Barnabé, qui était cypriote, apparaît peu après la
Pentecôte dans la communauté de Jérusalem, puis à Antioche où il introduisit
Saul de Tarse parmi les frères. Ils partent ensemble pour évangéliser l'Asie
mineure mais, après un différend, Barnabé devait regagner Chypre. Cet homme aux
vues larges a exercé un rôle capital dans l'essor missionnaire de l'Église.
Paolo Veronese. Saint Barnabé guérissant les malades, Vers 1566,
huile sur toile, 260 X 193, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen
Jacob Jordaens. Les Apôtres Paul et Barnabé annonçant l’Évangile à Lystra, 1645
Saint Barnabé, celui qui introduisit saint Paul auprès des apôtres
Isabelle Cousturié | 11 juin 2018
Sans la bienveillance et l’audace de saint Barnabé, fêté ce 11 juin, saint Paul ne serait peut-être jamais devenu apôtre. Pourtant, les deux hommes se sont disputés et même séparés.
Barnabé, Juif originaire de Chypre, est un chrétien des toutes premières communautés de l’âge apostolique. Il est qualifié du nom d’apôtre, même s’il n’est pas l’un de ceux que l’on nomme « les douze ». Et il ne s’appelle pas Barnabé mais Joseph, avant que les apôtres n’en décident autrement et l’envoient diriger l’Église d’Antioche. Car grande est leur estime pour ce « fils de la consolation », ainsi que le signifie son nom en hébreu. Si grande que c’est entre lui et Matthias, parmi les 72 fidèles disciples de Jésus, qu’ils hésitent pour remplacer Judas Iscariote, mort après avoir trahi Jésus.
Barnabé est témoin de la vie, de la mort et de la résurrection du Seigneur. Et à la Pentecôte, l’Esprit saint souffle sur lui comme sur toute l’assemblée présente. Comme tous les autres, il est « touché au cœur » et plus rien n’est alors comme avant. Conformément aux règles de l’Église primitive à Jérusalem, pour marquer sa fidélité et son engagement, il dépose aux pieds des apôtres l’argent de tous ses biens vendus pour qu’il soit redistribué aux indigents, avant de se joindre aux disciples pour répandre le christianisme (Ac.4, 36-37).
Barnabé le bienveillant
Et c’est là qu’entre en scène Paul, son ami d’enfance, foudroyé par une apparition du Christ sur le « chemin de Damas » après avoir été un des grands persécuteurs des chrétiens. Après Damas, il serait allé en Arabie, poussé, dit-on par son grand désir d’évangélisation, ou par celui d’une grande retraite à la suite de sa conversion. Barnabé le retrouve à Jérusalem et a l’audace d’introduire cet ancien persécuteur auprès des apôtres.
Saint Barnabé est un « homme bon, plein de foi, rempli de l’Esprit saint », disent les Écritures. Il se porte garant de la sincérité de la conversion de son ami alors que personne d’autre ne lui fait encore confiance. Il raconte aux disciples « comment, sur le chemin, Saul avait vu le Seigneur, qui lui avait parlé, et comment, à Damas, il s’était exprimé avec assurance au nom de Jésus » (Ac 9, 27). Après les avoir convaincus, et sur approbation de saint Pierre, Barnabé associe Paul à la mission de prêcher la Bonne Nouvelle aux païens – vocation qu’il a lui-même reçu du ciel à Antioche -, favorisant ainsi la vocation missionnaire de son ami.
Douze ans s’écoulent entre leur premier voyage à Chypre et en Asie Mineure et leur séparation après un différend suffisamment important pour que Barnabé retourne à Chypre sans Paul, et que Paul poursuive ses voyages missionnaires dans d’autres lieux que ceux visités par son compagnon. Comment Paul et Barnabé en sont-ils arrivés là ? Les Écritures rapportent qu’après le succès de leur première mission dans un grand nombre de villes et de pays, prêchant et réalisant de nombreuses conversions, ils ont voulu y retourner pour voir où en était la situation, mais ne se sont pas entendus sur la possibilité d’emmener avec eux un troisième compagnon, un certain Jean, probablement le futur auteur de l’Évangile de Marc : « Barnabé voulait emmener aussi Jean appelé Marc. Mais Paul n’était pas d’avis d’emmener cet homme, qui les avait quittés à partir de la Pamphylie et ne les avait plus accompagnés dans leur tâche. L’exaspération devint telle qu’ils se séparèrent l’un de l’autre » (Ac 15, 37-39).
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Barnabé était prêt à prendre un risque important pour une personne a priori peu digne de confiance. Mais n’était-ce pas ce qu’il avait fait pour Paul, malgré ses lacunes ? Doit-on y voir une question de tempérament ? L’un plus doux et bienveillant, l’autre plus autoritaire et sévère et présenté de plus en plus, au fil des Actes, sous les traits d’un futur leader. Dans les Actes, on parle d’ailleurs de moins en moins de « Barnabé et Paul » et de plus en plus de « Paul et Barnabé ». Paul est parti avec Silas, un autre disciple, pour la Syrie et la Cilicie, tandis que Barnabé et Marc sont repartis évangéliser Chypre. Et le récit des Actes des apôtres ne se focalisera alors plus que sur Paul est ses voyages missionnaires, et plus du tout sur ceux de Barnabé.
Barnabé est mort à Chypre, sa patrie. Il a été martyrisé près de Salamine, l’actuelle Famagouste, par pendaison ou lapidation, selon les versions.Son tombeau, découvert sous l’empereur Zénon, au Ve siècle, aurait contenu un exemplaire de l’Évangile de Matthieu.
Barnabé, formidable témoin de l’église missionnaire des origines
Rachel Molinatti | 10 juin 2020
La vie de saint Barnabé, qui est fêté le 11 juin, montre que l’Église était missionnaire et universelle dès ses débuts. Son exemple peut inspirer les missionnaires du XXIe siècle.
En lisant sa vie, on réalise que dès ses origines, guidée par l’Esprit saint, l’Église était missionnaire et catholique, c’est-à-dire universelle. Même s’il n’appartient pas aux « douze », saint Barnabé fait partie des premiers apôtres remplis du feu missionnaire des tous débuts de l’Église. Il est présent à la Pentecôte et l’Esprit saint souffle sur lui comme sur toute l’assemblée présente. Il vend la terre qui lui appartient et dépose l’argent récolté aux pieds des apôtres afin qu’il soit redistribué à ceux qui en ont besoin puis se joint aux disciples pour annoncer la Bonne Nouvelle.
