mercredi 5 décembre 2012

Saint SABAS Abbé, ou le Sanctifié, abbé et fondateur


Saint Sabas

Abbé

(439-531)

Saint Sabas, né près de Césarée, en Cappadoce, de parents nobles et pieux, fut mis, à l'âge de cinq ans, sous la tutelle d'un oncle fort méchant; il s'enfuit et se réfugia dans un couvent. C'était la Providence qui avait conduit ses pas; il embrassa généreusement toutes les saintes rigueurs de la vie monastique. Dix ans plus tard, le désir de visiter les Lieux sanctifiés par la vie mortelle du Sauveur le conduisit à Jérusalem. Ayant fait son pèlerinage, il résolut de se fixer au milieu des célèbres anachorètes de la Palestine et vécut jusqu'à l'âge de trente ans sous la direction du saint solitaire Théoctiste. Mais il lui semblait que Dieu demandait de lui davantage, et, croyant n'avoir encore rien fait, il s'enfonça dans la solitude voisine pour y vivre avec Dieu seul.

Renfermé dans une petite grotte, il y passait cinq jours de la semaine sans prendre aucune nourriture, uniquement appliqué à la prière, au chant des psaumes et au travail manuel. Chaque samedi, il apportait au monastère qu'il avait habité tous les paniers qu'il avait tressés, passait le dimanche avec ses frères et revenait à son ermitage. Plus tard, il se retira sur les bords du Jourdain, où le démon le tourmenta par des spectres horribles, des hurlements affreux, des menaces, des coups, et surtout des apparitions séduisantes. Le Saint, armé de la prière, remporta autant de victoires qu'il eut à livrer de combats, jusqu'à décourager son redoutable ennemi.

Sabas, toujours poussé par le désir d'une solitude de plus en plus profonde, se retira sur des rochers abrupts; il y établit, pour monter et pour descendre, un gros câble à noeuds qui lui servait de rampe. Il lui fallait aller chercher de l'eau à deux lieues de là et la monter sur ses épaules. Sa nourriture consistait uniquement en racines sauvages; mais, en revanche Dieu nourrissait son âme de l'abondance de Ses consolations.

Sabas fut découvert par la vue de la corde qui pendait du rocher, et dès lors sa solitude se changea en affluence énorme de pèlerins qui venaient lui demander communication des biens célestes dont il était rempli. Beaucoup demeuraient ses disciples, et il groupa dans la vallée un grand nombre de petites cellules pour les recevoir. De grands Saints, attirés par la renommée de ses vertus, vinrent eux-mêmes le visiter. Il s'arrachait parfois à sa solitude, quand la gloire de Dieu le demandait, et plusieurs fois la cour de Constantinople fut édifiée de ses vertus.

Abbé L. Jaud, Vie des Saints pour tous les jours de l'année, Tours, Mame, 1950



Saint SABAS, Abbé en Palestine (+ 531)

Né en Cappadoce, il entra tout jeune dans un monastère de cette région. A 18 ans, le voilà parti pour Jérusalem. Il rêve de solitude et pour cela s'en va rejoindre saint Euthyme qui l'envoie faire un stage de vie communautaire à la laure de saint Théoctiste(*) près de la Mer Morte: "La vie solitaire n'est pas faite pour cette jeunesse." pense saint Euthyme. Dix ans durant, Sabas apprend à être moine. Puis il s'établit dans une grotte, seul devant Dieu durant la semaine, avec ses frères pour la liturgie du dimanche. Mais de nombreux moines le rejoignent car "la sainteté attire les disciples comme le miel attire les ours. " Il doit fonder la Grande Laure. A 55 ans, le Patriarche de Jérusalem le nomme archimandrite des ermites de Palestine. Les controverses théologiques divisent ses moines. Lui-même soutient le concile de Chalcédoine. Il se fait le promoteur d'un monachisme modéré, obtient de l'empereur l'abolition des impôts sur les artisans et fait indemniser les pauvres paysans. Ses reliques qui, lors des invasions arabes, avaient été conduites à Venise, ont été rendues par Paul VI aux moines melkites du couvent de Mar Saba (saint Sabas) en 1965.

(*) compagnon d'ascèse de Saint Euthyme le Grand (+467) dont on fait mémoire le 3 septembre au calendrier orthodoxe.

Près de Jérusalem, en 532, saint Sabas, abbé. Né en Cappadoce, il s’en vint au désert de Juda, où il instaura une nouvelle forme de vie érémitique en sept monastères appelés laures, qui regroupaient des solitaires sous l’autorité d’un supérieur ; il passa de longues années dans la grande laure, qui depuis a porté son nom, brillant par son exemple et l’éclat de sa sainteté et combattant avec vigueur pour la foi de Chalcédoine.

Martyrologe romain



Saint SABBAS

Fondateur du monastère de la Grande Laure à Jérusalem, mort en 532. Culte introduit au VIIème siècle à Rome par les moines d’ordre qu’il avait fondé, chassés par les musulmans : ils s’établirent sur l’Aventin et édifièrent un monastère (Cella Nova) dont l’église fut consacrée à St Sabbas. Sa fête fut ensuite introduite au calendrier au XIIème siècle.

