vendredi 1 juin 2012

Saint JUSTIN


BENOÎT XVI

AUDIENCE GÉNÉRALE

Mercredi 21 mars 2007

Saint Justin

Chers frères et sœurs,

Au cours de ces catéchèses, nous réfléchissons sur les grandes figures de l'Eglise naissante. Aujourd'hui, nous parlons de saint Justin, philosophe et martyr, le plus important des Pères apologistes du II siècle. Le terme "apologiste" désigne les antiques écrivains chrétiens qui se proposaient de défendre la nouvelle religion des lourdes accusations des païens et des Juifs, et de diffuser la doctrine chrétienne dans des termes adaptés à la culture de leur époque. Ainsi, chez les apologistes est présente une double sollicitude: celle, plus proprement apologétique, de défendre le christianisme naissant (apologhía en grec signifie précisément "défense"), et celle qui propose une sollicitude "missionnaire" qui a pour but d'exposer les contenus de la foi à travers un langage et des catégories de pensée compréhensibles par leurs contemporains.

Justin était né aux environs de l'an 100 près de l'antique Sichem, en Samarie, en Terre Sainte; il chercha longuement la vérité, se rendant en pèlerinage dans les diverses écoles de la tradition philosophique grecque. Finalement, - comme lui-même le raconte dans les premiers chapitres de son Dialogue avec Tryphon - un mystérieux personnage, un vieillard rencontré sur la plage de la mer, provoqua d'abord en lui une crise, en lui démontrant l'incapacité de l'homme à satisfaire par ses seules forces l'aspiration au divin. Puis il lui indiqua dans les anciens prophètes les personnes vers lesquelles se tourner pour trouver la voie de Dieu et la "véritable philosophie". En le quittant, le vieillard l'exhorta à la prière, afin que lui soient ouvertes les portes de la lumière. Le récit reflète l'épisode crucial de la vie de Justin: au terme d'un long itinéraire philosophique de recherche de la vérité, il parvint à la foi chrétienne. Il fonda une école à Rome, où il initiait gratuitement les élèves à la nouvelle religion, considérée comme la véritable philosophie. En celle-ci, en effet, il avait trouvé la vérité et donc l'art de vivre de façon droite. Il fut dénoncé pour cette raison et fut décapité vers 165, sous le règne de Marc Aurèle, l'empereur philosophe auquel Justin lui-même avait adressé l'une de ses Apologies.

Ces deux œuvres - les deux Apologies et le Dialogue avec le Juif Tryphon - sont les seules qui nous restent de lui. Dans celles-ci, Justin entend illustrer avant tout le projet divin de la création et du salut qui s'accomplit en Jésus Christ, le Logos, c'est-à-dire le Verbe éternel, la raison éternelle, la Raison créatrice. Chaque homme, en tant que créature rationnelle, participe au Logos, porte en lui le "germe" et peut accueillir les lumières de la vérité. Ainsi, le même Logos, qui s'est révélé comme dans une figure prophétique aux juifs dans la Loi antique, s'est manifesté partiellement, comme dans des "germes de vérité", également dans la philosophie grecque. A présent, conclut Justin, étant donné que le christianisme est la manifestation historique et personnelle du Logos dans sa totalité, il en découle que "tout ce qui a été exprimé de beau par quiconque, nous appartient à nous chrétiens" (2 Apol. 13, 4). De cette façon, Justin, tout en contestant les contradictions de la philosophie grecque, oriente de façon décidée vers le Logos toute vérité philosophique, en justifiant d'un point de vue rationnel la "prétention" de vérité et d'universalité de la religion chrétienne. Si l'Ancien Testament tend au Christ comme la figure oriente vers la réalité signifiée, la philosophie grecque vise elle aussi au Christ et à l'Evangile, comme la partie tend à s'unir au tout. Et il dit que ces deux réalités, l'Ancien Testament et la philosophie grecque, sont comme les deux voies qui mènent au Christ, au Logos. Voilà pourquoi la philosophie grecque ne peut s'opposer à la vérité évangélique, et les chrétiens peuvent y puiser avec confiance, comme à un bien propre. C'est pourquoi mon vénéré prédécesseur, le Pape Jean-Paul II, définit Justin comme "pionnier d'une rencontre fructueuse avec la pensée philosophique, même marquée par un discernement prudent", car Justin, "tout en conservant même après sa conversion, une grande estime pour la philosophie grecque, [...] affirmait avec force et clarté qu'il avait trouvé dans le christianisme "la seule philosophie sûre et profitable" (Dialogue, 8, 1)" (Fides et ratio, n. 38).