Audace et témoignage
Ce qui est intéressant, chez saint Barnabé, c’est son audace missionnaire. Il a quand même le toupet d’introduire Paul, ancien persécuteur de chrétiens, auprès des apôtres. Il fallait oser faire entrer le loup converti dans la bergerie ! Barnabé associe Paul à l’annonce de l’Évangile et favorise ainsi sa vocation missionnaire. Il voyagera avec lui à Chypre et en Asie Mineure et les deux compères verront de nombreuses personnes se convertir.
Décrit dans les Écritures comme un homme « bon, plein de foi, rempli de l’Esprit saint », Barnabé témoigne par sa vie de l’ardeur missionnaire des premiers temps du christianisme. Il est animé par l’Esprit saint, rempli de hardiesse, témoigne des merveilles de Dieu, n’hésite pas à sortir de ce que l’on appellerait aujourd’hui sa « zone de confort » pour aller de par le monde témoigner de Jésus-Christ, et enfin il pose un regard bon et humain sur ceux qu’il rencontre. Un missionnaire au poil.
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Saint Barnabé, apôtre
Le corps de saint Barnabé aurait été découvert à Salamine, vers 488, ce qui valut aux habitants de Chypre la reconnaissance de leur antique autocéphalie au regard du patriarche d’Antioche.
Au XVIe siècle saint Antoine-Marie Zaccaria fonda à Milan une nouvelle famille de religieux qui prirent le nom de Barnabites, de l’église de Saint-Barnabé près de laquelle ils demeuraient. Saint François de Sales les estimait beaucoup, si bien qu’il disait gracieusement que lui aussi était barnabite, c’est-à-dire fils de consolation.
La fête de saint Barnabé est entrée assez tard dans le Calendrier romain, tandis qu’elle apparaît déjà dans le calendrier de marbre de Saint-Jean-Majeur à Naples, au IXe siècle. A Rome, le nom de l’apôtre de Chypre se trouve, dès la première heure, rapproché de ceux d’Etienne et de Mathias dans la seconde section de la grande Intercession : Nobis quoque (Canon Romain). La fête est attestée à Rome au XIe siècle, et elle se développe au XIIe.
La messe manque d’unité dans sa rédaction, empruntant ses chants à d’autres fêtes plus anciennes. Les oraisons sont reprises de l’ancienne messe de la dédicace de la basilique de St Nicodème au 1er juin, fête disparue depuis.
Depuis le Code des Rubriques de 1960, c’est la seule fête de 3ème classe à avoir conservé le Credo.
Leçons des Matines avant 1960
Bhx Cardinal Schuster, Liber Sacramentorum
Dom Pius Parsch, le Guide dans l’année liturgique
SAINT BARNABÉ, APÔTRE
Fr. Jacques JOMIER, o.p.
- Cyprus as Joseph
- martyred in c.61 at Salamis
- at the time of his death he was carrying a copy of the Gospel of Saint Matthew that he had copied by hand
- son of encouragement; son of consolation
- against hailstorms
- invoked as peacemaker
- Marbella, Costa del Sol, Spain
- Marino, Italy
- middle-aged bearded apostle, often bearing a book or olive branch
- standing on or near a pile of stones while holding a book
- with Saint Paul
Barnabas (originally Joseph), styled an Apostle in Holy Scripture, and, like St. Paul, ranked by the Church with the Twelve, though not one of them; b. of Jewish parents in the Island of Cyprus about the beginning of the Christian Era. A Levite, he naturally spent much time in Jerusalem, probably even before the Crucifixion of Our Lord, and appears also to have settled there (where his relatives, the family of Mark the Evangelist, likewise had their homes — Acts 12:12) and to have owned land in its vicinity (4:36-37). A rather late traditionrecorded by Clement of Alexandria (Stromata II.20) and Eusebius (Church History II.1) says that he was one of the seventy Disciples; but Acts (4:36-37) favours the opinion that he was converted to Christianity shortly after Pentecost (about A.D. 29 or 30) and immediately sold his property and devoted the proceeds to theChurch. The Apostles, probably because of his success as a preacher, for he is later placed first among the prophets and doctors of Antioch (xiii, 1), surnamed him Barnabas, a name then interpreted as meaning "son of exhortation" or "consolation". (The real etymology, however, is disputed. See Encyl. Bibli., I, col. 484.) Though nothing is recorded of Barnabas for some years, he evidently acquired during this period a high position in the Church.
When Saul the persecutor, later Paul the Apostle, made his first visit (dated variously from A.D. 33 to 38) toJerusalem after his conversion, the Church there, remembering his former fierce spirit, was slow to believe in the reality of his conversion. Barnabas stood sponsor for him and had him received by the Apostles, as theActs relate (9:27), though he saw only Peter and James, the brother of the Lord, according to Paul himself (Galatians 1:18-19). Saul went to his house at Tarsus to live in obscurity for some years, while Barnabasappears to have remained at Jerusalem. The event that brought them together again and opened to both the door to their lifework was an indirect result of Saul's own persecution. In the dispersion that followedStephen's death, some Disciples from Cyprus and Cyrene, obscure men, inaugurated the real mission of theChristian Church by preaching to the Gentiles. They met with great success among the Greeks at Antioch in Syria, reports of which coming to the ears of the Apostles, Barnabas was sent thither by them to investigate the work of his countrymen. He saw in the conversions effected the fruit of God's grace and, though a Jew, heartily welcomed these first Gentile converts. His mind was opened at once to the possibility of this immense field. It is a proof how deeply impressed Barnabas had been by Paul that he thought of him immediately for this work, set out without delay for distant Tarsus, and persuaded Paul to go to Antioch and begin the work of preaching. This incident, shedding light on the character of each, shows it was no mere accident that led them to the Gentile field. Together they laboured at Antioch for a whole year and "taught a great multitude". Then, on the coming of famine, by which Jerusalem was much afflicted, the offerings of the Disciples at Antioch were carried (about A.D. 45) to the mother-church by Barnabas and Saul (Acts 11). Their mission ended, they returned to Antioch, bringing with them the cousin, or nephew of Barnabas (Colossians 4:10), John Mark, the future Evangelist (Acts 12:25).