La secrète et la postcommunion du Commun des Abbés,Os iusti, sont modifiées pour éviter l’allitération latine : « Sabbas, abbas », Sabbas, abbé.

Dom Guéranger, l’Année Liturgique

L’Église Romaine se borne aujourd’hui à l’Office de la Férié ; mais elle y joint la Commémoration de saint Sabbas, Abbé de la fameuse Laure de Palestine, qui subsiste encore aujourd’hui sous son nom. Ce Saint, qui mourut en 533, est le seul personnage de l’Ordre monastique dont l’Église fasse mention en ses Offices dans tout le cours de l’Avent ; on pourrait même dire que parmi les simples Confesseurs, saint Sabbas est le seul dont on lise le nom au Calendrier liturgique en cette partie de l’année, puisque le glorieux titre d’Apôtre des Indes semble mettre saint François Xavier dans une classe à part. Nous devons voir en ceci l’intention de la divine Providence qui, pour produire une plus salutaire impression sur le peuple chrétien, s’est appliquée à choisir, d’une manière caractéristique, les Saints qui devaient être proposés à notre imitation dans ces jours de préparation à la venue du Sauveur. Nous y trouvons des Apôtres, des Pontifes, des Docteurs, des Vierges, glorieux cortège du Christ Dieu, Roi et Époux ; la simple Confession n’y est représentée que par un seul homme , par l’Anachorète et Cénobite Sabbas, personnage qui, du moins, par sa profession monastique, se rattache à Élie et aux autres solitaires de l’ancienne Alliance, dont la chaîne mystique vient aboutir à Jean le Précurseur. Honorons donc ce grand Abbé, pour lequel l’Église grecque professe une vénération filiale, et sous l’invocation duquel Rome a place une de ses Églises ; et appuyons-nous de son suffrage auprès de Dieu.

Glorieux Sabbas, nomme de désirs, qui, dans l’attente de Celui qui a dit à ses serviteurs de veiller jusqu’à sa venue, vous êtes retiré au désert, de peur que les bruits du monde ne vinssent vous distraire de vos espérances, ayez pitié de nous qui, au milieu du siècle et livrés à toutes ses préoccupations, avons cependant reçu, comme vous, l’avertissement de nous tenir prêts pour l’arrivée de Celui que vous aimiez comme Sauveur, et que vous craigniez comme Juge. Priez, afin que soyons dignes d’aller au-devant de lui, quand il va paraître. Souvenez-vous aussi de l’État monastique, dont vous êtes l’un des principaux ornements ; relevez ses ruines au milieu de nous suscitez des hommes de prière et de foi comme aux anciens jours ; que votre esprit se repose sur eux, et qu’ainsi l’Église, veuve d’une partie de sa gloire, la recouvre par votre intercession.

Bhx Cardinal Schuster, Liber Sacramentorum

Saint Sabbas, abbé.

Station au monastère de Cella Nova.

Le culte de ce célèbre fondateur de la laure palestinienne qui porte encore son nom (+ 532) fut introduit à Rome au VIIe siècle, par quelques-uns de ses moines qui vinrent se réfugier dans la Ville éternelle après que les Arabes se furent rendus maîtres de Jérusalem. Sous le nom de Cella Nova ces moines érigèrent donc un monastère sur le petit Aventin, là où, autrefois, Silvie, mère de saint Grégoire le Grand, avait consolé par les exercices de l’ascèse les dernières années de son veuvage. C’est ainsi que le culte de saint Sabbas pénétra dans la liturgie romaine, jusqu’à devenir très célèbre au moyen âge.

En effet, quand, au Xe siècle, l’abbaye de Saint-Sabbas fut au nombre des plus puissantes et des plus fameuses de la Ville, le nom de son Saint Titulaire fut inscrit jusque dans les brèves laudes ou litanies qu’on avait l’habitude de réciter dans les occasions les plus solennelles, c’est-à-dire quand le Souverain Pontife célébrait le divin Sacrifice et était couronné du regnum.

Il y a quelques années, des fouilles pratiquées dans la basilique aventine de Saint-Sabbas ont mis au jour l’abside de l’église primitive, plusieurs peintures d’inspiration biblique, bon nombre de tombeaux rappelant les premiers habitants grecs du sanctuaire, ceux précisément chez qui trouva au VIIe siècle une gracieuse hospitalité l’évêque saint Grégoire d’Agrigente comme nous le narre son contemporain Léonce.

En Occident, la dévotion envers saint Sabbas demeura à peu près localisée à Rome ; les latins n’ont jamais attribué beaucoup d’importance à cette grande figure du monachisme, à qui pourtant les Orientaux donnent les titres de « plein de l’Esprit de Dieu, le sanctifié, l’habitant de la Cité sainte, l’étoile du désert, le patriarche des moines ». Sa vie, riche en mérites et en œuvres insignes pour la paix de l’Église, alors déchirée par les hérésies, fut écrite par Cyrille de Scythopolis.

