samedi 25 avril 2015

Saint MAUGHOLD (MACULL, MACALDUS) de MAN, évêque et confesseur

Saint Maughold

Évêque de l'île de Man ( 488)

C'était un brigand irlandais que saint Patrick convertit. Puis il l'envoya dans l'île de Man dont il devint l'évêque.

Aussi connu sous les noms de Malcan, Malcaut, Machan, Maugen, Mawan, Meugan, Meygan, Moygan, Migan, Maugand, Malgand, Magaldus...


Dans l’île de Man, entre le pays de Galles et l’Irlande, au Ve siècle, saint Macal ou Maugan, évêque, doté d’une sainteté d’or. (au 27 avril au martyrologe romain)


Martyrologe romain


April 25

St. Macull, of Ireland, Confessor

[In Latin, Macallius; called by the common people Maughold.]  HE was an Irish prince, and captain of robbers, or freebooters, whom St. Patrick converted to the faith. By baptism he was so changed into a new man, as to appear at once to have put on perfectly the spirit of Christ. To cut off all dangerous occasions and commerce, he renounced the world, and retired into the Isle of Man, about thirty English miles long, and nine broad, situated towards the coast of Lancashire, in England. In the acts of this saint, and in Gildas, it is called Eubonia, by Ptolemy Monoëda, from the British Moneitha, i. e. the further or more northern Mona, to distinguish it from the Isle of Anglesey, on the coast of Wales, called by the ancients Mona. St. Patrick had before sent to this island St. Germanus, whom he had ordained bishop, that he might plant a church there. He is honoured as the apostle of this island, and in his name is the cathedral church in Peel-castle dedicated. Upon the death of St. Germanus, St. Patrick sent thither two other preachers, named Conindrius and Romulus. In their time, St. Macull arrived there in an open boat, and, after their death, he is said to have been chosen bishop in 498, by the unanimous consent of the Manks nation. He had till then led an austere penitential life, in the mountainous tract, which, from him, is called St. Maughold, and where a city was afterwards built, which bears the same name, though now scarcely a village, Ramsey being the only town within this tract or parish. The saint, by his labours and example, exceedingly enlarged the kingdom of Christ in this island. In what year he died is uncertain. He is honoured in the British and Irish Calendars.

A famous monastery formerly flourished in this island, at Russin, now, from its wonderful castle, called Castletown, the present capital of the island, and residence of the governor.—In Peeling, the ancient capital, besides the cathedral, there is a parish church, of which St. Patrick is titular, and the old palace of the bishop. Out of the eighteen parishes of the island, St. Maughold gives name to that of the part about Ramsey.—In the church-yard is St. Maughold’s well of very clear water, received in a large stone coffin. The saint’s chair, as it is called, is placed above, in which a person was formerly seated to drink a glass of the water for the cure of several disorders, especially from poison. His shrine was formerly shown there, but was dispersed since the change of religion. See his life in Colgan’s MS. Lives of Irish Saints, on the 25th of April.—Also the Description of the Isle of Man, given by Sacheverell, the governor, p. 11 and 110.

Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73).  Volume IV: April. The Lives of the Saints.  1866


Maughold of Man B (AC)

(also known as Macaille, Maccaldus, Machalus, Machella, Maghor, Maccul) Died c. 488; feast day formerly December 28.


Saint Maughold was an Irish prince and reputedly a captain of robbers who was converted by Patrick. Upon his conversion, he became a new man by putting on the spirit of Christ. One version of the legend says that Patrick told him to put to sea in a coracle without oars as a penance for his evil deeds. Another says that he set sail in order to avoid the temptations of the world. In both stories, he retired to the Isle of Man (Eubonia) off the coast of Lancashire, England.

Earlier Patrick had sent his nephew, Saint Germanus, as bishop to plant the Church on the island. Germanus was succeeded by Saints Romulus and Conindrus during whose time Maughold arrived on the island and began to live an austere, penitential life in the mountainous area now named after him Saint Maughold. After their deaths, Maughold was unanimously chosen as bishop by the Manks.

In one of the 18 parish churchyards on the island can be found Saint Maughold's well. The very clear water of the well is received in a large stone coffin. Those seeking cures of various ailments, particularly poisoning, are seated in the saint's chair just above the well and given a glass of well-water to drink. Maughold's shrine was here until the relics were scattered during the Reformation.

Maughold, commemorated in both the British and Irish calendars, is described in the Martyrology of Oengus as "a rod of gold, a vast ingot, the great bishop MacCaille." Many topological features on the Isle of Man, which he divided into 25 parishes, bear Maughold's name. A church at Castletown, Scotland, is dedicated to him. William Worcestre said that he was a native of the Orkneys, and that his shrine was on the Isle of Man (Attwater, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Gill, Husenbeth, Montague).

Also known as
  • Apostle of the Isle of Man
  • Macaille
  • Macaldus
  • Macallius
  • Macc Cuill
  • Maccaldus
  • Maccul
  • Machalus
  • Machaoi
  • Machella
  • Macull
  • Maghor
  • Maguil
  • Mawgan
  • Morgan
  • Mauchold
Profile

Prince, pirate and thief. Converted to Christianity by Saint Patrick. To avoid temptation, he set sail from Ireland in a wicker boat, letting God set his course. He landed on the Isle of Man where he served as missionary bishop. Some versions say that Patrick ordained him, and assigned him to the Isle of Man as penance for his earlier life. Many geographic features on the Isle still bear his name. Legend says he divided the island into parishes, but it is unlikely.




