Saint Benoît d'Aniane, abbé d'Aniane et réformateur
Ce Wisigoth né au milieu du VIII° siècle en Languedoc, après un passage à la cour de Charlemagne où il assume des fonctions prestigieuses, deviendra moine à Sainte-Seine-l'Abbaye en Bourgogne où il change son de Vitiza en celui de Benoît. Il retourne quelques années plus tard dans son pays natal pour y fonder un monastère sur les bords de l'Aniane. Ayant travaillé à découvrir les différentes traditions monastiques (saint Pacôme, saint Basile, etc.), il est fasciné par l’équilibre de la règle de saint Benoît de Nursie. Son cheminement spirituel et sa volonté réformatrice rejoignent merveilleusement l’intuition des carolingiens désireux d’unifier la vie monastique en Occident. Il sera ainsi l’inspirateur du concile d'Aix la Chapelle en 817, qui vise à imposer la règle bénédictine comme la norme des abbayes de l’empire. Benoît d’Aniane mourut le 11 février 821 dans le monastère d’Inda que Louis le Pieux avait fait construire pour lui à proximité de sa cour d’Aix-la-Chapelle
SOURCE : http://www.paroisse-saint-aygulf.fr/index.php/prieres-et-liturgie/saints-par-mois/icalrepeat.detail/2015/02/12/5005/-/saint-benoit-d-aniane-abbe-d-aniane-et-reformateur
Statue de saint Benoît d'Aniane dans l'église d'Aniane
Saint Benoît d'Aniane
Abbé d'Aniane et réformateur (✝ 821)
Échanson de Charlemagne, ce Wisigoth né en Languedoc deviendra moine à Sainte-Seine l'Abbaye en Bourgogne avant de retourner dans son pays natal pour y fonder une abbaye sur les bords de l'Aniane. Au moment du concile d'Aix la Chapelle en 817, il préside une réunion de tous les Pères abbés bénédictins de l'empire carolingien pour la concordance des Règles bénédictines.
Dès la deuxième moitié du VIIIe siècle, les monastères souffrent beaucoup des guerres qui opposent Pépin le Bref au duc Waïffre. Une réforme monastique est nécessaire et elle est réalisée dans la première moitié du IXe siècle par Saint Benoît d’Aniane qui impose la règle bénédictine. (Les origines monastiques - diocèse de Limoges)
Au monastère Saint-Corneille d’Inden en Germanie, l’an 821, le trépas de saint Benoît d’Aniane, qui propagea la Règle de saint Benoît, donna aux moines les coutumes à observer et travailla beaucoup à restaurer la liturgie romaine.
La Règle de Benoît d’Aniane
Pierre Riché. Histoire des Saints, tome V, p. 82-84
La Regula de Benoît d’Aniane est essentiellement une adaptation de la Règle de Benoît de Nursie aux conditions de l’Empire Carolingien : c’est une recension de « coutumes ». « Ces coutumes, dit Guy de Valous, ne sont pas autre chose qu’un commentaire pratique de la Règle de saint Benoît, en particulier des points auxquels le législateur n’a pas donné une extension suffisante. Ainsi, nombre d’articles de la Regula de Benoît d’Aniane ne sont qu’une élimination de prescriptions impraticables ou surannées ; certains sont motivés par les conditions climatiques, d’autres par les conditions sociales et politiques du IX° siècle. Benoît d’Aniane, pour lutter contre les abbés laïcs, limite les pouvoirs abbatiaux que Benoît de Nursie avait étendus pour contrôler l’individualisme et empêcher l’indiscipline. Il faut mettre ces articles en rapport avec les droits acquis les années suivantes, notamment pour certains monastères, le libre choix de l’Abbé par les moines, et, pour d’autres, la séparations des menses abbatiales et monastiques, de façon à éviter la dissipation des ressources des moines par des bénéficiaires indélicats. Il faut aussi adapter la Règle de saint Benoît de Nursie pour réglementer les voyages aux synodes des Abbés et des moines, et enfin la rendre compatible avec un monachisme « de masse », un monachisme qui est devenu une puissance économique souvent considérable, et qui est à présent installé dans certaines villes (Lyon, Arles,…) quand il n’a pas donné naissance à des « cités de Dieu », telle celle de Saint-Riquier, véritables petits états.
