which causes their in credulity, we shall set down, along with the courses of the moon, that cycle of years which we have mentioned; the days being computed before in which the year rolls on in its alternating courses, by Kalends and Ides and Nones, and by the sun's ascent and descent.

XIII.

The moon's age set forth in the Julian Calendar.

January, on the Kalends, one day, the moon's first (day); on the Nones, the 5th day, the moon's 5th; on the Ides, the 13th day, the moon's 13th. On the day before the Kalends of February, the 31st day, the moon's 1st; on the Kalends of February, the 32d day, the moon's 2d; on the Nones, the 36th day, the moon's 6th; on the Ides, the 44th day, the moon's 14th. On the day before the Kalends of March, the 59th day, the moon's 29th; on the Kalends of March, the 60th day, the moon's 1st; on the Nones, the 66th day, the moon's 7th; on the Ides, the 74th day, the moon's 15th. On the day before the Kalends of April, the 90th day, the moon's 2d; on the Kalends of April, the 91st day, the moon's 3d; on the Nones, the 95th day, the moon's 7th; on the Ides, the 103d day, the moon's 15th. On the day before the Kalends of May, the 120th day, the moon's 3d; on the Kalends of May, the 121st day, the moon's 4th; on the Nones, the 127th day, the moon's 10th; on the Ides, the 135th day, the moon's 18th. On the day before the Kalends of June, the 151st day, the moon's 3d; on the Kalends of June, the 152d day, the moon's 5th; on the Nones, the 153d day, the moon's 9th; on the Ides, the 164th day, the moon's 17th. On the day before the Kalends of July, the 181st day, the moon's 5th; on the Kalends of July, the 182d day, the moon's 6th; on the Nones, the 188th day, the moon's 12th; on the Ides, the 196th day, the moon's 20th. On the day before the Kalends of August, the 212th day, the moon's 5th; on the Kalends of August, the 213th day, the moon's 7th; on the Nones, the 217th day, the moon's 12th; on the ides, the 225th day, the moon's 19th. On the day before the Kalends of September, the 243d day, the moon's 7th; on the Kalends of September, the 244th day, the moon's 8th; on the Nones, the 248th day, the moon's 12th; on the Ides, the 256th day, the moon's 20th. On the day before the Kalends of October, the 273d day, the moon's 8th; on the Kalends of October, the 247th day, the moon's 9th; on the Nones, the 280th day, the moon's 15th; on the Ides, the 288th day, the moon's 23d. On the day before the Kalends of November, the 304th day, the moon's 9th; on the Kalends of November, the 305th day, the moon's 10th; on the Nones, the 309th day, the moon's 14th; on the Ides, the 317th day, the moon's 22d. On the day before the Kalends of December, the 334th day, the moon's 10th; on the Kalends of December, the 335th day, the moon's 11th; on the Nones, the 339th day, the moon's 15th; on the Ides, the 347th day, the moon's 23d. On the day before the Kalends of January, the 365th day, the moon's 11th; on the Kalends of January, the 366th day, the moon's 12th.

XIV.

The Paschal or Easter Table of Anatolius.

Now, then, after the reckoning of the days and the exposition of the course of the moon, whereon the whole revolves on to its end, the cycle of the years may be set forth from the commencement).(1) This makes the Passover (Easter season) circulate between the 6th day before the Kalends of April and the 9th before the Kalends of May, according to the following table:--

EQUINOX. Moon. Easter. Moon.
1. SABBATH. XXVI. XVth before the Kalends of 17th April. XVIII.
2. LORD'S DAY. VII. Kalends of April, i.e., 1st April. XIV.
3. IID DAY (FERIAL). XVIII. XIth before the Kalends of May, i.e., 21st April. XVI.
4. lIID DAY. XXIX. Ides of April, i.e., 13th April. XIX.
5. IVTH DAY. X. IVth before the Kalends of April, i.e., 29th March. XIV.
6. VTH DAY. XXI. XIVth before the Kalends of May, i.e., 18th April. XVI.
7. SABBATH(2). II. VIth before the Kalends of April, i.e., 27th March. XVII.
8. LORD'S DAY. Xlll. Kalends of April, i.e., 1st April. XX.
9. IID DAY. XXIV. XVIIIth before the Kalends of May, i.e., 14th March. XV.
10. IIID DAY. V. VIIIth before the Ides of April, i.e., 6th April. XV.
11. IVTH DAY. XVI. IVth before the Kalends of April, i.e., 29th March. XX.
12. VTH DAY. XXVII. IIId before the Ides of April, i.e., 11th April. XV.
13. VITH DAY. VIII IIId before the Nones of April, i.e., 3d April. XVII
14. SABBATH. XX. IXth before the Kalends of May, i.e., 23d April. XX.
15. LORD'S DAY. I. VIth before the Ides of April, i.e., 8th April. XV.
16. IID DAY. XII. IId before the Kalends of April, i.e., 31st March. XVIII
17. IVTH DAY(2). XXIII. XIVth before the Kalends of May, i.e., 18th April. XIX.
18. VTH DAY. IV. IId before the Nones of April, i.e., 4th April. XIV.
19. VITH DAY. XV. VIth before the Kalends of April i.e., 27th March. XVII.

XV.