The time was now ripe, it was believed, for more systematic labours, and the Church of Antioch felt inspiredby the Holy Ghost to send out missionaries to the Gentile world and to designate for the work Barnabas andPaul. They accordingly departed, after the imposition of hands, with John Mark as helper. Cyprus, the native land of Barnabas, was first evangelized, and then they crossed over to Asia Minor. Here, at Perge in Pamphylia, the first stopping place, John Mark left them, for what reason his friend St. Luke does not state, though Paul looked on the act as desertion. The two Apostles, however, pushing into the interior of a rather wild country, preached at Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, at Derbe, and other cities. At every step they met with opposition and even violent persecution from the Jews, who also incited the Gentiles against them. The most striking incident of the journey was at Lystra, where the superstitious populace took Paul, who had just cured a lame man, for Hermes (Mercury) "because he was the chief speaker", and Barnabas for Jupiter, and were about to sacrifice a bull to them when prevented by the Apostles. Mob-like, they were soon persuaded by the Jews to turn and attack the Apostles and wounded St. Paul almost fatally. Despite opposition and persecution, Paul and Barnabas made many converts on this journey and returned by the same route to Perge, organizing churches, ordaining presbyters and placing them over the faithful, so that they felt, on again reaching Antioch in Syria, that God had "opened a door of faith to the Gentiles" (Acts 13:13-14:27;see article SAINT PAUL).
Barnabas and Paul had been "for no small time" at Antioch, when they were threatened with the undoing of their work and the stopping of its further progress. Preachers came from Jerusalem with the gospel thatcircumcision was necessary for salvation, even for the Gentiles. The Apostles of the Gentiles, perceiving at once that this doctrine would be fatal to their work, went up to Jerusalem to combat it; the older Apostlesreceived them kindly and at what is called the Council of Jerusalem (dated variously from A.D. 47 to 51) granted a decision in their favour as well as a hearty commendation of their work (Acts 14:27-15:30; see articles COUNCIL OF JERUSALEM; SAINT PETER). On their return to Antioch, they resumed their preaching for a short time. St. Peter came down and associated freely there with the Gentiles, eating with them. This displeased some disciples of James; in their opinion, Peter's act was unlawful, as against the Mosaic law. Upon their remonstrances, Peter yielded apparently through fear of displeasing them, and refused to eat any longer with the Gentiles. Barnabas followed his example. Paul considered that they "walked not uprightly according to the truth of the gospel" and upbraided them before the whole church (Galatians 2:11-15). Paulseems to have carried his point. Shortly afterwards, he and Barnabas decided to revisit their missions.Barnabas wished to take John Mark along once more, but on account of the previous defection Paul objected. A sharp contention ensuing, the Apostles agreed to separate. Paul was probably somewhat influenced by the attitude recently taken by Barnabas, which might prove a prejudice to their work. Barnabas sailed with John Mark to Cyprus, while Paul took Silas an revisited the churches of Asia Minor. It is believed by some that thechurch of Antioch, by its God-speed to Paul, showed its approval of his attitude; this inference, however, is not certain (Acts 15:35-41).
Little is known of the subsequent career of Barnabas. He was still living and labouring as an Apostle in 56 or 57, when Paul wrote First Corinthians (9:5-6). from which we learn that he, too, like Paul, earned his own living, though on an equality with other Apostles. The reference indicates also that the friendship between the two was unimpaired. When Paul was a prisoner in Rome (61-63), John Mark was attached to him as a disciple, which is regarded as an indication that Barnabas was no longer living (Colossians 4:10). This seems probable.
Various traditions represent him as the first Bishop of Milan, as preaching at Alexandria and at Rome, whose fourth (?) bishop, St. Clement, he is said to have converted, and as having suffered martyrdom in Cyprus. Thetraditions are all late and untrustworthy.
With the exception of St. Paul and certain of the Twelve, Barnabas appears to have been the most esteemedman of the first Christian generation. St. Luke, breaking his habit of reserve, speaks of him with affection, "for he was a good man, full of the Holy Ghost and of Faith". His title to glory comes not only from his kindliness of heart, his personal sanctity, and his missionary labours, but also from his readiness to lay aside his Jewishprejudices, in this anticipating certain of the Twelve; from his large-hearted welcome of the Gentiles, and from his early perception of Paul's worth, to which the Christian Church is indebted, in large part at least, for its great Apostle. His tenderness towards John Mark seems to have had its reward in the valuable services later rendered by him to the Church.
The feast of St. Barnabas is celebrated
on 11 June. He is credited by Tertullian (probably falsely)
with the authorship of the Epistle
to the Hebrews, and the so-called Epistle
of Barnabas is ascribed to him by many Fathers.
Fenlon, John Francis. "St.
Barnabas." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York:
Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 10 Jun.
Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Janet Grayson.
Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. 1907. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York.
Copyright © 2020 by Kevin Knight. Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.
ST. BARNABAS, though not of the number of the twelve chosen by Christ, is nevertheless styled an apostle by the primitive fathers, and by St. Luke himself. 1 His singular vocation by the Holy Ghost, and the great share he had in the apostolic transactions and labours, have obtained him this title. He was of the tribe of Levi, 2 but born in Cyprus, where his family was settled, and had purchased an estate, which Levites might do out of their own country. He was first called Joses, which was the softer Grecian termination for Joseph. After the ascension of Christ, the Apostles changed his name into Barnabas, which word St. Luke interprets, son of consolation, on account of his excellent talent of ministering comfort to the afflicted, says St. Chrysostom. St. Jerom remarks that this word also signifies the son of a prophet, and in that respect was justly given to this apostle, who excelled in prophetic gifts. The Greeks say that his parents sent him in his youth to Jerusalem, to the school of the famous Gamaliel, St. Paul’s master; and that he was one of the first, and chief of the seventy disciples of Christ. Clement of Alexandria, Eusebius, and St. Epiphanius, 3 testify that he was one of that number, and consequently had the happiness to receive the precepts of eternal life from the mouth of Christ himself. The first mention we find of him in holy scripture is in the Acts of the Apostles, 4 where it is related that the primitive converts at Jerusalem lived in common, and that as many as were owners of lands or houses sold them, and brought the price and laid it at the feet of the apostles, that they might contribute all in their power to relieve the indigent, and might themselves be entirely disengaged from the world, and better fitted to follow Christ in a penitential and mortified life. No one is mentioned in particular on this occasion but St. Barnabas; doubtless because he was possessed of a large estate; and perhaps he was the first who set the example of this heroic contempt of the world, which has been since imitated by so many thousands, according to the advice of Christ to the rich man. 5 This contribution was entirely free; but seems to have implied a vow, or at least a solemn promise of renouncing all temporal possessions for the sake of virtue. For Ananias and his wife Saphira were struck dead at the feet of St. Peter for having secreted some part of the price; and were reproached by that apostle for having lied to the Holy Ghost, by pretending to put a cheat upon the ministers of God. Origen, 6 St. Jerom, 7 and St. Austin, 8 are willing to hope that their sin was forgiven them by repentance at the voice of St. Peter, and that it was expiated by their temporal punishment. Though St. Chrysostom, 9 and St. Basil 10 rather fear that they might perish eternally by impenitence. St. Austin, St. Jerom, St. Chrysostom, 11 St. Gregory the Great, 12 and other fathers accuse them of a sacrilegious breach of their vow. St. Chrysostom, 13 St. Basil, 14 and St. Isidore of Pelusium, 15 observe that God, by executing his justice by visible judgments on the first authors of a crime, does this to deter others from the like; as in the Antediluvians, Sodomites, Pharaoh, Onan, and Giezi; but those who nevertheless despise his warning, and by a more consummate malice imitate such sinners, if they are not consumed by a deluge, fire, or other visible judgment, must expect a more grievous chastisement in the flames of hell, proportionate to their hardened malice.