Dans ces conditions, comment ne pas s’étonner que nombre de vocations aient été suspectes, et que nombre de postulants, encouragés par l’exemple d’Abbés ou d’évêques, se soient empressés de tourner recommandations et réglementations ? Benoît d’Aniane a connu bien des situations désastreuses et a dû lutter contre les prébendaires et les moines venus en religion pour fuir les malheurs du temps. Cela explique la minutie parfois déconcertante des précisions et le « ritualisme » dont on a souvent accusé Benoît d’Aniane.
Saint Benoit de Nursie tenant le livre de la « Règle » et saint Benoît d’Aniane tenant le modèle du monastère d'Aniane (Bas-relief du XVIIe siècle ; église de Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert).
St. Benedict of Aniane
Born about 745-750; died at Cornelimünster, 11 February, 821. Benedict, originally known as Witiza, son of theGoth, Aigulf, Count of Maguelone in Southern France, was educated at the Frankish court of Pepin, and entered the royal service. He took part in the Italian campaign of Charlemagne (773), after which he left his royal master to enter the religious life, and was received into the monastery of St. Sequanus (Saint-Seine). He gave himself most zealously to practices of asceticism, and learned to value the Rule of St. Benedict as the best foundation for the monastic life. Returning home in 779, he established on his own land near the little river of Aniane a newmonastic settlement, which soon developed into a great monastery, under the name of Aniane, and became the model and centre of the monastic reform in France, introduced by Louis the Pious. The emperor's chief adviser was Benedict, and the general adoption of the Rule of St. Benedict in the monasteries of the Empire was the most important step towards the reform. Benedict took a prominent part in the synods held in Aachen in 816 and 817, the results of which were embodied in the important prescriptions for the restoration of monastic discipline, dated10 July, 817; he was the enthusiastic leader of these assemblies, and he himself reformed many monasteries on the lines laid down in the ordinances promulgated there. In order to have him in the vicinity of his royal residence, Louis had founded on the Inde, a stream near Aachen, the Abbey of Cornelimünster, which was to be an exemplar for all other abbeys, and to be under the guidance of Benedict. In the dogmatic controversy over Adoptionism, under the leadership of Felix of Urgel, Benedict took the part of orthodoxy. To promote the monasticreforms, he compiled a collection of monastic rules. A pupil of his, the monk Ardo, wrote a biography of the great abbot.
For Benedict's writings, see Codex regularum monasticarum et canonicarum in P.L., CIII, 393-702; Concordia regularum, loc. cit; Letters, loc. cit., 703-1380. Other treatises (loc. cit., 1381 sqq.) ascribed to him are probably not authentic. ARDO SMARAGDUS, Life, op. cit., CIII, 353 sqq.; Mon. Germ. Hist.: Script., XV, I, 200-220; Acta SS., Feb., II, 606 sqq.; NICOLAI, Der hl. Benedict, Gründer von Aniane und Cornelimünster (Cologne, 1865); PAULINIER, S. Benoit d'Aniane et la fondation du monastere de ce nom (Montpellier, 1871); FOSS, Benedikt von Aniane (Berlin, 1884); PUCKERT, Aniane und Gellone (Leipzig, 1899); HAUCK, Kirchengesch. Deutschlands (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1900), II, 575 sqq.; BUTLER, Lives of the Saints, 12 Feb.
Kirsch, Johann Peter. "St. Benedict of Aniane." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company,1907. 11 Feb. 2016 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02467a.htm>.
Kirsch, Johann Peter. "St. Benedict of Aniane." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company,1907. 11 Feb. 2016 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02467a.htm>.
Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Steve Fanning.
Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. 1907. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York.