La messe de saint Sabbas est commune à tous les saints abbés, Os iusti.

Saint Sabbas se distingua par un grand amour de l’orthodoxie et un grand zèle pour faire accepter par toutes les églises les définitions dogmatiques du concile de Chalcédoine.

La première condition pour faire de sérieux progrès dans la voie de la sainteté, c’est de professer une parfaite orthodoxie, et le moyen le plus sûr pour éviter les écueils qu’on rencontre facilement sur le chemin du paradis, c’est ce que saint Ignace définissait dans ses exercices : Sentire cum Ecclesia, c’est-à-dire être pénétré du même esprit qui anime l’Église catholique.


Dom Pius Parsch, le Guide dans l’année liturgique

Ce n’est pas une fête proprement dite, on fait simplement mémoire du saint à la messe de l’Avent.

Jour de mort : 5 décembre 532. Tombeau : à Venise. A Rome, une antique église lui est dédiée sur l’Aventin, elle appartient au Collège Germanique. Image : On le représente en Abbé, avec une pomme à la main. Ayant été un jour tenté de manger une pomme, en dehors des repas de règle, il fit vœu de ne plus manger de pommes. Sa vie : Le martyrologe dit : « A Mutala en Cappadoce, saint Sabbas abbé ; en Palestine, il fut, par la sainteté de sa vie, d’une grande édification, il combattit sans relâche pour la foi orthodoxe contre les adversaires du concile de Chalcédoine. »

A Jérusalem il bâtit un célèbre « Laura » (c’est ainsi que les orientaux appellent les monastères) et ce monastère porta son nom. Quand, plus tard, les Arabes s’emparèrent de la ville, les moines s’enfuirent à Rome et y construisirent un monastère. C’est ainsi que le culte de Saint-Sabbas se répandit à Rome. Dans l’Église d’Orient le saint est très honoré. On le désigne par ces titres : « Le porteur de Dieu, le saint, l’habitant de la ville sainte, l’étoile du désert, le patriarche des moines. » Sa vie a été écrite par saint Cyrille de Scythopolis.

Pratique : Durant l’Avent, spécialement, nous devons nous imposer de petites mortifications, c’en sera une de ne rien manger entre les repas. En nous dominant ainsi, nous fortifions notre volonté et nous nous préparons à surmonter les grandes tentations. Quand on célèbre la messe de Saint-Sabbas, on prend la messe du commun des Abbés Os iusti.


Saint Sabas le Consacré (439-533) abbé en Palestine

Sabas, aujourd'hui citoyen de la métropole céleste, eut pour patrie, en Cappadoce, le village de Moutalaska, dépendant de la métropole de Césars. Il eut des parents chrétiens et fort bien nés, nommés Jean et Sophie;

Quelque temps ayant passé..., il entra au monastère de Flavianai, à vingt stades du village de Moutalaska ; on lui enseigna dans tout le détail la discipline monastique, et il apprit par cœur le Psautier.

Alors qu'il passait sa dixième année dans ce cénobe (de Palestine)..., l'abbé Longin lui permit de vivre en solitaire les cinq jours de la semaine dans la grotte susmentionnée. Une fois reçue la permission tant désirée, notre père Sabas resta cinq ais (469-474) mener ce genre de vie. Le soir du dimanche, il sortait du monastère, emportant pour son ouvrage de la semaine des feuilles de palmiers ; il passait les cinq jours sans prendre absolument aucune nourriture, et, le samedi, de bon malin, il arrivait au cénobe apportant son travail manuel des cinq jours, cinquante couffins achevés.

Il vécut seul en ce ravin durant cinq ans Il y menait la vie d'Ermite, conversant avec Dieu... Et ainsi, en la quarante-cinquième année de son âge (483), il se voit confier par Dieu la direction d'autres âmes., Il commença donc à accueillir tous ceux qui venaient à lui. Beaucoup des anachorètes dispersés ça et là.., se joignaient à lui...

À chacun de ceux qui venaient à lui, il procurait un lieu commode avec une petite cellule et une grotte. Ainsi, par la grâce de Dieu, sa communauté s'éleva au nombre de soixante-dix moines, tous inspirés de Dieu. Tout d'abord, sur la colline qui est l'extrémité septentrionale du ravin, il bâtit une tour, voulant se saisir du lieu, qui ait encore inoccupé.

Puis il établit les premiers fondements de la Laure.

À mi-hauteur du ravin, il édifia un petit oratoire où il bâtit un autel consacré... Il n'avait pas accepté lui-même de recevoir les ordres, car il était extrêmement doux et vraiment humble, imitant en cela Christ le vrai Dieu,

Ayant fait venir le bienheureux Sabas, [le patriarche Salluste] l'ordonna prêtre… Prenant avec lui le bienheureux Sabas et les autres moines, il descendit à la laure en compagnie du stavrophylaque Kyrikos. Il fit la dédicace de l'église créée par Dieu, et, dans l'abside créée par Dieu, bâtit un autel consacré après avoir déposé sous celui-ci beaucoup de reliques de saints et victorieux martyrs.

