mardi 21 avril 2015

Saint BEUNO (BEUNON,BONO, BEUNOR) GASULSYCH, abbé et confesseur

Saint Beuno

abbé gallois ( v. 642)

Beuno ou Beunon, abbé de Clynnog-Fawr (Caernarvonshire) Pays-de-Galles.

Connu aussi sous le nom de Bono, du latin 'bonus'.

Il est vénéré comme le guide spirituel de sainte Wénefride; il fut un personnage important de la vie monacale du VIe siècle. Il fonda des églises et des monastères et avait une réputation de grande charité, il mourut à Clynnog Fawr (site en anglais) où l'église est encore de nos jours un lieu de dévotions.

Il figure au 20 avril sur le calendrier liturgique du Pays-de-Galles (en anglais) mais n'apparaît pas dans le martyrologe romain. Il figure au 21 avril sur de nombreux sites...

St Beuno's (site en anglais) est un centre de spiritualité ignatienne au Nord du Pays-de-Galles.

A lire aussi: Saint Beunon, Abbé de Clynnog-Fawr, recherches d'un fidèle internaute, fichier pdf.



St. Beuno

Abbot of Clynnog, d. 660(?), was, according to the "Bucced Beuno", born in Powis-land and, after education and ordination in the monastery of Bangor, in North Wales, became an active missioner, Cadvan, King of Gwynedd, being his generous benefactor. Cadwallon, Cadvan's son and successor, deceived Beuno about some land, and on the saint demanding justice proved obdurate. Thereupon, Cadwallon's cousin Gweddeint, in reparation, "gave to God and Beuno forever his township", where the saint (c. 616) founded the Abbey of Clynnog Fawr (Carnarvonshire).

Beuno became the guardian and restorer to life of his niece, the virgin St. Winefride, whose clients still obtain marvellous favours at Holywell (Flintshire). He was relentless with hardened sinners, but full of compassion to those in distress. Before his death "on the seventh day of Easter" he had a wondrous vision. Eleven churches bearing St. Beuno's name, with various relics and local usages, witness to his far-reaching missionary zeal. He is commemorated on the 21st of April.

Sources

REES, Lives of Cambro-British Saints (1853); the Bucched Beuno found in this work gives a secure basis of names and dedications; cf. POLLEN in The Month, February, 1894, 235; STUBBS, Councils, I, 160; Dict. Nat. Biog., IV, 444.

Ryan, Patrick W.F. "St. Beuno." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 20 Apr. 2015 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02540a.htm>.

Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Vivek Gilbert John Fernandez. Dedicated to Mary, Queen of Comforters.


Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. 1907. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York.


Beuno of Wales, Abbot (AC)

(also known as Beunor)

Died c. 630; he has another feast on January 14. There is evidence that Beuno was a Welsh man of importance, founder of several monasteries. His story that has been handed down to us is a legend written in 1346, but it may contain elements of truth. According to the legend, Beuno was the son of Beugi (Hywgi) and grandson of a Welsh prince. He was educated in Herefordshire, perhaps at Bangor Abbey, near which there is still a village called Llanfeuno. Beuno was the uncle of Saint Winifred, who was restored to life after her suitor severed her head.


The legend says that Cadvan was king of North Wales, and had recently been victorious over King Ethelred of Northumberland, who, about 607, had massacred the monks of Bangor. Saint Beuno gave the king a golden sceptre, and the prince in turn assigned a spot for Beuno's monastery near Fynnon Beuno (Beuno's Well), in the parish of Llanwunda, of which he is titular saint. But as he was laying the foundation, a woman came to him with a child in her arms, saying that the ground was this infant's inheritance. Troubled by this, the holy man took the woman with him to the king and told him that he could not devote to God another's patrimony. The king refused to pay any attention to his remonstrances. So the saint left. But Gwyddeiant, the king's cousin, immediately went after him, and bestowed on him the township of Clynnog Fawr, his undoubted patrimony, where Beuno built his church about the year 616. King Cadvan died about that time; but his son and successor Cadwallon surpassed him in his liberality to the saint and his monastery.

It is related, among other miracles, that when a certain man had lost his eyebrow by some hurt, Saint Beuno healed it by applying the iron point of his staff: and that from this circumstance a church four miles from Clynnog, perhaps built by the person so healed, retains to this day the name of Llanael Hayarn, i.e., church of the iron brow.