BENEDICT OF ANIANE: The reformer of the Benedictine order in the Frankish empire. He was born about 750 in his father's county of Maguelone in Languedoc; d. at Inden (13 m. n.e. of Aix-la-Chapelle) Feb. 11, 821. His youth was spent at the court of Pepin and of Charlemagne, where, as a page, he had opportunity to distinguish himself in feats of arms. During Charles's first Lombard campaign, Benedict rescued his brother from drowning at the risk of his-own life, and the shock brought to a head the resolve which had been slowly forming in him, to renounce the world and give himself to the service of God in the monastic life. This he entered in 773 at SaintSeine in the diocese of Langres. Returning home in 779, he built a small monastery on his own land near the little river Aniane (where the town of Aniane, 16 m. w.n.w. of Montpellier, later grew up), which was replaced by a larger one lower down when the number of his disciples increased, and by a third still larger about 792. This became the center of Benedict's efforts for the reformation of the monastic life in the south and southwest of France. King Louis of Aquitaine, who had favored him from the outset, entrusted him with the oversight of all the monasteries within his territory, and the greatest churchmen, such as Alcuin and Leidrad of Lyons, sought his counsel. He had a wide knowledge of patristic literature, and forwarded the cause of education with zeal. He stood out as a champion of the orthodox faith against , and wrote two treatises against it, the first of which is specially interesting as showing how close was the practical connection between Adoptionism and Arianism. His influence became still wider with the accession of Louis the Pious, who first brought him up to the Alsatian abbey of Maurmünster, and then, to have him nearer at hand, founded another for him at Inden, giving him the general oversight of all the monasteries in the empire. He could now hope to accomplish his great purpose of restoring the primitive strictness of the monastic observance wherever it had been relaxed or exchanged for the less exacting canonical life. This purpose was clearly seen in the capitularies drawn up by an assembly of abbots and monks at Aix-la-Chapelle in 817, and enforced by Louis's order throughout the empire.
Benedict's chief works are compilations of the older ascetic literature. The first of them is called by his biographer, Ardo, Liber ex regulis diversorum patrum collectus; an enlarged edition of this was prepared by Lucas Holsten (published at Rome only after Holsten's death, in 1661, with the title Codex regularum). The other work, called Concordia regularum by Benedict himself, is based on the first; in it the sections of the Benedictine rule (except ix-xvi) are given in their order, with parallel passages from the other rules included in the Liber regularum, so as to show the agreement of principles and thus to enhance the respect due to the Benedictine. The Concordia was first published in 1638 by H. Menard of the Congregation of St. Maur, with valuable notes (reprinted in MPL, ciii). A third collection of homilies, to be read daily in the monasteries, has not been definitely identified. Benedict's place is in the second rank of the men who made the reigns of Charles and Louis glorious. He had not the breadth of view possessed by Charlemagne himself or by Adalhard nor the lofty endeavor for a fusion of secular and spiritual learning of Paulus Diaconus and Alcuin. He was primarily an ecclesiastic, who zealously placed his not inconsiderable theological learning at the service of orthodoxy, but gave the best thing he had, the loving fervor of an upright Christian soul, to the cause of Benedictine monasticism.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Vita by Ardo Smaragdus, his successor as abbot, with preface by Henschen, is in ASB, 12 Feb., ii, 608-620, in MPL, ciii, and is edited by Waitz in MGH, Script., xv, 198-220, Hanover, 1887. There is a Fr. transl., Montpellier, 1876. P. A. J. Paulinier, St. Benoît d'Aniane et la fondation du monastère de ce nom, Montpellier, 1871; P. J. Nicolai, Der heilige Benedict, Gründer von Aniane, Cologne, 1865; R. Foss, Benadikt von Aniane, Berlin, 1884; O. Seebass, in ZKG, xv (1895), 244-260; Hauck, KD, ii. 528-545.
Benedict of Aniane and Reform Efforts
Still, it must be admitted, degeneration was ever followed by reform, and these revivals, never failing when exactly needed, provide us with the strongest proof of the inherent vitality of the Benedictine Institute. The first of these movements of reform was the work of Benedict of Aniane, whose labors received a helping hand from Charlemagne and his son the Emperor Louis.
Benedict's aims were as clear and simple as they were praiseworthy and sincere, but at the same time the results they achieved were only indirectly good at best. The reason for this phenomenon is obvious to us now, and it is with reluctance that we have to admit that the cause of failure lies in an attempt to change the Benedictine Rule in one of its most essential features.
Benedict the Founder had provided that each monastery should be separate and independent; Benedict the Reformer aimed at the closest unity, and so rigid a uniformity that it should be as if "all had been taught by one single master in one single spot." These, in fact, were the principles which underlay the resolutions of the famous Assembly at Aix in July 817. Efforts were not spared to put these resolutions into practice by means that, we can readily believe, must have caused some hesitating doubts even in the mind of the earnest Benedict himself.
We must not, however, be too ready to criticize the suggestions of the Aix Assembly. As we have seen above, some measure of unity might have been a useful change; but iron uniformity itself could never have achieved success, even though, in fact, it paved the way for amelioration in a direction we shall indicate.