Cela se fit le 12 décembre de la quatorzième indiction, en la cinquante-troisième année de la vie du bienheureux Sabas ; en cette môme année, l'empereur Zénon étant mort, Anastase reçut en succession le trône impérial.

Extraits de la "Vie de Sabas" par Cyrille de Stavropolis



SAINT SABAS

Patriarchal Abbot in Palestine

(439-531)

Saint Sabas, one of the most renowned patriarchs of the monks of Palestine, was born in the year 439, near Caesarea. At the age of fifteen, in the absence of his parents, he suffered under the conduct of an uncle, and weary of the world’s problems decided to forsake the world and enter a monastery not far from his family home. After he had spent ten years in religious life, his two uncles and his parents attempted to persuade him to leave the monastery to which he had migrated in Palestine. He replied: “Do you want me to be a deserter, leaving God after placing myself in His service? If those who abandon the militia of earthly kings are severely punished, what chastisement would I not deserve if I abandoned that of the King of heaven?”

When he was thirty years old, desiring greater solitude, he began to live an angelic life so far above nature that he seemed no longer to have a body. The young sage, as he was called by Saint Euthymius, Abbot of a nearby monastery, dwelt in a cavern on a mountain near Jerusalem, where he prayed, sang Psalms and wove baskets of palm branches. He was forty-five years old when he began to direct those who came to live as hermits, as he did, and he gave each of them a place to build a cell; soon this was the largest monastery of Palestine. He left the region when certain agitators complained of him, for he considered himself incapable of maintaining good discipline. The Patriarch of Jerusalem, Sallustus, did not easily credit the complaints, and instead ordained Sabas a priest, that he might say Mass for his disciples — for they had been displeased by his lack of desire for that honor. He was at that time fifty-three years old. The Patriarch presented him to them as their father, whom they should obey and honor, and made him Superior of all the Palestine monasteries. But several monks remained obstinate, and Saint Sabas again went elsewhere, to a cavern near Scythopolis.

As the years passed, he was in charge of seven monasteries; but his influence was not limited to Palestine. The heresies afflicting religion were being sustained by the emperor of Constantinople, who had exiled the Catholic Patriarch of that city, Elias. Saint Sabas converted the one who had replaced Elias, and wrote to the emperor that he should cease to persecute the Church of Jerusalem, and to impose taxes on the cities of Palestine which they were unable to pay. In effect, the people were reduced to extreme misery. The emperor died soon afterwards, and the pious Justin replaced him. Justin restored the true faith by an edict and recalled the exiles, re-establishing the exiled prelates in their sees.

When Saint Sabas was ninety-one years old, he made the long journey to Constantinople to ask Justinian, successor to Justin, not to act with severity against the province of Palestine, where a revolt had occurred by the non-submission of a group of Samaritans. The emperor honored him highly and wished to endow his monasteries with wealth, but the holy Patriarch asked him to use the riches he was offering to build a hospice for pilgrims in Jerusalem, to decorate the unfinished Church of the Blessed Virgin, to build a fortress where the monks could take refuge when barbarians invaded the land, and finally, to re-establish preaching of the true Faith, by edicts proscribing the various errors being propagated. The holy Abbot lived to be ninety-two years old, and died in 531, in the arms of the monks of his first monastery.

Source: Les Petits Bollandistes. Vies des Saints, by Msgr. Paul Guérin (Bloud et Barral: Paris, 1882), Vol. 14.


St. Sabbas

(Also spelled Sabas).

Hermit, born at Mutalaska near Caesarea in Cappadocia, 439; died in his laura 5 December, 532. He entered aBasilian monastery at the age of eight, came to Jerusalem in 456, lived five years in a cavern as a disciple of St. Euthymius, and, after spending some time in various monasteries, founded (483) the Laura Mar Sabe (restored in 1840) in the gorges of the Cedron, southeast of Jerusalem. Because some of his monks opposed his rule and demanded a priest as their abbot, Patriarch Salustius of Jerusalem ordained him in 491 and appointedarchimandrite of all the monasteries in Palestine in 494. The opposition continued and he withdrew to the newlaura which he had built near Thekoa. A strenuous opponent of the Monophysites and the Origenists he tried to influence the emperors against them by calling personally on Emperor Anastasius at Constantinople in 511 and on Justinian in 531. His authorship of "Typicon S. Sabæ" (Venice, 1545), a regulation for Divine worshipthroughout the year as well as his authorship of a monastic rule bearing the same title (Kurtz in "Byzant, Zeitschrift", III, Leipzig, 1894, 167-70), is doubtful. After him was named the Basilica of St. Sabas with its former monastery on the Aventine at Rome. His feast is on 5 December. Other saints of this name are:

  • St. Sabbas, a Goth, martyred 12 April, 372, by being drowned in the Musæus, a tributary of the Danube;
  • St. Sabbas, also a Goth, martyred with about seventy others at Rome, under Aurelian;
  • St. Julianus Sabbas, a hermit near Edessa, d. about 380;
  • St. Sabbas the Younger, a Basilian abbot, 6 February, 990 or 991, at the monastery of St. Caesarius inRome;
  • St. Sabbas, Archbishop of Serbia, d. at Trnawa, 14 January, 1237.
Sources

A Life in Greek by Cyril of Scythopolis was edited by Cotelier in Eccl. Graecae Monum., III (Paris, 1686) 220-376, and by Ponjalovskij together with an Old-Slavonian version (St. Petersburg, 1890); another old Life in Greek was edited by Koiklydes (Jerusalem, 1905).

Ott, Michael. "St. Sabbas." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 5 Dec. 2015<http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13286b.htm>.

SOURCE : http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13286b.htm

St. Sabas


Born in Cappadocia (modern-day Turkey), St. Sabas is one of the most highly regarded patriarchs among the monks of Palestine and is considered one of the founders of Eastern monasticism.
After an unhappy childhood in which he was abused and ran away several times, St. Sabas finally sought refuge in a monastery. While family members tried to persuade him to return home, the young boy felt drawn to monastic life. Although the youngest monk in the house, he excelled in virtue.
At age 18 he traveled to Jerusalem, seeking to learn more about living in solitude. Soon he asked to be accepted as a disciple of a well-known local solitary, though initially he was regarded as too young to live completely as a hermit. Initially, St. Sabas lived in a monastery, where he worked during the day and spent much of the night in prayer. At the age of 30 he was given permission to spend five days each week in a nearby remote cave, engaging in prayer and manual labor in the form of weaving baskets. Following the death of his mentor, St. Euthymius, St. Sabas moved farther into the desert near Jericho. There he lived for several years in a cave near the brook Cedron. A rope was his means of access. Wild herbs among the rocks were his food. Occasionally men brought him other food and items, while he had to go a distance for his water.
Some of these men came to him desiring to join him in his solitude. At first he refused. But not long after relenting, his followers swelled to more than 150, all of them living in individual huts grouped around a church, called a laura.
The bishop persuaded a reluctant St. Sabas, then in his early 50s, to prepare for the priesthood so that he could better serve his monastic community in leadership. While functioning as abbot among a large community of monks, he felt ever called to live the life of a hermit. Throughout each year —consistently in Lent—he left his monks for long periods of time, often to their distress. A group of 60 men left the monastery, settling at a nearby ruined facility. When St. Sabas learned of the difficulties they were facing, he generously gave them supplies and assisted in the repair of their church.
Over the years St. Sabas traveled throughout Palestine, preaching the true faith and successfully bringing back many to the Church. At the age of 91, in response to a plea from the Patriarch of Jerusalem, St. Sabas undertook a journey to Constantinople in conjunction with the Samaritan revolt and its violent repression. He fell ill and, soon after his return, died at the monastery at Mar Saba. Today the monastery is still inhabited by monks of the Eastern Orthodox Church, and St. St. Sabas is regarded as one of the most noteworthy figures of early monasticism.

SOURCE : http://www.ucatholic.com/saints/saint-sabas/

December 5

St. Sabas, Abbot

From his life excellently written by Cyril, monk of Palestine, in 557, author of the life of St. John the Silent, of that of St. Euthymius, and of this of St. Sabas, which is correctly published by Bollandus, 20th of January, and in Greek by Cotelerius Monum. Gr. t. 3. pp. 220, 574. These acts in Metaphrastes are adulterated by certain counterfeit additions. See Assemani, t. 5, p. 410.