His name is particularly associated with Clynnog in Caernarvonshire, where he may well have had a small monastery. There are many other foundations (including Aberffraw and Trefdraeth on Anglesey Island), both in central East Wales and in Clwyd, dedicated to him that may have be established by his disciples. Clynnog Fawr later passed into the hands of Benedictines of the congregation of Cluny (Clugni), from which it gets its name; previously it was named after its founder.

Beuno died and was buried at Clynnog Fawr, where a stone oratory was built over his tomb. Later his relics were translated to a new church (Eglwys y Bedd), where miracles were reported. The beautiful stone church is large and magnificent as is Saint Beuno's chapel, which is joined to the church by a portico. In this chapel, the fine painted or stained glass in the large windows is much effaced and destroyed, except a large figure of our blessed Savior extended on the cross. Opposite this crucifix, about three yards from the east window, is Saint Beuno's tomb, raised above the ground, and covered with a large stone, upon which people still lay sick children, in hopes of being cured.

Beuno's cultus survived the Reformation. During the reign of Elizabeth I, there were complaints that lambs and calves were offered at his tomb and later brought back because Beuno's cattle "prospered marvelous well." Sick people were still brought to the supposed grave towards the end of the 18th century, where they bathed in his holy well and spent the night in his tomb. The ruins of his primitive oratory were excavated in 1914. In our age, Beuno's memory has been revived by the Jesuits' establishment of Saint Beuno's College in northern Wales (Attwater, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Gill, Husenbeth). In art, Beuno is shown restoring his niece's head (Roeder). He is chiefly venerated at Clynnog (Roeder).


St. Beuno, or Beunor, Abbot of Clynnog, in Caernarvonshire, Confessor

HE was a native of Powis-land, 1 and son of Beugi, or, as the Welch write it, Hywgi, grandson to the prince of Powis-land, or at least part of it, called Glewisig. For the sake of his education he was sent into Arvon, the territory opposite to Anglesey, from which island it is separated by the river, or rather arm of the sea, called Menai. This country was also called Snowdon forest, from its hills, the highest in Britain, which derive their name from the snow which covers them, being called in Welch, Craig Eriry, words of the same import with their English name Snowdon. These mountains afford such an impregnable retreat, and so much good pasture, that the usual style of the sovereigns was, Princes of North-Wales, and Lords of Snowdon. Sejont, called by the Romans Segontium, was the capital city, situated on the river Sejont. Its ruins are still visible near the town and castle of Caernarvon, (or city of Arvon,) built by Edward I., on the mouth of the river, at the great ferry over to Anglesey. That island had been, under the pagan Britons, the chief seat of the Druids, and was afterwards illustrious for many holy monks and hermits. On the coast opposite to this island, in the county of Caernarvon, stood three great monasteries: that of Clynnog Fawr, near Sejont, or Caernarvon; that of Conway, on the extremity of this county, towards Denbighshire, on the river Conway, which separates the two counties; from which it is called Aberconway, that is, Mount of the Conway. It was the burying-place of the princes of North-Wales. Edward I. built there a strong castle and town facing Beaumaris, the capital of Anglesey, though the passage here is much broader than from Caernarvon. Bangor, or Banchor, i. e. White Choir, or Place of the Choir, was on the same coast, in the midway between Caernarvon and Aberconway. This monastery and bishopric were founded by St. Daniel, about the year 525. The very town was formerly called Bangor Fawr, or the Great Bangor: but the monastery and city were destroyed by the Danes; and, though the bishopric still subsists, the town is scarcely better than a village. St. Beuno seems to have had his education in the monastery of Bangor: he afterwards became the father and founder of several great nurseries of saints. Two monasteries he built in the isle of Anglesey, Aberffraw and Trefdraeth, of both which churches he is to this day titular saint. On the continent, he founded Clynnog, or Clynnoc fechan, i. e. Little Clynnog; and Clynnog Fawr, or Vawr, i. e. Great Clynnog. This last was situated near the river Sejont, and the present Caernarvon. Cadvan was at that time king of North-Wales, and had lately gained a great victory over Ethelred, king of the pagan English Saxons of Northumberland, who had barbarously massacred the poor monks of Bangor, in the year 607, or somewhat later. St. Beuno made the king a present of a golden sceptre, and the prince assigned a spot to build his monastery upon, near Fynnon Beuno, or Beuno’s well, in the parish of Llanwunda, of which he is titular saint. But when he was beginning to lay the foundation, a certain woman came to him with a child in her arms, saying, that ground was this infant’s inheritance. The holy man, much troubled hereat, took the woman with him to the king, who kept his court at Caer Sejont, and told him, with a great deal of zeal and concern, that he could not devote to God another’s patrimony. The king, refusing to pay any regard to his remonstrances, the saint went away. But one Gwyddeiant, cousin-german to the king, immediately went after him, and bestowed on him the township of Clynnog Fawr, his undoubted patrimony, where Beuno built his church about the year 616. King Cadvan died about that time; but his son and successor Cadwallon surpassed him in his liberality to the saint and his monastery. It is related, amongst other miracles, that when a certain man had lost his eye-brow by some hurt, St. Beuno healed it by applying the iron point of his staff: and that from this circumstance a church four miles from Clynnog, perhaps built by the person so healed, retains to this day the name of Llanael hayarn, i. e. church of the Iron brow: though popular tradition is not perhaps a sufficient evidence of such a miracle; and some other circumstances might give occasion to the name. Some further account of St. Beuno will be given in the life of St. Wenefride. The year of his death is no where recorded.—He is commemorated on the 14th of January and 21st of April. And on Trinity Sunday great numbers resort to the wakes at Clynnog, and formerly brought offerings to the church