Barnabas made his oblation perfect by the dispositions of his heart with which he accompanied it, and by his piety and zeal became considerable in the government of the church, being a good man, and full of the Holy Ghost, as he is styled by the sacred penman. 16 St. Paul coming to Jerusalem three years after his conversion, and not easily getting admittance into the church, because he had been a violent persecutor, addressed himself to St. Barnabas as a leading man, and one who had personal knowledge of him, who presently introduced him to the apostles Peter and James; and such weight did his recommendation carry, that St. Peter received the new convert into his house, and he abode with him fifteen days. 17 About four or five years after this, certain disciples, probably Lucius of Cyrene, Simeon, who was called Niger, and Manahen, having preached the faith with great success at Antioch, some one of a superior, and probably of the episcopal order was wanting to form the church, and to confirm the Neophytes. Whereupon St. Barnabas was sent from Jerusalem to settle this new plantation. Upon his arrival he rejoiced exceedingly at the progress which the gospel had made, exhorted the converts to fervour and perseverance, and by his preaching made great additions to their number, insomuch that he stood in need of an able assistant. St. Paul being then at Tarsus, Barnabas took a journey thither and invited him to share in his labours at Antioch. Such a field could not but give great joy to the heart of St. Paul, who accompanied him back, and spent with him a whole year. Their labours prospered, and the church was so much increased at Antioch, that the name of Christians was first given to the faithful in that city. In the eulogium which the Holy Ghost gives to St. Barnabas, he is called a good man by way of eminence, to express his extraordinary mildness, his simplicity void of all disguise, his beneficence, piety and charity. He is also styled full of faith; which virtue not only enlightened his understanding with the knowledge of heavenly truths, but also passed to his heart, animated all his actions, inspired him with a lively hope and ardent charity, and filled his breast with courage under his labours, and with joy in the greatest persecutions and crosses. He is said to have been full of the Holy Ghost, his heart being totally possessed by that divine spirit, and all his affections animated by him; banishing from them the spirit of the world with its vanities, that of the devil with its pride and revenge, and that of the flesh with the love of pleasure and the gratification of sense. So perfect a faith was favoured with an extraordinary gift of miracles, and prepared him for the merits of the apostleship. By the daily persecutions and dangers to which he exposed himself for the faith, his whole life was a continued martyrdom. Whence the council of the apostles at Jerusalem says of him and St. Paul: They have given their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 18
Agabus, a prophet at Antioch, foretold a great famine, which raged shortly after over the East, especially in Palestine. Whereupon the church at Antioch raised a very considerable collection for the relief of the poor brethren in Judea, which they sent by SS. Paul and Barnabas to the heads of the church at Jerusalem. Josephus informs us that this famine lay heavy upon Judea during the four years’ government of Cuspius Fadus, and Tiberius Alexander, under the emperor Claudius. John, surnamed Mark, attended St. Barnabas back to Antioch. He was his kinsman, being son to his sister Mary, whose house was the sanctuary where the apostles concealed themselves from the persecutors, and enjoyed the conveniency of celebrating the divine mysteries. The church of Antioch was by that time settled in good order, and pretty well supplied with teachers, among whom were Simeon, called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, and Manahen, the foster-brother of Herod the Tetrarch, 19 who were all prophets, besides our two apostles. 20 As they were ministering to the Lord, and fasting, the Holy Ghost said to them by some of these prophets: “Separate me Paul and Barnabas for the work whereunto I have taken them.” The word separate here signifies being entirely set apart to divine functions, and taken from all profane or worldly employments, as it is said of the Levites, 21 and of St. Paul. 22 The work to which these two apostles were assumed, was the conversion of the Gentile nations. The whole church joined in prayer and fasting to draw down the blessing of heaven on this undertaking. A model always to be imitated by those who embrace an ecclesiastical state. After this preparation SS. Paul and Barnabas received the imposition of hands, by which some understand the episcopal consecration. But Estius, Suarez, and others, more probably think that they were bishops before, and that by this right is meant no more than the giving of a commission to preach the gospel to the Gentile nations, by which they were consecrated the Apostles of the Gentiles.