A.D. 532

ST. SABAS, one of the most renowned patriarchs of the monks of Palestine, was born at Mutalasca, in Cappadocia, not far from Cæsarea, the capital, in 439. The name of his father was John, and that of his mother, Sophia: both were pious, and of illustrious families. The father was an officer in the army, and being obliged to go to Alexandria in Egypt, took his wife with him, and recommended his son Sabas, with the care of his estate, to Hermias, the brother of his wife. This uncle’s wife used the child so harshly that, three years after, he went to an uncle called Gregory, brother to his father, hoping there to live in peace. Gregory having the care of the child, demanded also the administration of his estate, whence great law suits and animosities arose between the two uncles. Sabas, who was of a mild disposition, took great offence at these discords about so contemptible a thing as earthly riches, and, the grace of God working powerfully in his heart, he resolved to renounce for ever what was a source of so great evils among men. He retired to a monastery called Flavinia, three miles from Mutalasca, and the abbot received him with open arms, and took great care to see him instructed in the science of the saints, and in the rules of a monastic profession. His uncles, blinded by avarice and mutual animosity, were some years without opening their eyes; but at last, ashamed of their conduct towards a nephew, they agreed together to take him out of his monastery, restore to him his estate, and persuade him to marry. In vain they employed all means to gain their point. Sabas had tasted the bitterness of the world, and the sweetness of the yoke of Christ, and his heart was so united to God, that nothing could draw him from his good purpose. He applied himself with great fervour to the practice of all virtues, especially humility, mortification, and prayer, as the means to attain all others. One day, whilst he was at work in the garden, he saw a tree loaded with fair and beautiful apples, and gathered one with an intention to eat it. But reflecting that this was a temptation of the devil, he threw the apple on the ground, and trod upon it. Moreover, to punish himself, and more perfectly to overcome the enemy, he made a vow never to eat any apples as long as he lived. By this victory over himself, he made great progress in all other virtues, exercising himself by day in labour, accompanied with prayer, and by night in watching in devotions, always flying idleness as the root of all evils, sleeping only as much as was absolutely necessary to support nature, and never interrupting his labours but to lift up his hands to God. Though he was the youngest in the house he soon surpassed all the rest in fervour and virtue. So tender was his charity and compassion, that once when he was serving the baker, who had put his wet clothes into the oven to dry, and, forgetting them, had put in fire, seeing him much troubled for his clothes, he went into the oven and fetched them out through the flames without hurt. When Sabas had been ten years in this monastery, being eighteen years old, with the leave of his abbot, he went to Jerusalem to visit the holy places, and to edify himself by the examples of the eminent solitaries of that country. He passed the winter in the monastery of Passarion, governed at that time by the holy abbot Elpidius. All the brethren were charmed with his virtue, and desired earnestly that he would fix his abode among them: but his great love of silence and retirement made him prefer the manner of life practised by St. Euthymius. He cast himself at the feet of that holy abbot, conjuring him with many tears to receive him among his disciples. St. Euthymius judged him too young to continue in his laura with the anchorets; so extreme a solitude being only proper for the most perfect; for a laura consisted of a cluster of separate cells or hermitages in a desert. Euthymius, therefore, recommended him to the monastery below the hill, which was under the conduct of Theoctistus and a kind of noviceship to the laura, from which it lay about three miles distant, the laura itself being twelve miles from Jerusalem.

Sabas consecrated himself to God with new fervour, working all day, and watching in prayer a good part of the night. As he was very lusty and strong, he assisted all his brethren in their offices, and prepared himself the wood and water for the house with extraordinary care and cheerfulness. He served the sick with singular diligence and affection; and was always the first and the last at the divine office, and in every regular duty. A temptation put his virtue to the trial. He was sent by his abbot as companion to another monk on certain affairs to Alexandria. There his parents knew him and desired to engage him to accept his father’s post and estate in the world; but he gave them to understand that would be to apostatize from the service of God which he had chosen. They pressed him at least to accept a large sum of money for his necessaries; but he would only take three pieces of gold, and those he gave all to his abbot on his return. When he was thirty years of age he obtained leave of St. Euthymius to spend five days a-week in a remote cave, which time he passed without eating any thing, in prayer and manual labour. He left his monastery on Sunday evening, carrying with him palm-twigs, and came back on Saturday morning with fifty baskets which he had made, imposing upon himself a task of ten a-day. Thus he had lived five years, till St. Euthymius chose him and one Domitian for his companions in his great yearly retreat in the deserts of Rouban, in which Christ is said to have performed his forty days’ fast. They entered this solitude together on the 14th of January, and returned to their monastery on Palm-Sunday. In the first retreat Sabas fell down in the wilderness, almost dead with thirst. St. Euthymius, moved with compassion, addressed a prayer to Christ, that he would take pity on his young fervent soldier, and, striking his staff into the earth, a spring gushed forth; of which Sabas drinking a little, recovered his strength so as to be enabled to bear the fatigues of his retreat.

After the death of St. Euthymius a relaxation of discipline crept into that monastery: on which account Sabas, sensible that a religious house in such a condition is like a general shipwreck, in which every one must save himself as he can, retired into a desert toward the East, in which St. Gerasimus lived. The devil here endeavoured to affright him by appearing in divers shapes of serpents and beasts: but the servant of God, armed with prayer and faith, surmounted all his assaults. Four years the saint had spent in his wilderness in a total separation from all commerce with men, when, directed by an admonition of heaven, he chose his dwelling in a cave on the top of a high mountain, at the bottom of which ran the brook Cedron. The water of that torrent not being there drinkable, he fetched what he used from a spring, five miles off, through a very rough and steep way. He was obliged to hang a cord down the descent to hold himself by in mounting it. Wild herbs which grew on the rocks were his food, till some countrymen who found him by this cord, brought him on certain days a little bread, cheese, dates, and other little things which he might want.