This monastery passed afterwards into the hands of Benedictins of the congregation of Clugni: whence it had the name of Clynnog, or Clunnoc, being formerly known only by that of its founder. The church, built of beautiful stone, is so large and magnificent as to remain to this day the greatest ornament and wonder of the whole country, especially St. Beuno’s chapel, which is joined to the church by a portico. In this chapel, the fine painted or stained glass in the large windows is much effaced and destroyed, except a large figure of our blessed Saviour extended on the cross. Opposite to this crucifix, about three yards from the east window, is St. Beuno’s tomb, raised above the ground, and covered with a large stone, upon which people still lay sick children, in hopes of being cured. This great building, though very strong, is in danger of decaying for want of revenues to keep it in repair. Those of the monastery were chiefly settled on the Principal of Jesus College in Oxford, except what was reserved for the maintenance of a vicar to serve the parish. Some still bring offerings of some little piece of silver or chiefly of lambs, which are sold by the church-wardens, and the money put into St. Beuno’s box, to be employed in repairing the chapel. From an ancient custom, farmers in that country continue to print on the foreheads of their sheep what they call St. Beuno’s mark. Mr. Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt, the great Welch antiquarian, has given us an ample list of benefactions bestowed upon Clynnoc, by princes and others. On St. Beuno see his MS. life, Howel’s History of Wales, p. 11 and 12, and a long curious letter, concerning him and his church, which the compiler received from the Rev. Mr. Farrington, the ingenious vicar of Clynnog Fawr, or Vawr, as the Welch adjective Mawr, great, is written in several parts of Wales.