Paul and Barnabas having thus received their mission, left Antioch, taking with them John Mark, and went to Seleucia, a city of Syria adjoining to the sea; whence they set sail for Cyprus, and arrived at Salamis, a port formerly of great resort. Having there preached Christ in the synagogues of the Jews, they proceeded to Paphos, a city in the same island, chiefly famous for a temple of Venus, the tutelar goddess of the whole island. The conversion of Sergius Paulus, the Roman proconsul, happened there. These apostles taking ship again at Paphos, sailed to Perge in Pamphylia. Here John Mark, weary of the hardships and discouraged at the dangers from obstinate Jews and idolaters, which everywhere attended their laborious mission, to the great grief of his uncle Barnabas, left them and returned to Jerusalem. Paul and Barnabas from Perga travelled eighty miles northward to Antioch in Pisidia. There they preached first in the synagogues of the Jews; but finding them obstinately deaf to the happy tidings of salvation, they told them, that by preference they had announced first to them the words of eternal life; but since they rejected that inestimable grace they would address the same to the Gentiles, as God had commanded by his prophets. The exasperated Jews had interest enough to get them expelled that city. The apostles went next to Iconium, the metropolis of Lycaonia, and preached there some time; but at length the malice of the Jews prevailed, and the apostles narrowly escaped being stoned. They bent their course hence to Lystra in the same province, in which city the idolaters, surprised to see a cripple miraculously healed by St. Paul, declared the gods were come among them. They gave to Paul the name of Mercury because he was the chief speaker, and to Barnabas that of Jupiter, probably on account of his gravity, and the comeliness of his person. 23 In this persuasion they were preparing to offer sacrifices to them, and were with difficulty diverted from it by the two saints. But soon after, at the malicious instigation of the Jews, they passed to the opposite extreme and stoned Paul. However, though left for dead, when the disciples came (probably to inter his body) he rose up, went back into the city, and the next day departed with Barnabas to Derbe. Hence, after numerous conversions they returned to Lystra, Iconium, and the other cities already mentioned, confirming the faithful in the doctrine they had lately received, and ordaining priests in every church. They at length arrived at Antioch in Syria, and continued with the disciples of that city a considerable time, full of joy and thanksgiving for the success of their ministry. During their abode in this city arose the dispute relating to the necessity of observing the Mosaic rites. St. Barnabas joined St. Paul in opposing some of the Jewish converts who urged the necessity of observing them under the gospel. This weighty question gave occasion to the council of the apostles at Jerusalem, held in the year 51, wherein SS. Paul and Barnabas gave a full account of the success of their labours amongst the Gentiles, and received a confirmation of their mission, and carried back the synodal letter to the new converts of Syria and Cilicia, containing the decision of the council, which had exempted the new converts from any obligation on the foregoing head.
St. Barnabas gives us a great example of humility in his voluntary deference to St. Paul. He had been called first to the faith, had first presented St. Paul to the apostles, and passed for first among the doctors of the church of Antioch, yet on every occasion he readily yields to him the quality of speaker, and the first place; which we must ascribe to his humility. Neither did St. Paul seek any other preeminence than the first place in all labours. At last a difference in opinion concerning Mark produced a separation, without the least breach of charity in their hearts. John Mark met them again at Antioch. St. Paul proposed to our saint to make a circular visit to the churches of Asia which they had founded. Barnabas was for taking his kinsman Mark with him; but Paul was of a different sentiment in regard to one who before had betrayed a want of courage in the same undertaking. The Holy Ghost would by this occasion separate the two apostles, that for the greater benefit of the Church the gospel might be carried into more countries. John Mark by this check became so courageous and fervent, that he was from that time one of the most useful and zealous preachers of the gospel. St. Paul afterwards expressed a high esteem of him in his epistle to the Colossians; 24 and during his imprisonment at Rome, charged St. Timothy to come to him, and to bring with him John Mark, calling him a person useful for the ministry. 25 John Mark finished the course of his apostolic labours at Biblis in Phœnicia, and is mentioned in the Roman Martyrology on the 27th of September. After this separation St. Paul with Silas travelled into Syria and Cilicia, and Barnabas, with his kinsman, betook himself to his native island, Cyprus. Here the sacred writings dismiss his history.
St. Barnabas always remembered the conversion of nations was the province allotted to him, nor could he be induced to allow himself any repose, whilst he saw whole countries deprived of the light of salvation. Theodoret says he returned again to St. Paul, and was sent by him to Corinth with Titus. Dorotheus and the author of the Recognitions suppose him to have been at Rome. The city of Milan honours him as patron from a tradition, supported by monuments which seem to be of the fourth age, affirming that he preached the faith there, and was the founder of that church. 26 But how wide soever his missions lay, he always regarded his own country as the province especially alloted to his care; and there he finished his life by martyrdom. Alexander, a monk of Cyprus in the sixth age, hath written an account of his death, in which he relates, that the faith having made great progress in Cyprus by the assiduous preaching, edifying example, and wonderful miracles of this apostle, it happened that certain inveterate Jews who had persecuted the holy man in Syria, came to Salamis and stirred up many powerful men of that city against him. The saint was taken, roughly handled and insulted by the mob, and after many torments stoned to death. The remains of St. Barnabas were found near the city of Salamis, with a copy of the gospel of St. Matthew, in Hebrew, laid upon his breast, written with St. Barnabas’s own hand. The book was sent to the emperor Zeno in 485, as Theodorus Lector relates. 27 St. Paul mentions St. Barnabas as still living in the year 56. 28 St. Chrysostom speaks of him as alive in 63. 29 He seems to have attained to a great age. 30 St. Charles Borromeo, in his sixth provincial council, in 1582, appointed his festival an holiday of obligation. Nicholas Sormani, a priest of the Oblates, maintains that he preached at Milan, 31 and St. Charles Borromeo in a sermon 32 styles him the apostle of Milan. 33
St. Barnabas, the more perfectly to disengage his affections from all earthly things, set to the primitive church an heroic example, by divesting himself of all his large possessions in favour of the poor: riches are a gift of God to be received with thankfulness, and to be well employed. But so difficult and dangerous is their stewardship; so rare a grace is it for a man to possess them and not find his affections entangled, and his heart wounded by them, that many heroic souls have chosen, with St. Barnabas, to forsake all things, the more easily to follow Christ in perfect nakedness of heart. Those who are favoured with them must employ them in good offices, and in relieving the indigent, not dissipate them in luxury, or make them the fuel of their passions: they must still dare to be poor; must be disengaged in their affections; and must not be uneasy or disturbed if their money takes its flight, being persuaded that the loss of worldly treasures deprives them of nothing they can properly call their own.
Note 1. Acts xiv. 13.
Note 2. Acts iv. 36.
Note 3. Clem. Alex. Strom. l. 2, p. 410. Eus. Hist. l. 1, c. 12, et l. 2, c. 1. St. Epiphan. Hær. 20, c. 4, &c.
Note 4. Acts iv. 36.
Note 5. Matt. xix. 21.
Note 6. Orig. in Mat. p. 383, ed. Huet.
Note 7. S. Hier. Ep. 8, ad Demetr.
Note 8. S. Aug. Serm. 148, ol. 10, de div.
Note 9. St. Chrys. Hom. 12, in Acta.
Note 10. St. Bas. Serm. l. de Instit. Monach.
Note 11. Ibid.