Dans l'ensemble, la figure et l'œuvre de Justin marquent le choix décidé de l'Eglise antique pour la philosophie, la raison, plutôt que pour la religion des païens. Avec la religion païenne en effet, les premiers chrétiens refusèrent absolument tout compromis. Ils estimaient qu'elle était une idolâtrie, au risque d'être taxés d'"impiété" et d'"athéisme". Justin en particulier, notamment dans sa première Apologie, conduisit une critique implacable à l'égard de la religion païenne et de ses mythes, qu'il considérait comme des "fausses routes" diaboliques sur le chemin de la vérité. La philosophie représenta en revanche le domaine privilégié de la rencontre entre paganisme, judaïsme et christianisme précisément sur le plan de la critique contre la religion païenne et ses faux mythes. "Notre philosophie...": c'est ainsi, de la manière la plus explicite, qu'un autre apologiste contemporain de Justin, l'Evêque Méliton de Sardes en vint à définir la nouvelle religion (ap. Hist. Eccl. 4, 26, 7).

De fait, la religion païenne ne parcourait pas les voies du Logos mais s'obstinait sur celles du mythe, même si celui-ci était reconnu par la philosophie grecque comme privé de consistance dans la vérité. C'est pourquoi le crépuscule de la religion païenne était inéluctable: il découlait comme une conséquence logique du détachement de la religion - réduite à un ensemble artificiel de cérémonies, de conventions et de coutumes - de la vérité de l'être. Justin, et avec lui les autres apologistes, marquèrent la prise de position nette de la foi chrétienne pour le Dieu des philosophes contre les faux dieux de la religion païenne. C'était le choix pour la vérité de l'être, contre le mythe de la coutume. Quelques décennies après Justin, Tertullien définit le même choix des chrétiens avec la sentence lapidaire et toujours valable: "Dominus noster Christus veritatem se, non con-suetudinem, cognominavit - le Christ a affirmé être la vérité, non la coutume" (De virgin. vle. 1, 1). On notera à ce propos que le terme consuetudo, ici employé par Tertullien en référence à la religion païenne, peut être traduit dans les langues modernes par les expressions "habitude culturelle", "mode du temps".

A une époque comme la nôtre, marquée par le relativisme dans le débat sur les valeurs et sur la religion - tout comme dans le dialogue interreligieux -, il s'agit là d'une leçon à ne pas oublier. Dans ce but, je vous repropose - et je conclus ainsi - les dernières paroles du mystérieux vieillard rencontré par le philosophe Justin au bord de la mer: "Prie avant tout pour que les portes de la lumière te soient ouvertes, parce que personne ne peut voir et comprendre, si Dieu et son Christ ne lui accordent pas de comprendre" (Dial. 7, 3).

* * *

Je salue avec joie les pèlerins francophones, en particulier les séminaristes d’Ars, accompagnés par leur Évêque, Mgr Guy Bagnard, et tous les jeunes présents. À l’exemple de saint Justin, soyez passionnés par la quête de la vérité et devenez des témoins audacieux du Christ pour notre temps.


© Copyright 2007 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana

SOURCE : http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/audiences/2007/documents/hf_ben-xvi_aud_20070321_fr.html


Le martyre de Saint Justin
NOTICE SUR SAINT JUSTIN LE PHILOSOPHE

Par Paul Monceaux

Justin, dit " le philosophe " , était en effet un vrai philosophe, de tendances et de goûts comme de pro-fession et de costume; un philosophe qui, d'abord païen, se convertit au christianisme, mais qui, après sa conversion et jusqu'à son martyre, resta philosophe.