 After he had lived here five years, several resorted to them, desiring to serve God under his direction. He was at first unwilling to consent; but charity overcoming the resistance which his humility raised, he founded a new laura, which at first consisted of seventy persons, all desirous to devote themselves to praise and serve God without interruption. He marked to each the place to build their cell; and, having prayed to God that that they might find water, caused a pit to be dug at the foot of the mountain, where a spring was discovered which subsisted in succeeding ages. He built also a little chapel with an altar. The number of his disciples was shortly increased to one hundred and fifty; which obliged him to extend his laura on the other side of the torrent. He watched over all, and provided for their necessities with an incredible attention. He taught them to overcome their passions, to discover and defeat the artifices of the devil, and to pray with fruit and holy perseverance. To cut off all necessities and pretexts of ever leaving their solitude, by the help of certain charitable persons, he supplied them with all things in a manner suitable to persons dead to the world. He had no priest in his community, and he thought no religious man could aspire to that dignity without presumption. He grieved, however, to depend upon the opportunity of some strange priest for the celebration of the divine mysteries. Certain factious spirits in the community formed a schism against their holy abbot, and accused him to Sallust, then lately made bishop of Jerusalem. The prelate found their invectives groundless, except that the want of a priest was a real defect in the community. He therefore compelled Sabas to receive that sacred character at his hands. The abbot was then fifty-three years old. The reputation of his sanctity drew persons from very remote countries to his laura. Our saint assigned a particular chapel for the Armenian monks, where they performed the first part of the divine office, which consists of prayers and instructions in their own tongue: but met in the great church to finish it, and to make the oblation and receive the communion with the rest. After the death of the saint’s father, his mother came to him, and served God under his direction. With the money which she brought he built two hospitals, one for strangers, and another for the sick; also an hospital at Jericho, and a monastery on a neighbouring hill, called Castel; and another small one a mile distant, for the young, where they learned the psalter and religious exercises. When they were perfect in these, and ripe in years, he translated them to the house of Castel; and drew out of this nursery those that were most perfect into his laura. Sallust, patriarch of Jerusalem, established St. Sabas exarch or superior-general over all the monks of Palestine, who lived in several cells, and St. Theodosius over all who lived in community, or the Cenobites. St. Sabas, after the example of St. Euthymius, left his disciples every year after the octave of the Epiphany, and passed the whole Lent without being seen by any one, eating nothing all that time, except that he received the holy eucharist every Saturday and Sunday, which he always took with him for that purpose. If any of his disciples accompanied him, he caused them to carry with them some dried bread for their subsistence. In one of these retreats he found a holy hermit who had lived on wild herbs, without seeing any man thirty-eight years. He had with him very edifying discourses; but the next year he found him dead and buried him. The patriarch Sallust dying in 493, the rebellious monks above-mentioned went to his successor Elias, hoping that he would hear their complaints. Sabas was informed of their cabals, and, not to be an occasion of others’ malice, withdrew himself privately, saying, that we must resist the devils, but yield to men, for the sake of peace.

He went into the desert of Scythopolis, near the river Gadara, where he went into a great cave to pray. It happened to be the den of a huge lion. At midnight the beast came in, and finding this guest, dared not to touch him, but taking him gently by his garments, plucked him as if it had been to draw him out. The saint was no ways affrighted or troubled, but began leisurely and with much devotion to recite aloud the midnight psalms. The lion went out, and when the holy man had finished matins, came in again, and pulled him by the skirts of his clothes as he had done before. The saint spoke to the beast and said, the place was big enough to hold them both. The lion at those words departed, and returned thither no more. Certain thieves found St. Sabas in his cave, and were so moved by his example and discourses, that they all embraced a penitential life. Many persons here, again, put themselves under his conduct; but, finding himself distracted by their direction, and by a number of visitants who resorted thither, he abandoned his cell to them; and this place grew into a monastery. He enjoyed the sweetness of perfect solitude some time, when, moved with tender charity and compassion, he went to visit his former rebellious monks, who continued hardened in their iniquity, and were joined by twenty others. The saint was pierced with grief to see them thus give death to their own souls, and draw others into the same perdition. It seemed to him that he felt his own limbs torn from his body whilst he saw his monks separated from him. In order to soften their hatred and malice, he gave them every token of the greatest sweetness, tenderness, and goodness; but they were not yet to be gained. He left them a second time, to ask their conversion with greater fervour of the Father of mercies. He retired near Nicopolis, living some time under the boughs of a shady tree, the fruit of which furnished him with food till the master of the field built him a cell and afforded him his scanty diet. Elias, the patriarch, ordered Sabas to appoint a superior for the disciples whom he had gathered at Nicopolis, and to return to his great laura, to which he sent his orders to receive him. The factious monks, in a rage, threw down a building which he had raised, and, after many disorders, left that place, and settled in certain old ruinous cells near the brook Theon. The great laura was freed from their scandals, and Sabas soon renewed in it the spirit of fervour and charity. His zeal and compassion for the seditious apostates made him still weep for them. He even procured and sent them seventy pieces of gold to build them a church and furnish them with necessaries. This excess of goodness made them enter into themselves, confess their crime, and submit themselves to their abbot. St. Sabas nominated a superior to govern them; and, under his direction, this became a new and very regular monastery. The saint founded several others after the same model.