St. Benedict himself when he wrote his Rule made ample provision for any change of detail that circumstances might demand, and he frequently insisted that matters should be settled in a different way from that which he had laid down, according to the discretion of the abbot. His code, he felt, would often need additions, often perhaps modifications, for no law was ever made whose exact interpretation could be fitted at once to every case arising.
Methods of observance would naturally grow up and crystallize, according to the habits and customs of the different peoples, and it was precisely for the purpose of embodying these various customs into a draft of what we now call constitutions that the fathers assembled at Aix legislated. With this estimable intent they published the eighty Capitula, and it is impossible not to recognize that there was much of what was good and helpful in them for every monastery, no matter where it was.
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ST BENEDICT OF ANIAN, ABBOT (A-D-821)
Feast: February 12
From his life, written with great piety, gravity, and erudition by St. Ardo Smaragdus, his disciple, to whom he committed the government of his Monastery of Anian, when he was called by the emperor near the court. Ardo died March the 7th, in 843, and is honoured at Anian among the saints. He is not to be confounded with Smaragdus, Abbot in the diocese of Verdun, author of a commentary on the rule of St. Bennet. This excellent life is published by Dom Menard, at the head of St. Bennet's Concordia Regularum; by Henschenius, Feb. 12 and by Dom Mabillon, Acta SS. Ben. vol. v. pp. 191, 217. See Helyot, Hist. des Ord. Relig. t. 5. p. 139. See also Bulteau, Hist. de l'Ord de St. Benoit, l.5, c. 2, p. 342; Eckart de Reb. Fran. t. 2, pp. 117, 163.
He was son of Aigulf, Count or Governor of Languedoc, and served King Pepin and his son Charlemagne in quality of cup-bearer, enjoying under them great honours and possessions. Grace made him sensible of the vanity of all perishable goods, and at twenty years of age he took a resolution of seeking the kingdom with his whole heart. From that time he led a most mortified life in the court itself for three years, eating very sparingly and of the coarsest fare, allowing himself very little sleep, and mortifying all his senses. In 774, having narrowly escaped being drowned in the Tesin, near Pavia, in endeavouring to save his brother, he made a vow to quit the world entirely. Returning to Languedoc, he was confirmed in his resolution by the pious advice of a hermit of great merit and virtue, called Widmar; and under a pretext of going to the court at Aix-la-Chapelle, he went to the Abbey of St. Seine, five leagues from Dijon, and having sent back all his attendants, became a monk there. He spent two years and a half in wonderful abstinence, treating his body as a furious wild beast, to which he would show no other mercy than barely not to kill it. He took no other sustenance on any account but bread and water; and when overcome with weariness, he allowed himself nothing softer than the bare ground whereon to take a short rest, thus making even his repose a continuation of penance. He frequently passed the whole night in prayer, and stood barefoot on the ground in the sharpest cold. He studied to make himself contemptible by all manner of humiliations, and received all insults with joy, so perfectly was he dead to himself. God bestowed on him an extraordinary spirit of compunction, and the gift of tears, with an infused knowledge of spiritual things to an eminent degree. Not content to fulfil the rule of St. Benedict in its full rigour, he practiced all the severest observances prescribed by the rules of St. Pachomius and St. Basil. Being made cellarist, he was very solicitous to provide for others whatever St. Benedict's rule allowed, and had a particular care of the poor and of the guests.
His brethren, upon the abbot's death, were disposed to choose our saint, but he being unwilling to accept of the charge on account of their known aversion to a reformation, left them, and returned to his own country, Languedoc, in 780, where he built a small hermitage near a chapel of St. Saturninus, on the brook Anian, near the river Eraud, upon his own estate. Here he lived some years in extreme poverty, praying continually that God would teach him to do his will, and make him faithfully correspond with his eternal designs. Some solitaries, and with them the holy man Widmar, put themselves under his direction, though he long excused himself. They earned their livelihood by their labour, and lived on bread and water, except on Sunday and solemn festivals, on which they added a little wine and milk when it was given in alms. The holy superior did not exempt himself from working with the rest in the fields, either carrying wood or ploughing; and sometimes he copied good books. The number of his disciples increasing, he quitted the valley and built a monastery in a more spacious place, in that neighbourhood. He showed his love-of poverty by his rigorous practice of it; for he long used wooden, and afterwards glass or pewter, chalices at the altar; and if any presents of silk or ornaments were made him, he gave them to other churches. However, he some time after changed his way of thinking with respect to the church; built a cloister and a stately church, adorned with marble pillars, furnished it with silver chalices and rich ornaments, and bought a great number of books. He had in a short time three hundred religious under his direction, and also exercised a general inspection over all the monasteries of Provence, Languedoc, and Gascony, which respected him as their common parent and master. At last he remitted something in the austerities of the reformation he had introduced among them. Felix, bishop of Urgel, had advanced that Christ was not the natural, but only the adoptive son of the eternal Father. St. Benedict most learnedly opposed this heresy, and assisted, in 794, at the council assembled against it at Frankfort. He employed his pen to confute the same, in four treatises, published in the miscellanies of Balusius.