Il était né dans les premières années du IIeme siècle, en Palestine, à Neapolis, aujourd'hui Naplouse, l'ancienne Sichem, près de Samarie. Il appartenait à une famille païenne, qui lui fit donner une instruc-tion assez complète. Grand travailleur, d'esprit ouvert et curieux, le jeune Justin se passionna pour la philo-sophie. Il suivit successivement les leçons de plusieurs maîtres, appartenant aux écoles les plus diverses. Il fut séduit surtout par l'enseignement des platoni-ciens ; mais, là encore, il ne trouvait pas toute la vérité qu'il cherchait.

Entre temps, il eut l'occasion d'assister à des scènes de martyre ; il fut très ému par ce spectacle et très frappé de l'héroïsme des chrétiens. Un jour, il rencontra un vieillard, qui lui vanta et lui expliqua la religion du Christ. Le jeune philosophe se mit à lire et à étudier les livres sacrés du christianisme, qui produisirent sur lui une grande impression. Enfin, vers 130, étant à Ephèse, il se convertit. Il avait alors environ trente ans.Entre temps, il eut l'occasion d'assister à des scènes de martyre ; il fut très ému par ce spectacle et très frappé de l'héroïsme des chrétiens. Un jour, il rencontra un vieillard, qui lui vanta et lui expliqua la religion du Christ. Le jeune philosophe se mit à lire et à étudier les livres sacrés du christianisme, qui produisirent sur lui une grande impression. Enfin, vers 130, étant à Ephèse, il se convertit. Il avait alors environ trente ans.

Devenu chrétien, et chrétien très ardent, il ne renonça pas pour cela à la philosophie, ni au costume et à la vie nomade des philosophes. Il allait de pays en pays, prêchant la doctrine du Christ, la présentant comme la seule conforme à la raison. I1 finit par arriver à Rome, où il fit un premier séjour, sur lequel nous sommes mal renseignés. Il y revint un peu plus tard, et, cette fois, s'y fixa. Il y ouvrit une école, où il enseignait à des disciples la philosophie nouvelle, qui donnait à la foi chrétienne un fondement ration-nel. Son enseignement ne fut pas du goût de tous ses confrères. On lui chercha querelle à ce propos : il eut à soutenir de très vives polémiques, souvent d'un tour personnel, contre plusieurs philosophes, surtout contre Crescens le cynique.

Apôtre batailleur, champion hardi du christianisme, auteur fécond, Justin avait composé une dizaine d'ouvrages : des livres de controverse, des apologies, un grand traité contre les hérétiques. La plupart de ces ouvrages sont perdus, et connus seulement par quelques fragments ou par divers témoignages. En revanche, on lui a attribué plus tard une série d'opuscules, qui n'étaient pas de lui, et qui nous sont par-venus sous son nom : livres édifiants ou dogmatiques, apologétiques ou polémiques.

Son oeuvre authentique, en dehors des fragments, se réduit pour nous à trois ouvrages : une grande Apologie, adressée vers 150 à l'empereur Antonin le Pieux ; une seconde Apologie, adressée au Sénat vers 155, beaucoup plus courte, sorte d'appendice à la précédente ; le Dialogue avec Tryphon, écrit vers 160, où l'auteur raconte à un rabbin sa conversion et cherche à le convaincre de la vérité du christianisme. Ces trois ouvrages sont fort importants pour l'histoire de l'apologétique et pour celle des dogmes ; car Justin est le premier qui ait exposé dans son ensemble la doctrine chrétienne, et qui ait traité rationnellement la question des rapports de la foi avec la raison. Malheureusement, l'écrivain est fort inégal. Mais, s'il décourage parfois le lecteur par l'incohérence de ses développements et par Ies maladresses de son style embarrassé, il le ramène bientôt par ses saillies imprévues , imprévues et l'entraîne jusqu'au bout par son ardeur communicative : il a le mouvement, la vie, la passion. Style à part, c'était un homme éminent : penseur original et indépendant, avec le plus noble caractère et une âme d'apôtre.