The eastern churches were then in great confusion. The Emperor Anastasius supported the Eutychian heresy, and banished many Catholic bishops. The patriarch Elias sent to him as deputies St. Sabas, with other famous abbots, to endeavour to stop the fury of this persecution. Sabas was seventy years old when he undertook this journey to Constantinople. As he was dressed like some poor beggar, the officers at the gate of the imperial palace admitted the rest, but stopped him. Sabas made no reply, but withdrew into a corner to employ his time in prayer. When the emperor had read the letter of the patriarch, in which great commendations were bestowed on Sabas, he asked where he was? The saint was sought, and at length found in a corner reciting the psalms. Anastasius gave the abbots liberty to ask what they wanted or desired for themselves; the rest presented their petitions, but Sabas had no request to make in his own name. Being pressed by the emperor to ask some favour, he only begged that his majesty would restore peace to the church, and not disturb the clergy. The emperor gave him a thousand pieces of gold to employ in charities. Sabas staid all the winter in Constantinople, and often visited the emperor to gain his point. The prince had caused a heretical council at Sidon to condemn the general council of Chalcedon, and required the bishops to subscribe his decree, banishing many who refused to do it. However, he spared Elias, patriarch of Jerusalem, at the repeated entreaties of Sabas, and dismissed the holy abbot with honour, giving him a thousand pieces of gold more to be distributed among the poor in his country. The saint returned to his solitude, and the emperor dying, according to what our holy abbot had foretold, Justin, his successor, favoured the true faith. St. Sabas, laying hold of that opportunity, went to Cæsarea, Scythopolis, and other places, preaching the Catholic faith, and bringing back many monks and seculars into its fold. A drought which had continued five years, produced a famine in Palestine. The prayers of the saint obtained supplies for his seven monasteries in their extreme necessity, and at last rain, to the universal joy of the whole country.

In the ninety-first year of his age, at the request of Peter, patriarch of Jerusalem, he undertook a second journey to Constantinople, in favour of the Christians of Palestine, who had been calumniated at court. Justinian, who had then occupied the imperial throne, received him with great honour, granted him all his requests, and offered to settle annual revenues for the maintenance of all his monasteries. The holy abbot thanked his majesty, but said they stood not in need of such revenues, as long as the monks should serve God. However, he begged a remission of all taxes in favour of the people of Palestine for a certain term, in consideration of what they had suffered by the plunders of the Samaritans: that his majesty would build an hospital at Jerusalem for the pilgrims, and a fortress for the protection of the hermits and monks against the inroads of barbarians: that he would bestow some ornaments on the church of our Lady which was lately built, and would afford his protection to the Catholics. All which things were granted. It happened one day that the emperor being busy in council in despatching certain affairs of the saint, who was himself present, when it was the hour of tierce, the abbot went out to recite his prayers. His companion, called Jeremy, said it was not well done to leave the emperor on such an occasion. “My son,” replied Sabas, “the emperor does his duty, and we must do ours;” so exact was he in all the rules of his state. St. Sabas returned into Palestine with the imperial orders, which he delivered to the magistrates of Jerusalem, Scythopolis, and Cæsarea, and saw everywhere put in execution. Soon after his return to his laura he fell sick: the patriarch persuaded him to suffer himself to be conveyed to a neighbouring church, where he served him with his own hands. The pains of the saint were very sharp, but God supported him under them in perfect sentiments of patience and resignation. Finding his last hour approach, he begged the patriarch that he might be carried back to his laura. He appointed Melitas of Berytus his successor, gave him excellent instructions, and then lay four days in silence, without seeing any one, that he might entertain himself with God alone. On the 5th of December, in the evening, having received the holy communion, he departed to our Lord, in 532 (not 531, as Jos. Assemani demonstrates against Baronius, &c.), being ninety-four years old. He is commemorated on this day both in the Greek and Latin Calendars.

St. Sabas met with persecutors among the monks, to whom his virtue seemed too scrupulous a severity; and these men were long insensible to his mild remonstrances, and holy instructions, animated by the example of his admirable sanctity. How easily do men blind themselves in their passions, and excuse to themselves, nay canonize, their more subtle vices! And how difficult is it for such sinners to be reclaimed! It is much easier to convert a notorious sinner, than one who is falsely just. The one feels his miseries, the other crowns himself with his own hands, and, like the proud Pharisee, makes his own panegyric or apology. This dreadful blindness is a frequent case: men every day study by a false conscience to palliate crimes, and allow themselves many unjustifiable liberties under false pretences. As St. Austin complains, what our passions strongly incline us to, we often call holy. Not to perish by such illusions, we must banish out of our hearts all self-conceit, learn perfectly to die to ourselves, especially in regard to our darling or ruling passions, and never take our passions for our counsellors or guides, as we shall be sure to do if we rely too much on ourselves. We must often suspect and narrowly examine our own hearts, which are frequently the greatest cheats with which we can have to deal. We are often imposed upon by other men: but a thousand times oftener by ourselves.

Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73).  Volume XII: December. The Lives of the Saints.  1866.