Note 12. St. Greg. M. l. 1, Ep. 24, p. 513, t. 2, Ed. Ben.
Note 13. Hom. 12, in Acta, t. 9, p. 101, ed. Ben.
Note 14. S. Basil, in Moral. Reg. 11.
Note 15. L. 1, Ep. 181.
Note 16. Acts xi. 24.
Note 17. Galat. i. 18.
Note 18. Acts xv. 26.
Note 19. This Manahen must have been of high birth, as he had the same nurse with Herod Antipas: he was perhaps son of Manahen, prince of the Sanhedrim under Hillel, a great officer under Herod.
Note 20. Acts xiii.
Note 21. Num. viii. 14.
Note 22. Rom. i. 1. Gal. i. 15.
Note 23. St. Barnabas is represented by St. Chrysostom and all antiquity as a man of a beautiful and venerable aspect, and of a majestic presence, whereas St. Paul was of a low stature. Whence St. Chrysostom writes of the latter: “He was a man three cubits high: yet he ascended above the heavens.” See a Lap. et Syn. Critic. hic.
Note 24. Coloss. iv. 10, 11.
Note 25. 2 Tim. iv. 11.
Note 26. See Origine Apostolica della Chiesa Milanese da Nic. Sormani, Milan. 1754.
The Religious Order of Regular Clerks, called Barnabites from the church of this saint in Milan, of which they obtained possession in 1545, was founded at Milan by three pious noblemen in 1530, confirmed by Pope Clement VII. in 1532, and Paul III. in 1535. This Order, the chief end of which is to furnish able preachers to instruct the people in missions, was exceedingly favoured by St. Charles Borromeo, and has been rendered illustrious by many great men. See Helyot, Hist. des Ord. Relig. t. 4, p. 110, and principally F. Mansi, the Servite, Nota in Raynaldi Coutin. Annal. Baronii, ad an. 1533, p. 298, t. 13, Contin. seu t. 32, totius Operis.
Note 27. Theod. Lect. 2, p. 557. Suidas, &c.
Note 28. 1 Cor. ix. 6.
Note 29. S. Chrys. Hom. 11, in Coloss.
Note 30. An epistle which is extant in Greek, and bears the name of St. Barnabas, is quoted as his undoubted work by St. Clement of Alexandria, Origen, &c. But St. Jerom and Eusebius (l. 3, Hist. c. 25,) rank it among the apocryphal or uncanonical writings; and it is evident that the church never received it into the canon of holy scripture. On which account Tillemont, (t. 1, p. 659,) Ceillier, (t. 1, p. 499,) and many others think it is not the work of this apostle; nevertheless, Dr. Cave (Hist. Liter, t. 1, p. 18,) and several others maintain St. Barnabas to be the true author. It appears certainly to be a production of the apostolic age, which the very style seems to show. It was written to the Jewish converts, who held the observance of the ceremonial law to be necessary in the gospel dispensation. The author displays much Hebrew erudition, and a great knowledge of the holy scriptures, to show that the Mosaic ceremonies were abolished by the new law. In the second part he lays down excellent precepts of morality on the virtues of humility, meekness, patience, charity, chastity, &c. under the notion of the way of light, in which the good walk under the safeguard and conduct of the angels of God, as the bad are under the influence of the angels of Satan. Among other vices, he inveighs severely against talkativeness, which he says is the snare of death. He teaches that the six days of the creation signify allegorically six thousand years, after which term he fixes the general conflagration of the world. The same is advanced by several other ancient writers, from a traditionary notion of the Jews, grounded on the supposed prediction of one Elias, not the great prophet of that name, on which the long annotation of Cotelier on this passage may be consulted. (n. 15.) But to this no heed is to be given. The fifth general council of Lateran forbids any preachers to presume to determine the time of Christ’s second coming, which he assures us no man knoweth.
Note 31. Sormani in Apologismis.
Note 32. S. Car. Borr. Hom. 26, t. 1, p. 174.
Note 33. See Bernard. Cassinus in his Veritas Sacrarum Reliquiarum in Basilica Metropolitana Mediolanensi, an. 1743.
Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73). Volume VI: June. The Lives of the Saints. 1866.
SOURCE : http://www.bartleby.com/210/6/111.html
Barnabas, Apostle (RM)
Born in Cyprus and died in Salamis in the 1st century. The Acts of the Apostles describes Barnabas as 'a good man, full of the Holy Spirit and of faith' (Acts 6:24). His Jewish parents called him Joseph, but when he sold all his goods and gave the money to the apostles in Jerusalem, they gave him a new name: Barnabas, which means 'son of consolation' or 'man of encouragement.' Although Barnabas was not among the original Twelve, he is traditionally thought to have been among the 72 commissioned by Jesus to preach; thus, he is given the honorary title of Apostle and his name is included in the canon of the Mass.
Barnabas the Levite lived with the earliest Christians in Jerusalem. He was one of the first to welcome Saint Paul, the former persecutor of the early Church, and his former schoolmate. He persuaded the Christians of Jerusalem to accept Paul's claim that he was now a believer in Jesus (Acts 9:26-30). Barnabas was sent to Antioch, Syria, to investigate the community of non-Jewish believers there (Acts 11:22ff), and brought Paul there from Tarsus. It was in Antioch that the followers of The Way were first called Christians. With Paul he took the Antiochean donation to Jerusalem community during a famine.
Thereafter he, his cousin John Mark, and Paul returned to Antioch before setting out together on the first missionary journey of the Christian church (Acts 13:2ff). They went first to Cyprus, Barnabas's native land, and for this reason Barnabas is honored as the founder of the Cypriot church. Then they continued on to Perga (whence John Mark returned to Jerusalem), Antioch in Pisidia (where they were so violently opposed by the Jews that they decided to preach to the pagans), and Iconium (where they were stoned). At Lystra in Lycaonia, they were thought to be gods because of the miracles they worked and the physical beauty of Barnabas. After being taken as pagan gods, they were stoned out of the city, and fled back to Antioch in Syria. When a dispute arose regarding the observance of the Jewish laws and customs, Paul and Barnabas returned to Jerusalem for the council that decided that non-Jews would not have to be circumcised to be baptized.