Il fut martyrisé à Rome vers 165 Le cynique Crescens, à bout d'arguments, l'avait plus d'une fois menacé de le dénoncer comme chrétien. Justin lui--même déclare, dans sa seconde Apologie, qu'il s'attend à ce dénouement de leurs polémiques On a supposé que Crescens avait cyniquement tenu parole ; mais nous n'en avons pas la preuve. Les Actes du marityre disent seulement que, pendant une persécution, on arrêta Justin avec six autres chrétiens.

Voici les noms de ces compagnons du philosophe, dont plusieurs, tous peut-être, étaient ses disciples : un esclave dle la maison impériale, Evelpiste, originaire de Cappadoce ; un Phrygien, Hierax ; puis Chariton, Péon, Libérien; enfin, une femme, Charito, sans doute la soeur de Chariton. Aussitôt arrêtés, les chrétiens furent tra-duits devant le tribunal du préfet de Rome qui était alors Rusticus le philosophe, maître et ami de Marc-Aurèle. Au cours d'un émouvant interrogatoire, Justin et ses compagnons proclamèrent leur foi avec une fermeté aussi simple qu' inébranlable Condamnés à mort, ils furent aussitôt conduits au supplice et décapités.

On trouvera ci-dessous les Actes authentiques du martyre : transcription du procès-verbal officiel de l'interrogatoire, avec un très court préambule, ajouté après coup, sur la persécution, et une très courte notice sur le supplice. C'est le plus ancien document de ce genre que nous possédions. Malgré 1a sécheresse apparente du procès-verbal, la scène ne manque ni de grandeur ni d'éloquence.

Nous suivons l'édition de Von Gebllardt, Acta rnartyrum selecta, p. 18-21.

ACTES DE SAINT JUSTIN et de ses compagnons

C'était le temps où sévissaient les défenseurs criminels de l'idolâtrie. Des ordres impies, visant les pieux chrétiens, étaient affichés en ville et à la campagne, enjoignant de les forcer à faire des libations en l'honneur des vaines idoles.

Donc, on arrêta ensemble les saints. On les conduisit au préfet de Rome, qui s'appelait Rusticus.

Quand ils furent devant le tribunal, le préfet Rusticus dit à Justin : " D'abord, obéis aux dieux, et soumets-toi aux empereurs ".

- Justin dit : " On ne mérite ni reproche ni condamnation, pour obéir aux commandements de notre Sauveur Jésus-Christ ".

- Le préfet Rusticus dit : " A quelle science t'adonnes-tu `l "

- Justin dit : " J'ai essayé d'apprendre toutes les sciences. Puis je me suis attaché à la science vraie des chrétiens, quoiqu'elle ne plaise pas aux gens dans l'erreur ".

- Le préfet Rusticus dit : " Et cette science -là te plaît à toi, malheureux ? "

- Justin dit : " Oui; car je m'attache à la doctrine véritable, en suivant les chrétiens ".

- Le préfet Rusticus dit : " Et quelle est ote doctrine ? "

- Justin dit : " C'est notre conception pieuse du Dieu des chrétiens. Ce Dieu, nous croyons qu'il est unique, que dès l'origine il a été le créateur et le démiurge de toutes les créatures visibles ou invisibles. Nous croyons que le Seigneur Jésus-Christ est le Fils de Dieu, le Messie annoncé par les Prophètes comme devant assister la race des hommes, comme devant être le héraut du salut et le maître de belles sciences. Moi, qui suis un homme, je parle faiblement de lui, je le sens, en comparaison de sa divinité infinie ; je reconnais qu'il y faut une puissance de prophète. Mais il y a les pré-dictions sur celui que j'ai dit être le Fils de Dieu. Et je sais que les Prophètes étaient inspirés d'en haut, quand ils ont prédit son arrivée parmi les hommes ".

- Le préfet Rusticus dit : " Où vous réunis-sez-vous ? "

- Justin dit : " Là où chacun veut, où il peut. Crois-tu donc que nous nous réunissons tous au même endroit ? Non pas. Le Dieu des chrétiens n'est pas limité dans l'espace. Il est invisible, il remplit le ciel et la terre; partout, il est adoré et glorifié par les fidèle; ".