This cycle of nineteen years is not approved of by certain African investigators who have drawn up larger cycles, because it seems to be somewhat opposed to their surmises and opinions. For these make up the best proved accounts according to their calculation, and determine a certain beginning or certain end for the Easter season, so as that the Paschal festival shall not be celebrated before the eleventh day before the Kalends of April, i.e., 24th March, nor after the moon's twenty-first, and the eleventh day before the Kalends of May, i.e., 21st April. But we hold that these are limits not only not to be followed, but to be detested and overturned. For even in the ancient law it is laid down that this is to be seen to, viz., that the Passover be not celebrated before the transit of the vernal equinox, at which the last of the autumnal term is overtaken,(1) on the fourteenth day of the first month, which is one calculated not by the beginnings of the day, but by those of the moon.(2) And as this has been sanctioned by the charge of the Lord, and is in all things accordant with the Catholic faith, it cannot be doubtful to any wise man that to anticipate it must be a thing unlawful and perilous. And, accordingly, this only is it sufficient for all the saints and Catholics to observe, namely, that giving no heed to the diverse opinions of very many, they should keep the solemn festival of the Lord's resurrection within the limits which we have set forth.

XVI.

Furthermore, as to the proposal subjoined to your epistle, that I should attempt to introduce into this little book some notice of the ascent and descent of the sun, which is made out in the distribution of days and nights. The matter proceeds thus: In fifteen days and half an hour, the sun ascending by so many minutes, that is, by four in one day, from the eighth day before the Kalends of January, i.e., 25th December, to the eighth before the Kalends of April, i.e., 25th March, an hour is taken up;(3) at which date there are twelve hours and a twelfth. On this day, towards evening, if it happen also to be the moon's fourteenth, the lamb was sacrificed among the Jews. But if the number went beyond that, so that it was the moon's fifteenth or sixteenth on the evening of the same day, on the fourteenth day of the second moon, in the same month, the Passover was celebrated; and the people ate unleavened bread for seven days, up to the twenty first day at evening. Hence, if it happens in like manner to us, that the seventh day before the Kalends of April, 26th March, proves to be both the Lord's day and the moon's fourteenth, Easter is to be celebrated on the fourteenth. But if it proves to be the moon's fifteenth or sixteenth, or any day up to the twentieth, then our regard for the Lord's resurrection, which took place on the Lord's day, will lead us to celebrate it on the same principle; yet this should be done so as that the beginning of Easter may not pass beyond the close of their festival, that is to say, the moon's twentieth. And therefore we have said that those parties have committed no trivial offence who have ventured either on anticipating or on going beyond this number, which is given us in the divine Scriptures themselves. And from the eighth day before the Kalends of April, 25th March, to the eighth before the Kalends of July, 24th June, in fifteen days an hour is taken up: the sun ascending every day by two minutes and a half, and the sixth part of a minute. And from the eighth day before the Kalends of July, 24th June, to the eighth before the Kalends of October, 24th September, in like manner, in fifteen days and four hours, an hour is taken up: the sun descending every day by the same number of minutes. And the space remaining on to the eighth day before the Kalends of January, 25th December, is determined in a similar number of hours and minutes. So that thus on the eighth day before the Kalends of January, for the hour there is the hour and half. For up to that day and night are distributed. And the twelve hours which were established at the vernal equinox in the beginning by the Lord's dispensation, being distributed over the night on the eighth before the Kalends of July, the sun ascending through those eighteen several degrees which we have noted, shall be found conjoined with the longer space in the twelfth. And, again, the twelve hours which should be fulfilled at the autumnal equinox in the sun's descent, should be found disjoined on the sixth before the Kalends of January as six hours divided into twelve, the night holding eighteen divided into twelve. And on the eighth before the Kalends of July, in like manner, it held six divided into twelve.

XVII.

Be not ignorant of this, however, that those four determining periods,(4) which we have mentioned, although they are approximated to the Kalends of the following months, yet hold each the middle of a season, viz., of spring and summer, and autumn and winter. And the beginnings of the seasons are not to be fixed at that point at which the Kalends of the month begin. But each season is to be begun in such way that the equinox divides the season of spring from its first day; and the season of summer is divided by the eighth day before the Kalends of July, and that of autumn by the eighth before the Kalends of October, and that of winter by the eighth before the Kalends of January in like manner.(5)



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Sant' Anatolio di Laodicea


Martirologio Romano: A Laodicea in Siria, commemorazione di sant’Anatolio, vescovo, che lasciò scritti degni di ammirazione non solo per gli uomini di fede, ma anche per i filosofi.

Anatolio di Laodicea, alessandrino di origine, si distinse tra i suoi concittadini per la cultura letteraria, filosofica e scientifica. In particolare gli si ascrive il merito di aver salvato una parte notevole dei suoi concittadini dai rigori dell'assedio posto dai Romani, probabilmente nel 263, al quartiere portuale di Alessandria detto il Bruchio (Bruchium). Poco dopo, forse perché compromesso in quell'episodio militare, si spostò in Palestina e si pose al servizio del vescovo di Cesarea, Teotecno, che lo creò vescovo e lo scelse come suo coadiutore. In occasione del secondo Concilio adunato ad Antiochia nel 268 contro Paolo di Samosata, Anatolio passò per Laodicea. Qui era stato vescovo per qualche anno, dal 264, Eusebio, suo compatriota e amico, nonché compagno nell'affare del Bruchio, venuto a mancare da poco alla sua chiesa. E per l'affetto che portavano allo scomparso e per la fama che Anatolio già godeva, gli abitanti di Laodicea costrinsero il santo ad accettare il governo della loro chiesa. Non sappiamo come Anatolio trascorse il suo episcopato, né quando morì. Secondo Eusebio, che ci tramanda le poche notizie che possediamo sulla sua vita, ad Anatolio vanno attribuiti un computo pasquale e dieci libri sull'aritmetica. Di questi ultimi restano alcuni frammenti, mentre è discussa la paternità del Liber Anatolii de ratione paschali, pubblicato per la prima volta dal Boucher nel 1634.


Autore: Giorgio Eldarov