samedi 18 avril 2015

Saint GAUDIN (GALDIN, GALDINO, GALDINUS) de MILAN, archevêque et confesseur

Saint Galdino della Sala, Archevêque deMilan 1166–1176. 

Autel de Marie, transept gauche de la Cathedral of Milan.

Saint Gaudin

Archevêque de Milan ( 1176)

ou Galdin. 

Dès qu'il fut ordonné prêtre, il reçut la charge de chancelier de l'évêque. Il connut, en 1162, le sac de Milan par l'empereur Frédéric Barberousse qui en voulait à la liberté que prenaient les magistrats de la ville. Il aida les habitants de telle manière que ceux-ci le demandèrent comme évêque en 1166. Il fut un pasteur efficace, humble et tout donné à son peuple qui remarquait qu'au sortir de la prière, il était comme un homme divin, rempli de force et de douceur.

À Milan, en 1176, saint Galdin, évêque, qui s’employa à restaurer la cité détruite à cause des guerres de l’empire et rendit son âme à Dieu en achevant de prêcher un sermon contre les hérétiques.

Martyrologe romain

Saint Galdin

Archevêque de Milan

Fête le 18 avril

† 1176

Autre graphie : Galdin ou Gaudin

Archidiacre puis chancelier de l’église de Milan, il seconda activement l’archevêque de Milan Hubert, dans sa lutte contre le schisme de l’antipape Victor IV (1159-1164) soutenu par l’empereur romain germanique Frédéric Ier Barberousse (1152-1190). Lorsque celui-ci, après six mois de siège, se fut emparé de Milan et de la Lombardie, en 1158, Galdin rejoignit Alexandre III, le pape légitime, puis l’accompagna en France. Lorsque la Ligue lombarde eut chassé les lieutenants de l’empereur Barberousse, Galdin fut sacré archevêque de Milan, le 18 avril 1166, et il s’occupa activement jusqu’à sa mort de relever les ruines de sa ville et de son diocèse et d’assister les pauvres.

St. Galdinus

April 18

Galdinus was born in Milan, Italy about the year 1100, and belonged to the famous noble family of Valvarsi della Sala. He was well educated and was ordained to the priesthood. He served under two archbishops of Milan, Italy, as a chancellor and archdeacon and in 1165 was appointed cardinal priest of Santa Sabina in Rome.

Galdinus lived at a time of great turmoil and secular upheaval. In 1159 Alexander III had been elected pope. Some dissident cardinals decided to elect their own rival pope who was favorable to the emperor, Frederick Barbarossa, thus causing a schism in the Church. The emperor became furious with the people of Milan when they supported the duly elected Pope Alexander III. Archbishop Hubert and Galdinus were forced to flee into exile for a time and the city of Milan lay under siege by the army of Barbarossa until, finally overcome by starvation, illness and the devastation of their lands, they surrendered.

After the death of Hubert in 1166, Galdinus was appointed archbishop of Milan. He would spend the remainder of his life trying to bring peace and encouragement to his people. The clergy of Milan had become very lax during all the turmoil and Galdinus labored strenuously to bring order and discipline to the diocese.

He worked tirelessly in helping the Lombard states to rebuild Milan. He would seek out the poor in their homes to provide whatever assistance they needed. A very wise and eloquent teacher and preacher, Galdinus not only used his abilities to heal the Victorine schism among his people, but also refuted the heretical doctrines of Cathari.

While delivering a passionate sermon against false doctrine, Galdinus became ill and died before the Mass had ended. He truly gave his whole life to serving God. He was a man who sought truth and refused to accept anything less regardless of the consequences. He was also a man of great charity and love