When they returned to Antioch, Barnabas wanted Paul and John Mark to continue their travels with him, but Paul fell out with John Mark--perhaps because John Mark had abandoned them at Perga. In spite of Paul's extremely forceful character, Barnabas took Mark's side, demonstrating that he was a man of considerable determination and courage. The Acts of the Apostles says, "There arose a sharp contention between them. Barnabas took Mark with him and sailed away to Cyprus" (Acts 15:39). Paul chose a new ally, Silas, and went elsewhere to strengthen the churches. Little more is heard of Barnabas though it is believed that the rift with Paul was healed because we read about Barnabas later in 1 Corinthians 9:6). (Paul also discusses his relationship to Barnabas in his letter to the Galatians.)
Tradition says that Barnabas preached in Alexandria and Rome, and was stoned to death at Salamis about 61 AD. He is considered the founder of the Cypriot Church. The Order of Barnabites, founded by Saint Antony Zaccaria in Milan in 1530, took their name from their principal church named for today's saint, who was once believed to have been the first bishop of Milan. The apocryphal Epistle of Barnabas was long attributed to him, but modern scholarship now attributes it to an Alexandrian Christian between 70 and 100 AD. The Gospel of Barnabas was probably authored by an Italian Christian who became an Islamic. The Acts of Barnabas, once attributed to John Mark, are now known to have been written in the 5th century (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Farmer, Walsh, White).
In art, Saint Barnabas is a bearded, middle-aged, tall and handsome man with a book and an olive branch. He might also be shown (1) holding Saint Matthew's Gospel; (2) in scenes with Saint Paul; (3) martyred by burning; (4) with stones (Roeder), or (5) holding a pilgrim's staff (White). Barnabas is especially venerated in Florence, Italy, and Cyprus. He is invoked against hailstorms and as a peacemaker (Roeder). Barnabas is the patron of Cyprus (White).
Église Saint Barnabas, Vižinada, Croatie
- John Dawson Gilmary Shea. “”. , 1889. CatholicSaints.Info. 22 May 2014. Web. 11 June 2020. <https://catholicsaints.info/pictorial-lives-of-the-saints-saint-barnabas-apostle/>
La Bibbia menziona per la prima volta Barnaba tra
coloro che dopo la morte di Gesù, a Gerusalemme, si riuniscono attorno agli
apostoli. È una comunità di credenti che vivono fraternamente condividendo i
loro beni. Ma la tradizione – riportata da Eusebio di Cesarea che attinge da
Clemente Alessandrino – lo annovera anche fra i 72 discepoli inviati da Gesù in
missione per annunciare il Regno di Dio, quindi già nella cerchia dei seguaci
di Cristo. Circa le sue origini, dalla Sacra Scrittura sappiamo che, nato
nell’isola di Cipro, era ebreo e si chiamava Giuseppe.
Cristiano a Gerusalemme
Barnaba è fra i più autorevoli della prima comunità cristiana che si forma
tanto che, pur non essendo dei Dodici, viene chiamato apostolo. È il primo ad
accogliere Paolo appena convertitosi sulla via di Damasco e giunto a
Gerusalemme per conoscere gli apostoli. Mentre in tanti diffidano di quel Saulo
che aveva perseguitato i cristiani, lui lo accoglie e lo introduce nella comunità.
Ritenuto “uomo virtuoso … pieno di Spirito Santo e di fede”, viene mandato ad
Antiochia di Siria, da dove era giunta la notizia di numerose conversioni. Una
volta costatato che davvero in tanti credevano, Barnaba se ne rallegra ed
esorta tutti “a perseverare con cuore risoluto nel Signore”, quindi chiede
aiuto a Paolo per essere supportato nel servizio alla nuova comunità di
credenti. Ancora una volta, quindi, Barnaba interviene nella vita di Paolo
sospingendolo verso la sua missione di Apostolo delle genti. I due restano ad
Antiochia per un anno istruendo molti e proprio qui “per la prima volta i
discepoli furono chiamati cristiani”.
In una lunga missione con Paolo
Dopo la predicazione ad Antiochia, Barnaba e Paolo partono per una nuova
missione a Cipro. Con loro c’è anche Giovanni, detto Marco (l’evangelista),
cugino di Barnaba. La tappa successiva è la Panfilia, ma qui Giovanni decide di
fare ritorno a Gerusalemme. Barnaba e Paolo proseguono, invece, per Antiochia
di Pisidia, Iconio, Listra, Derbe e tornano ancora ad Antiochia di Siria.
Sostano, inoltre, a Perge e Attalia. Le conversioni sempre più numerose dei
pagani, intanto, fanno sorgere dispute circa la necessità o meno della
circoncisione, sicché, intorno al 49, Barnaba e Paolo tornano a Gerusalemme per
discuterne con gli apostoli. Poco dopo i due si preparano a una nuova missione,
ma Barnaba vuole aggregare ancora Giovanni, mentre Paolo è contrario: non si
fida di quel giovane. Barnaba, invece, vede in lui un discepolo da recuperare.
Non trovando un accordo, le loro strade si dividono: Barnaba s’imbarca per
Cipro con il cugino, Paolo parte per l’Asia. “Anche tra Santi ci sono
contrasti, discordie, controversie. E questo a me appare molto consolante,
perché vediamo che i Santi non sono caduti dal cielo”, ha detto Benedetto XVI
ricordando, nella catechesi dell’Udienza generale del 31 gennaio 2007, il
legame tra Barnaba e Paolo. La santità non consiste nel non aver mai sbagliato,
ma cresce nella capacità di ravvedersi e nella disponibilità a ricominciare, ma
soprattutto nella capacità di perdonare. E infatti, in seguito, Paolo si
ricrederà su Marco.
Dall’Italia al martirio a Salamina
Il Nuovo Testamento non ci fornisce altre notizie su Barnaba, ma documenti
bizantini riferiscono di un viaggio insieme a Pietro che lo conduce a Roma. Da
qui avrebbe proseguito per il nord Italia. A Milano, in particolare, la sua
predicazione avrebbe originato diverse conversioni dando così vita alla prima
comunità cristiana nella città, che per questo lo considera il suo primo
vescovo. Gli Atti di Barnaba, opera del V secolo, raccontano della sua morte a
Salamina, dove sarebbe stato lapidato da giudei siriani nell’anno 61. Oggi a
Salamina la tomba di Barnaba esiste ancora e sarebbe stata indicata da lui
stesso apparso in sogno al vescovo di Salamina, Anthemios, alla fine del V
secolo. Questi, dunque, avrebbe fatto trasportare le spoglie dell’apostolo
nella basilica che gli volle dedicare.