Benedict was become the oracle of the whole kingdom, and he established his reformation in many great monasteries with little or no opposition. His most illustrious colony was the Monastery of Gellone, founded in 804 by William, Duke of Aquitain, who retired into it himself, whence it was called St. Guillem du Desert. By the councils held under Charlemagne, in 813, and by the Capitulars of that prince, published the same year, it was ordained that the canons should live according to the canons and laws of the church, and the monks according to the rule of St. Bennet, by which regulation an uniformity was introduced in the monastic order in the West. The emperor Louis Debonnair, who succeeded his father on the 28th of January, 814 committed to the saint the inspection of all the abbeys in his kingdom. To have him nearer his own person, the emperor obliged him to live in the Abbey of Marmunster, in Alsace; and as this was still too remote, desirous of his constant assistance in his councils, he built the monastery of Inde, two leagues from Aix-le-Chapelle, the residence of the emperor and court. Notwithstanding St. Benedict's constant abode in this monastery, he had still a hand in restoring monastic discipline throughout France and Germany, as he also was the chief instrument in drawing up the canons for the reformation of prebendaries and monks in the Council of Aix-la-Chapelle in 817, and presided in the; assembly of abbots the same year, to enforce restoration of discipline. His statutes were adopted by the order, and annexed to the rule of St. Benedict, the founder. He wrote, whilst a private monk at Seine, the Code of Rules, being a collection of all the monastic regulations which he found extant; as also a book of homilies for the use of monks, collected, according to the custom of that age, from the works of the fathers; likewise a Penitential, printed in the additions to the Capitulars. In his Concord of Rules he gives that of St. Bennet, with those of other patriarchs of the monastic order, to show their uniformity in the exercises which they prescribe. This great restorer of the monastic order in the West, worn out at length with mortification and fatigues, suffered much from continual sickness the latter years of his life. He [e died at Inde, with extraordinary tranquillity and cheerfulness, on the 11th of February, 821, being then about seventy-one years of age, and was buried in the same monastery, since called St. Cornelius's, the church being dedicated to that holy pope and martyr. At Anian his festival is kept on the 11th, but by most other Martyrologies on the 12th of February, the day of his burial. His relics remain in the Monastery of St. Cornelius, or of Inde, in the duchy of Cleves, and have been honoured with miracles.
St. Bennet, by the earnestness with which he set himself to study the spirit of his holy rule and state, gave a proof of the ardour with which he aspired to Christian perfection. The experienced masters of a spiritual life, and the holy legislators of monastic institutes, have in view the great principles of an interior life, which the gospel lays down; for in the exercises which they prescribe powerful means are offered by which a soul may learn perfectly to die to herself, and be united in all her powers to God. This dying to and profound annihilation of ourselves is of such importance that so long as a soul remains in this state, though all the devils in hell were leagued together, they can never hurt her. All their efforts will only make her sink more deeply in this feeling knowledge of herself, in which she finds her strength, her repose, and her joy, because by it she is prepared to receive the divine grace; and if self-love be destroyed, the devil can have no power over us, for he never makes any successful attacks upon us but by the secret intelligence which he holds with this domestic enemy. The crucifixion of the old man, and perfect disengagement of the heart, by the practice of universal self-denial, is absolutely necessary before a soul can ascend the mountain of the God of Jacob, on which his infinite majesty is seen, separated from all creatures; as Blosius, and all other directors in the paths of an interior life, strongly inculcate.
1 Instit. Spir c. 1, n. 6, &c.
(Taken from Vol. I of "The Lives or the Fathers, Martyrs and Other Principal Saints" by the Rev. Alban Butler, the 1864 edition published by D. & J. Sadlier, & Company)
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Benedict of Aniane, OSB Abbot Hermit (AC)
Born in Languedoc, France, 750; died at Cornelimuenster, Aachen, Germany, February 11, 821; feast day formerly on February 12.