Note 1. Powis-land was a great principality in Wales, and anciently comprised all the country that lay between the Severn as high as the bridge at Gloucester, the Dee, and the Wye. The capital was Pen-gwern, now Shrewsbury. King Offa, to restrain the daily incursions and depredations of the Welch, drove them out of all the plain country into the mountains, and annexed the country about the Severn and the Wye to his kingdom of Mercia, and for a curb, made a deep ditch, extending from one sea to the other, called Clawdh Offa, i. e. Offa’s dike. On this account the royal seat of the princes of Powis was translated from Pengwern to Mathraval, in Montgomeryshire. In the time of St. Beuno, Brochwel, called by some, in Latin, Brochmaclus, was king of Powis and Chester. He resided at Pen-gwern, in the house where, since, the college and church of St. Chad were built; was religious, and a great friend to the monks of Bangor. When Ethelred, the Pagan Saxon king of Northumberland, had massacred a great number of them, Brochwel assembled an army, and being joined by Cadfan, king of Britain, Morgan, king of Demetia, (now Caermarthenshire, Pembrokeshire, and Cardiganshire,) and Blederic, king of Cornwall, gave a memorable overthrow to Ethelred, upon the river Dee, in the year 617. Brochwel was soon after succeeded in Powis by his son, Cadelh-Egbert, king of England, who, having discomfited the Danes and Welch together at Hengist-down, about the year 820, made all Wales tributary, and annexed Chester, called till then Caer Dheon ar Dhyfrdwy, for ever to England, which till then had remained in the hands of the Welch. Under King Ethelwulph, Berthred, his tributary king of Mercia, defeated and slew at Kettel, Merfyn Frych, king of the Welch. But his son Roderic, surnamed Mawr, or the Great, united all Wales in his dominion in 843. But, in 877, left it divided among his three elder sons, having built for each a royal palace. That of Gwineth, or North Wales, at Aberffraw, he gave his eldest son Anarawd: that of South Wales at Dinefawr, or Cardigan, he left to Cadelh: and to his third son Merfyn, he gave Powis, with the palace of Mathrafel; but this was soon usurped by Cadelh, and added to South Wales. King Athelstan drove the Britons from Exeter, and confined them in Cornwall, beyond the river Cambria, now Tamar, and in Wales beyond the Wye. All Wales was again united under Howel Dha, i. e. Howel the Good, in 940, who, having been long prince of South Wales and Powis, was, for his great probity, elected king of North Wales. He drew up the code of the Welch laws, which he prevailed upon the pope to confirm, and Lambert, archbishop of St. David’s, to declare all transgressors excommunicated. He died in peace in 948, and his kingdom was parcelled among his four sons, and the sons of the last king of North Wales; but by his laws all the other princes in Wales paid homage to the prince of North Wales. Lewelyn ap Gryffydh, the brave last prince of North Wales, after many great exploits, being betrayed and slain near the river Wye, Edward I. in the twelfth year of his reign, united Wales to England, built two castles in North Wales, at Conwey and Caernarvon, and caused his queen Eleonore to lie-in soon after in the latter place, that in his new-born son Edward II. he might give the Welch a prince, according to his terms, who was born in Wales, could speak no English, and was of an unblemished character. King Henry VII. abolished the oppressive laws which his predecessors had made against the Welch, and Henry VIII. ordered their code and customs to be laid aside, and the English laws to take place in Wales

Public annals of Wales were kept, in which all things memorable were recorded, in the two great monasteries of Conwey in North Wales, and Ystratflur in South Wales, where the princes and other great men of that country were buried. These were compared together every three years, when the Beirdh, or Bards, i. e. learned writers, belonging to those two houses, made their visitations called Clera. These annals were continued to the year 1270, a little before the death of the last prince Lhewelyn, slain at Buelht, near the Wye, in 1283. Gutryn Owen took a copy of these annals, in the reign of Edward IV. Humphrey Lloyd, the great British antiquarian, in the reign of Henry VII. translated them into English. And from them David Powel compiled his History of Wales, under Queen Elizabeth, augmented by Mr. W. Wynne, in 1697. [back]

Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73).  Volume IV: April. The Lives of the Saints.  1866


St. Beuno Gasulsych

(Died AD 640)

(Latin: Bonus; English: Bono)


St. Beuno was born around AD 545, the son of Bugi ap Gwynllyw and Princess Peren, daughter of King Lot Luwddoc of Gododdin. His paternal grandfather was a minor Prince of Powys (the son of Tegid ap Cadell Ddyrnllug) and, in this area, Beuno was raised. 

The young Beuno was sent to Caerwent, in the south, to be educated by St. Tathyw, in the college founded by King Ynyr Gwent there. Here he "obtained a knowledge of all the Holy Scriptures. Afterwards he learned the service of the Church and its rules and took orders and became a priest." It is said that Ynyr Gwent himself, in his old age, granted Beuno lands in Ewyas and that he became his disciple. This is now Llanfeuno, a chapelry under Clodock, near Longtown in Herefordshire. Whilst there, Beuno heard that his father was ill so he committed his foundation in Ewyas to three of his disciples, and hurried back to Powys, where, "his father, after receiving communion, making his confession and rendering his end perfect, departed this life." Beuno made a foundation there on the spot and planted an acorn by his father's grave. It grew into a mighty tree of which one branch curved down to the ground and then rose again "and there was a part of this branch in the soil, as at present; and if an Englishman should pass between this branch and the trunk of the tree, he would immediately die; but should a Welshman go, he would in no way suffer."