L’undici giugno la Chiesa festeggia la figura di San Barnaba, chiamato apostolo anche se non appartiene al gruppo dei Dodici, è considerato inoltre come il primo vescovo della città di Milano.
Al riguardo delle sue origini, la sua era una famiglia giudaica che si era trasferita sull’isola di Cipro dove con ogni probabilità San Barnaba è nato nei primi anni del primo secolo dopo Cristo. Il nome che gli fu dato dalla propria famiglia era quello di Giuseppe. Della sua infanzia e adolescenza non si conosce praticamente nulla mentre è stato raccontato negli Atti degli Apostoli, come Giuseppe si sia convertito al cristianesimo lasciando ogni attività terrena di commercio per seguire questa vocazione e portare la parola di Cristo e del Signore in ogni luogo della Terra. Per la precisione la sua conversione avvenne poco dopo l’episodio della Pentecoste e lo portò a sposare in pieno la fede cristiana, tant’è che decise di vendere tutti gli averi che si era faticosamente guadagnato nel corso della propria vita per donarli alla nascente Chiesa affinché potesse operare, venne battezzato prendendo il nome di Barnaba e diventando in pochissimo tempo uno dei personaggi più autorevoli della Chiesa Cattolica che era ancora in una fase di nascita.
Fu fra i primi cristiani ad accettare e garantire sulle buone intenzione dell’apostolo Paolo che prima della conversione accaduta a Damasco e del relativo battesimo, si chiamava Saulo di Tarso ed era uno dei massimo persecutori dei cristiani. Uno dei primi compiti che venne assegnato a Barnaba, fu quello di recarsi nella città di Antiochia per convertire la popolazione locale. La missione fu condivisa con lo stesso Paolo e fu un qualcosa di assolutamente nuovo visto che fino a quel momento l’opera di evangelizzazione veniva effettuata soltanto tra gli ebrei. Paolo e Barnaba riuscirono a ottenere risultati straordinari che tuttavia crearono dubbi e timori nella Chiesa di Gerusalemme tant’è che i due dovettero far ritorno e spiegare quello che stava avvenendo e come erano riusciti a convertire un così alto numero di persone. Chiarita la cosa ripartirono immediatamente per evangelizzare altri popolo incominciando dalla terra natale dello stesso Barnaba, Cipro, per poi spostarsi in tutta l’Asia Minore ossia l’attuale Turchia. Intorno al 49 dopo Cristo fecero nuovamente ritorno a Gerusalemme per presenziare a un dibattito sulla necessità o meno di costringere i pagani convertitisi al cristianesimo di essere circoncisi. Barnaba e lo stesso Paolo erano contrari alla cosa ed ebbero ragione. Da qui si dividono le loro strade con Barnaba che insieme a Marco Evangelista andò nuovamente a Cipro per rimanervi per tre anni.
Nel 53 insieme a Pietro iniziò un viaggio che lo portò al centro dell’Impero Romano, Roma. Pietro vi rimase per porre le basi della Chiesa Romana mentre Barnaba partì praticamente subito alla volta dell’Italia del Nord ed in particolare verso Milano dove diede inizio alla conversione e la costruzione della Chiesa di Milano venendo così considerato il primo vescovo della città.
Tuttavia, Barnaba non volle fermarsi nel centro milanese a lungo e dopo aver affidato a Antalone il compito di gestire la chiesa cristiana e quindi di essere lui il vescovo, ripartì per continuare nella sua opera di evangelizzazione sino a quando nel 61 a Salamina, antica città della parte orientale dell’Isola di Cipro, venne ucciso per mano di alcuni giudei che lo lapidarono. Secondo alcuni documenti, sembra che San Barnaba nel momento in cui venne ucciso, avesse tra le proprie mani una bibbia, segno della sua grande fede.
Un altro episodio legato alla vita di San Barnaba, è relativo al suo arrivo a
Milano con una leggenda che parla di come lungo il suo cammino, la neve si
sciogliesse consentendo ai fiori di sbocciare.
Autore: Don Luca Roveda
Qualche tempo dopo arriva la notizia che ad Antiochia di Siria si fanno cristiani anche dei non ebrei: novità mai vista. La Chiesa di Gerusalemme "mandò Barnaba ad Antiochia"; è l’uomo delle emergenze. E ad Antiochia capisce subito: "Vide la grazia del Signore e si rallegrò". Nessuna incertezza, nessun “vedremo”, “concerteremo”: subito egli invita "tutti a perseverare con cuore risoluto nel Signore". Risoluto lui per primo, porta Paolo da Tarso ad Antiochia, predicano insieme, poi insieme portano soccorsi ai cristiani di Gerusalemme affamati da una carestia.
Ad Antiochia matura il piano per una missione in terra pagana, diretta anzitutto alle comunità ebraiche, ma che poi si aprirà a tutti. Barnaba e Paolo sono designati all’impresa, prendendo con sé il giovane indicato all’inizio come "Giovanni detto Marco", cugino di Barnaba. Quello che, secondo l’antica tradizione cristiana, sarà poi l’evangelista Marco. Questo primo viaggio missionario tocca Cipro e una parte dell’Asia Minore.
Barnaba è ancora con Paolo (verso l’anno 49) a Gerusalemme, per la focosa disputa sui pagani convertiti (devono circoncidersi o no?), che porterà alla decisione di non imporre loro altri pesi, oltre ai precetti profondamente radicati nell’animo degli ebreo-cristiani.
Tra gli anni 50 e 53 c’è il secondo viaggio missionario che toccherà anche l’Europa. Barnaba vorrebbe portare ancora Giovanni-Marco, ma Paolo rifiuta, perché nel primo viaggio il giovane si è separato da loro. Insiste Barnaba, ed è rottura completa. Gli Atti dicono soltanto: "Barnaba, prendendo con sé Marco, s’imbarcò per Cipro". E non parleranno più di lui. Se ne ricorda invece assai Paolo, probabilmente riconciliato con Marco: scrivendo ai Colossesi e a Filemone, manda loro i saluti anche "di Marco" (e ai Colossesi precisa: "il cugino di Barnaba"). Infine, nella prima lettera ai Corinzi, l’apostolo ricorda che anche Barnaba, come lui, si manteneva col suo lavoro. Non poteva essere altrimenti per il “figlio dell’esortazione”, che per farsi cristiano si è fatto innanzitutto povero.
Autore: Domenico Agasso