The son of the Visigoth Aigulf, count or governor of Maguelone, Witiza was cup-bearer to King Pepin and Charlemagne and served in the army of Lombardy. About age 20 he made a resolution to seek the kingdom of God with his whole heart. For three years more he served at the court while mortifying his body.
In 774, having narrowly escaped drowning in the Tesin near Pavia while trying to save his brother during a military campaign in Lombardy, Italy, he made a vow to quit the world entirely. Witiza became a Benedictine monk at Saint-Seine near Dijon, France, where he took the name Benedict and was appointed cellarer. He spent two and one half years there living on bread and water, sleeping on the bare ground, often praying throughout the night, and going barefoot even in winter. He received insults with joy, so perfectly had he died to self. God bestowed upon him the gift of tears and an infused knowledge of spiritual things.
When the abbot died he refused the abbacy offered him there because he knew his brothers were unwilling to reform. In 779 Benedict returned to his estate at Languedoc, where he lived as a hermit near the brook of Aniane (Coriere), attracted numerous disciples including the holy man Widmar, and in 782 built a monastery and a church. The monks employed themselves in manual labor and copying manuscripts. They lived on bread and water except on Sundays and great feast days when they added wine or milk if they received any in alms. The results of his austere rule combining those of Benedict, Pachomius, and Basil were disappointing, so he adopted the Benedictine Rule and the monastery grew. From here his influence spread. He reformed and inaugurated other houses.
When Bishop Felix of Urgel proposed that Christ was not the natural, but only the adoptive son of the eternal Father (Adoptionism), Benedict opposed this heresy and assisted in the Council (synod) of Frankfurt in 794. He also employed his pen to refute this heresy in four treatises, which were published in the miscellanies of Balusius.
Throughout the Frankish empire monasticism had suffered from the dual evils of lay ownership and the attacks of the Vikings. Monastic discipline had decayed regardless of the efforts of 8th and 9th century emperors who had legislated in favor of the Rule of Saint Benedict as the fundamental and stable code of conduct throughout their domains.
Benedict of Aniane and Emperor Louis the Pious cooperated with each other to mutual benefit. The emperor, who built the abbey of Maurmünster as a model abbey for Benedict in Alsace and then Cornelimünster (initially called Inde) near Aachen (Aix-la- Chapelle, Germany), made Benedict director of all the monasteries in the empire. The monk instituted widespread reforms, though because of opposition they were not as drastic as he had wanted.
And Benedict supported the emperor, first by moving closer to his throne at Aachen. Then, at Aachen, he presided over a meeting of all the abbots of the empire in 817--a turning point in Benedictine history. During the meeting Benedict's Capitulare monasticum, a systematization of the Benedictine Rule was approved as the rule for all monks in the empire. He also compiled the Codex regularum, a collection of all monastic regulations, and Concordia regularum, showing the resemblance of Benedict's rule to those of other monastic leaders.
The legislation emphasized the fundamental guidelines of the Benedictine Rule, stressing individual poverty and chastity with obedience to a properly constituted abbot, who was himself a monk. Under imperial pressure for uniformity in food, drink, clothing, and the Divine Office (which can be compared with Charlemagne's insistence on the Roman Rite), there was also some attempt to impose monastic observance in less important details. Benedict insisted upon the liturgical character of monastic life, including a daily conventual Mass and additions to the Divine Office. He also stressed the clerical element in monasticism which led to the development of teaching and writing as opposed to manual labor in the field. This innovative systematizing and centralization fell into desuetude after the death of Benedict and his patron Louis, but it had lasting effects on Western monasticism. The influence of his reforms can be seen in the reforms of Cluny and Gorze. For this reason, Benedict is considered the restorer of Western monasticism and is often called the 'second Benedict.'
Benedict died with extraordinary tranquility and cheerfulness at about age 71 and was buried in the monastery church, where his relics remain and are attributed with the working of miracles (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth, Walsh).
In art, Saint Benedict is portrayed as a Benedictine abbot with supernatural fire near him. Sometimes he is shown (1) in a cave, food lowered to him in a basket (this is more generally Saint Benedict himself), or (2) giving the habit to Saint William of Aquitaine. He is venerated at Dijon (Saint-Seine) and Aniane (Languedoc) (Roeder).