Next, Beuno was granted land at Berriew, near Welshpool, in Montgomeryshire. A standing stone called the 'Maen Beuno' marks the spot where he is said to have preached to the people. One day, however, when he was walking by the Severn, he heard the hunting cries of an Englishman from across the river and he went to his disciples and said: "My sons, put on your clothes and shoes and let us leave this place, for the nation of the man with the strange language, whose cry I heard beyond the river urging on his hounds, will invade this place and it will be theirs, and they will hold it as their possession."

Beuno therefore commended his foundation at Berriew to a disciple named Rhithwlint, and travelled to Meifod to visit St. Tysilio and the Royal Court. stayed for some forty days and nights, after which King Cynan Gawyn gave him lands in Meirionydd, at Gwyddelwern, near Corwen. Gwyddelwern implies the site of an Irish settlement, but the saint's biography says that it was so called because Beuno raised an Irishman back to life there. This was probably Llorcan Wyddel, mentioned as one of the six persons said to have been raised by him. Beuno did not stay long on this spot, because of trouble with Cynan's grandsons, the sons of Prince Selyf Sarffgadau, who came and demanded food for themselves and their party. Beuno killed a young ox for them, but they complained that he had bewitched the food. When he heard this, he cursed the young men, saying: "What your grandfather gave to God free, do you demand of it tribute and service? May your kin never possess the land, and may you be destroyed out of this kingdom and be likewise deprived of your eternal inheritance." Truly it was a risky thing to interfere with these old Celtic saints! The real facts seem to have been that the young men claimed food and shelter as a right, such as they could demand of any lay householder in the tribe; but this was precisely a claim from which the ecclesiastics considered themselves to be exempt.

As a result of this event, Beuno left Meirionydd and went back to Powys, to what is now Flintshire. His brother, Tyfid, was living here, with his wife and young daughter, and Beuno offered to become the latter's teacher in return for some land on which to build a place of worship. He was given the lordship of Abeluyc (Trefynnon alias Holywell) and, there, daily instructed the girl, Gwenfrewy (alias Winifred), in the ways of the Christian Church. She secretly took the veil but her chosen path was not to run smoothly. While everyone was at church one day, Gwenfrewy was troubled by the unwelcome attentions of a libidinous huntsman. When rejected, he chased the girl to the church steps and chopped off her head! Rushing from within, Beuno cursed the hunter and, picking up his niece's head, he replaced it on her shoulders. Miraculously, she was restored to life.

Upon Beuno's advice, Gwenfrewy set up the first nunnery in Britain, while he decided it was best to depart for Ireland. She regularly worked him a chasuble or some other pretty piece of needlework and had a stream carry it to him. However, about the year AD 612, King Cadfan of Gwynedd died and Beuno thought it might be politique to pay his respects to the new monarch, Cadwallon.

Beuno made the King a present of a golden sceptre which had been given to him by Cynan Garwyn of Powys. In return, Cadwallon gave the holyman a patch of land at Gwredog in Arfon and, there, the saint built a church. Whilst he was enclosing his new foundation with an earthen bank, a woman came with a baby and asked the saint to bless it. "Presently," he replied, "as soon as this job is finished." But the child's cries disturbed him so much that he asked the woman why her baby was squealing all the time. "He has good reason," replied the mother, "for you are enclosing land that belonged to his father and is properly his." On hearing this, Beuno shouted to his monks: "Leave off this work, and, whilst I baptise this child, make my chariot ready. We will go to the King with this woman and child."

So they went to see Cadwallon at nearby Caer-Segeint (Caernarfon) and Beuno said to him: "Why did you give me the land when it was not yours to give, but belonged to this child? Give me other land, or else, return to me the gold sceptre worth sixty cows that I gave to you."

"I will give you nothing else," replied the King, "and as for the sceptre, I have already given it away." Then Beuno in great wrath, cursed Cadwallon:

"I pray to God that you may not long possess the land." And then he left.