It was on the Isle of Man that this saint is said to have landed on from Ireland. He has a number of variations to his name: one is Machalus and another is MacCaille. Is he the patron saint of the Isle of Man? Patrick Duffy writes about some of the traditions associated with him.

Kirk Maughold

Towards the north-east corner of the Isle of Man near Ramsey is the parish of Kirk Maughold. It has a headland called Maughold Head (373 feet), which derives its name from St. Maughold, or Machalus. Tradition says the saint landed at the foot of this headland towards the close of the 5th century and established himself in a cave in the mountain side.


An Irish prince and pirate

The legend about Maughold or Machalus is that he was an Irish prince who was a pirate. It is said that St Patrick baptised him and then urged him to change his life: as a penance for his previous crimes, Patrick ordered him to abandon himself to God in a wicker boat without oars. Maughold is said to have come ashore on the Isle of Man at the headland known today by his name. He entered into a cave in the mountains there and lived a life of austerity and piety. He was eventually chosen by the local people as their bishop.


St Maughold’s Well Holy Well or Sacred Spring

St Maughold’s Well

There is still a church and graveyard dedicated to the saint at the place near where he landed. On the brow of the hill not far away there is a holy well. A ledge of rock nearby is called St Maughold’s “chair”. A favourite devotion of pilgrims has been to sit on the ledge, invoke the saint’s help, drink the water of the well, which is said to prevent poison.


Martyrology of Oengus

The Martyrology of Oengus describes our saint as
a rod of gold,

a vast ingot,
the great bishop MacCaille.”


Another Machalus? St MacCaille of Croghan, Co Offaly

There is another saint of this name: St MacCaille, a bishop, associated with Croghan, Co Offaly. St Brigid is said to have approached him with seven companions wanting to dedicate themselves as virgins to God. He received their vows. Later they moved to Ardagh and St Brigid came to St Mel for profession. St MacCaille was present during the ceremony. A mysterious manifestation of the Holy Spirit caused St Mel inadvertently to read over her the prayer episcopal consecration. When St MacCaille protested, Mel said he was convinced that this had happened according to the will of God and insisted that the consecration should stand.


And another!

There was a chapel near Chapeltown in Banffshire, Scotland, known as Kilmaichlie, which seems to refer to the Isle of Man saint, who may have had some connection with Scotland – either through himself or his disciples.


ST. MAUGHOLD the sixth Bishop of Man, was an Irish Prince, who had formerly been the chief of banditti, and having been converted and baptized by St, Patrick, he resolved to avoid temptation by abandoning the world. He embarked in a wicker boat, which drifted before the north wind towards the Isle of Man, where he was cast ashore at the headland still known by his name. He afterwards retired to a cave in the mountains, where, by the austerity of his manners and fervent piety, he became so eminent that he was unanimously chosen Bishop of Man by the natives, A.D. 498.

I'LL tell you the legend as well as, I can,

Of St. Maughold, a pious old Bishop of Man.
This man (like his father)

Was profligate, rather
At least he had been
In an earlier scene,
If his sins we could fish up,
Before he was bishop;
He led his poor wife,
It is said, a sad life,
Would cheat her and beat her,
And often ill-treat her;
Nay, threaten to kick her,
When he was in liquor,
Though now a saint, yet he
Was once-of banditti


The captain or leader, as fierce as could be,

In that island which Moore calls the " Gem of the sea."
And wherever he went,

He on. plunder was bent,
But after a few years began to repent;
So they sent him afloat

In a flat leather boat,
In very rough weather,
His hands tied together,
With bolts on his feet,
And no victuals to eat;


So he sang (while on waves he continued to ride)

I'm afloat, I'm afloat, on the fierce rolling tide,.
At length he was thrown

On an island unknown;
Or at least very few,
At that period knew,
That where the boat ran,
Was the Island of Man;
And St Patrick (the Saint),
Pick'd him up rather faint.


Yet this man became-and believe it who can

A worthy respectable Bishop of Man.
Ay, and such was his fame,

That he got a great name,

When St. Bridget, an Irish nun, came to visit him,

And then lost her heart, say some folks (as a quiz at him),
And soon took the veil,

When she saw him so pale,
With fasting so much of late,
His follies to expiate,


So thus he became ay, believe it who can

worthy respectable Bishop of Man.
And in Mona's fair Isle,

This saint lived for a while,
Where there's now a famed well,
Which contains, as they tell,


A very fine spring, which the Manx (spite of dirt) use,

On account of its famous medicinal virtues.
But then, don't you see?

That its efficacy,
To Man's sons and daughters
Who drank of these waters,


Was chiefly enhanced (though they tasted like paint)

By drinking them off in the chair of the saint -
Not a modem stuffed chair,

But a hard one and bare,
Which no one now, to sit in would care,
Where the saint, with hair shirt,
And all covered with dirt,
Would repent his misdeeds,
And count over his beads.


So I've given the tale, as well told as I can,

In verse, of St. Maughold, the Bishop of Man.