St. Galdin, Archbishop of Milan, Confessor

HE was born at Milan, of the most illustrious house of the Vavassors of La Scala, famous in the history of Italy. Innocence and virtue were the ornaments of his youth, and prepared him for the ministry of the altar. Being promoted to holy orders, he was, by the archbishop, made his chancellor and archdeacon, and from that time began to bear the chief weight of the episcopal charge, which was at no time more heavy or difficult. Pope Adrian IV. an Englishman, died in 1159, and Alexander III. a person eminent for his skill in theology and in the canon law, was chosen to succeed him; but five cardinals presumed to form a schism in favour of Octavian, under the name of Victor. The Emperor Frederick I. surnamed, from the colour of his beard and hair, Ænobarbus, and by the Italians, Barbarossa, a prince who sullied the reputation which several victories and great natural parts had acquired him by many acts of tyranny, carried on an unjust quarrel with several popes successively; seizing the revenues of vacant ecclesiastical benefices, usurping the investiture and nomination of bishops, and openly making a simoniacal traffic of all that was sacred. It is not, therefore strange, that such a prince should declare himself the patron and protector of a schism which had been raised only by his faction and interest in Rome. The city of Milan offended him in 1159, by claiming an exclusive right of choosing its own magistrates; and still more the year following, by openly acknowledging Alexander III. for true pope. The emperor, highly incensed, sat down before it with a great army, in 1161; and, after a siege of ten months, in 1162, compelled it to surrender at discretion. In revenge, he razed the town, filled up the ditches, levelled the walls and houses with the ground, and caused salt to be sown upon the place, as a mark that this city was condemned never more to be rebuilt. The bodies of the three kings, which he found there in the church of St. Eustorgius, he ordered to be removed to Cologn on this occasion. The archbishop Hubert dying in 1166, Galdin, though absent, was pitched upon for his successor; and the pope, who consecrated him with his own hands, created him cardinal and legate of the holy see. The new pastor made it his first care to comfort and encourage his distressed flock; and, wherever he was able to exert his influence to abolish the schism, in which he effectually succeeded throughout all Lombardy. The Lombard cities had unanimously entered into a common league to rebuild Milan. When the walls and moats were finished, the inhabitants, with great joy, returned into their city on the 27th April, 1167. The emperor again marched against it. but was defeated by the Milanese; and seeing Lombardy, Venice, the kingdom of Sicily, and all Italy united in an obstinate league against him, he agreed to hold a conference with the pope at Venice, in which he abjured the schism, and made his peace with the church in 1177. 1 The distracted state of the commonwealth did not hinder our saint from attending diligently to his pastoral duties. He preached assiduously, assisted the poor, who had always the first place in his heart, and made it his study to relieve all their wants, spiritual and corporal. By humility, he always appeared as the last in his flock, and by charity he looked upon the burdens and miseries of every one as his own. He sought out the miserable amidst the most squalid scenes of wretchedness, and afforded them all necessary relief. But the spiritual necessities of the people, both general and particular, challenged his principal attention. He restored discipline, extinguished all the factions of the schismatics, and zealously confuted the heretics, called Cathari, a kind of Manichees, who had been left in Lombardy from the dregs of the impious army of the Emperor Frederic. Assiduous prayer was the chief means by which the saint drew down the dew of the divine benediction, both upon his own soul and upon his labours. As Moses descended from the mountain, on which he had conversed with God, with his face shining, so that others were not able to fix their eyes upon it: so this holy man appeared in his public functions, and announced the divine word, inflamed by prayer, with an ardour and charity which seemed heavenly, and both struck and attracted the most obstinate. On the last day of his life, though too weak to say mass, he mounted the pulpit at the gospel, and preached with great vigour a long and pathetic sermon: but towards the close fell into a swoon, and about the end of the mass expired in the pulpit, on the 18th of April, 1176. All lamented in him the loss of a father, but found him still an advocate in heaven, as many miracles attested. He is honoured in the ancient missals and breviaries of Milan, and in the Roman Martyrology. See his two authentic lives, with the notes of Henschenius, Apr. t. 2, p. 593.

Note 1. That Alexander III. set his foot on the neck of the Emperor Frederic, in the porch of St. Mark’s church, in Venice, on this occasion, is a notorious forgery, as Baronius, Natalis Alexander, (in Sæc. 12, art. 9, in Alex. III.) and all other judicious historians demonstrate, from the silence of all contemporary writers, as of Romuald, archbishop of Salerno, who wrote the history of Alexander, and of this very transaction, at which he himself was present, both in the council of Venice, and at the absolution of the emperor: also of Matthew Paris, William of Tyre, and Roger Hoveden. Nor is the story consistent with reason, or with the singular meekness of Alexander, who, when the second anti-pope, John of Strume, called Calixtus III., had renounced the schism, in 1178, always treated him with the greatest humanity and honour, and entertained him at his own table. At Venice, indeed, among the great exploits of the commonwealth, are exquisitely painted, in the senate-house, this pretended humiliation of Frederic, and their great naval victory over his son Otho, and the triumph of the Lombard cities over his land army. But painters and poets are equally allowed the liberty of fictions or emblematical representations. The pictures, moreover, are modern, and no more amount to a proof of the fact than the bead-roll story of the beadle of Westminster Abbey might do. [back]

Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73).  Volume IV: April. The Lives of the Saints.  1866.

Galdinus of Milan B (RM)

(also known as Galdimus)

Born in Milan, Italy, 1100; died there in 1176. Following his ordination, Galdinus, a member of the influential della Scala family became chancellor and archdeacon to Archbishop Hubert. In 1161, he fled Milan when Frederick Barbarossa approached the city. In his absence Galdinus was elected archbishop of Milan and named a cardinal (in 1165). After his return to Milan, he was instrumental in rebuilding the city, which had been razed by Barbarossa. He died immediately after delivering a sermon against a heretical doctrine in his cathedral. The Milanese always invoke Galdinus after SS. Ambrose and Charles Borromeo because he is considered one of its finest bishops. He discharged his office with determination, despite the hardships imposed by his times and his health (Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, Encyclopedia).

Also known as
  • Galdinus della Sala
  • Galdimus
  • Galdin
  • Galdino

Milanese noble. Priest. Chancellor. Archdeacon. Supported the Roman Pope during the schism of 1159. Fled Milan, Italy in 1161 when Frederick Barbarossa besieged the city in support of the anti-pope, yet was still elected bishop. Cardinal in 1165. Archbishop in 1166. Papal legate to Lombardy. Returned to Milan after the war and helped rebuild it. Died in the pulpit immediately following a sermon against heresies.