However, when Beuno had crossed the River Saint, he sat on a stone and a cousin of Cadwallon's caught up with him. His name was Gwyddaint and "for his own soul and that of Cadwallon" he offered him his own township of Clynnog "without tribute or service, or any one having any claim on it." Beuno readily accepted and, from then onwards, Clynnog became his main abode. It is beautifully situated on the north coast of Lleyn, under the mountains of BwIch Mawr and Gyrn Ddu.

Now it happened that a skilled and handsome young carpenter from Aberffraw was invited to Caerwent, to build a palace there. Whilst he was there, Tigiwg the daughter of Ynyr, the king, fell in love with him and accompanied  him on his journey back home. But the carpenter was not particularly amorous, or was ashamed of taking a princess to his native hovel, and on the way back he murdered her, or so the legend says. She was found by Beuno's Shepherds who reported the matter to the saint. He resuscitated her and induced her to lead the religious life. (It is possible that she was simply deserted, rather than killed, by the carpenter). After a while, rumour of what had happened reached Caerwent, and Iddon, her brother, came in search of her. His sister, however, refused to return, either from a preference for the religious life or from fear of having made far too great a fool of herself over the carpenter. Her brother accepted this, but he asked Beuno to go with him to Aberffraw to support his claim for the "horses and gold and silver" which the carpenter had carried off along with his sister. Beuno agreed to this and off they went to the court of Cadwallon of Gwynedd at Aberffraw. As soon as Iddon set eyes on the young carpenter, he drew his sword and would have killed him but for those who were standing nearby holding him back. (A story that Iddon cut off the carpenter's head, and that Beuno replaced it, is no doubt a later mediaeval embellishment.) At first Cadwallon refused to have the goods restored, but Beuno insisted and the King, perhaps afraid of incurring another curse, gave way. He also gave Beuno the palace called Aelwyd Feuno. Beuno returned to Clynnog, well content, and remained there the rest of his days, dying on 21st April AD 640.

St. Beuno was buried in a chapel on the south-west side of the church. It is said to have been destroyed by those searching for his relics. His holy well, Ffynon Feuno, is about 200 yards from the church. In former days, rickety and epileptic children, as well as impotent folk generally, were dipped in it, and then carried to the chapel and put to lie overnight on the saint's tombstone. If they slept, they would be cured. A custom that survived until the early nineteenth century was one of making offerings of calves and lambs which happened to be born with a slit in the ear, popularly called Beuno's Mark. These "sacred beasts" were brought to church on Trinity Sunday and the church-wardens who sold them put the proceeds into Cyff Beuno (Beuno's chest). Into the chest also went the offerings of persons who came from distant parts of the country, even down to the early nineteenth century, to propitiate the saint on behalf of their cattle when afflicted with some disorder. When the chest was opened in December 1688, it contained £15.8.3d. The money was used for church repairs and the relief of the poor.

Edited from Baring-Gould & Fisher's "Lives of the British Saints" (1907).



The Church in Wales is celebrating the feast of St. Beuno, one of its greatest saints. He was a wonder-worker and aristocrat, monk and master of monks, patriot, challenger of tyrants — that was the medieval picture of the man which is reflected in his Life, and which survives, carved in stone on the fourteenth century pulpit of the Black Monks of Shrewsbury.

St. Beuno

Abbot of Clynnog, d. 660(?), was, according to the "Bucced Beuno", born in Powis-land and, after education and ordination in the monastery of Bangor, in North Wales, became an active missioner, Cadvan, King of Gwynedd, being his generous benefactor. Cadwallon, Cadvan's son and successor, deceived Beuno about some land, and on the saint demanding justice proved obdurate. Thereupon, Cadwallon's cousin Gweddeint, in reparation, "gave to God and Beuno forever his township", where the saint (c. 616) founded the Abbey of Clynnog Fawr (Carnarvonshire).


Beuno became the guardian and restorer to life of his niece, the virgin St. Winefride, whose clients still obtain marvelous favors at Holywell (Flintshire). He was relentless with hardened sinners, but full of compassion to those in distress. Before his death "on the seventh day of Easter" he had a wondrous vision. Eleven churches bearing St. Beuno's name, with various relics and local usages, witness to his far-reaching missionary zeal.

Catholic Encyclopedia

Patron: Diseased cattle, sick animals, sick children.

Symbols: Restoring the head of Saint Winifred.

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