- En quel endroit rassembles-tu tes disciples ? "

- Justin dit : " 'Moi, je demeure au-dessus d'un certain Martin, près du bain de Timothée. Depuis tout le temps que j'y demeure (et c'est mon second séjour dans la ville de Rome), je ne connais pas d'autre lieu de réunion que cette maison-là. A tous qui voulaient venir chez moi. j'ai communiqué la doctrine de la vérité " .

- Rusticus dit : " Donc maintenant, tu es chrétien ? "

- Justin dit : " Oui, je suis chrétien ".

- Le préfet Rusticus dit à Chariton : " A ton tour, Chariton. Toi aussi, es-tu chrétien ? " - Chariton dit : " Je suis chrétien par la volonté de Dieu "

Le préfet Rusticus dit à une femme, à Charito : " Et toi que répons-tu, Charito ? "

- Charito dit : " Je suis chrétienne, par la grâce de Dieu ".

- Rusticus dit à Evelpiste : " Et toi ? qu'es -tu ? "

- Evelpiste, esclave de César, répondit : " Moi je suis chrétien. Affranchi par le Christ, je partage la même espérance, par la grâce du Christ ".

- Le préfet Rusticus dit à Hiérax : " Toi aussi, es-tu chrétien ? "

- Hiérax dit : " Oui, je suis chrétien ; car j'honore et j'adore le même Dieu. "

- Le préfet Rusticus dit : " Est-ce Justin qui vous a faits chrétiens ? "

- Hiérax dit : " Moi, j'étais chrétien, et je le serai toujours ".

- Alors, Péon se leva et dit : " Moi aussi, je suis chrétien ".

- Le préfet Rusticus dit : " Quel est celui qui t'a instruit ? "

- Péon dit : " C'est de nos parents que nous avons reçu cette belle croyance ".

- Evelpiste dit : " Sans doute, j'écoutais avec plaisir les leçons de Justin ; mais c'est à mes parents que, moi aussi, je dois d'être chré-tien ".

- Le préfet Rusticus dit : " Où sont tes parents ? "

- Evelpiste dit : " En Cappadoce. "

- Rusticus dit à Hiérax : " Et tes parents, à toi, où sont-ils ? "

- Celui-ci répondit : " Notre vrai père est le Christ; notre vraie mère est notre foi en lui. Quant à mes parents terrestres, ils sont morts. Moi, je suis d' Iconion en Phrygie ; j'en ai été arraché, et je suis venu ici ".

- Le préfet Rusticus dit à Libérien : " Et toi, qu'as-tu à dire ? Es-tu chrétien ? Es-tu, toi aussi, un impie ? "

- Libérien dit : " Moi aussi, je suis chrétien. Je ne suis pas un impie, mais j'adore le seul vrai Dieu ".

- Le préfet dit à Justin : " Ecoute-moi, toi qu'on dit éloquent, toi qui crois connaître la vraie doctrine. Si tu es fouetté, puis décapité, es-tu convaincu que tu dois ensuite monter au ciel ? "

- Justin dit : " J'espère que j'y aurai ma demeure, si j'endure tout cela Je le sais : à tous ceux qui auront ainsi vécu est réservée la récompense divine jusqu'à la consommation du monde entier ".

- Le préfet Rusticus dit : Ainsi. tu t'ima-gines que tu monteras aux cieux pour y recevoir des récompenses ? "

- Justin dit : " Je ne l'imagine pas ; mais je le sais, j'en ai la certitude ".

- Le préfet Rusticus dit : " Finissons-en ; arrivons à la chose qu'on vous demande, et qui presse. Venez tous, et, tous ensemble, sacrifiez aux dieux ".

- Justin dit : " Personne, à moins de folie, n'abandonne la piété pour tomber dans l'impié-té ".

- Le préfet Rusticus dit : " Si vous n'obéissez pas, vous serez punis sans pitié ".

- Justin dit : " C'est notre désir, d'être frappés à cause de notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ, pour être sauvés. Ce sera notre salut et notre sécurité devant le tribunal plus redoutable, où le monde entier passera, de notre Maître et Sauveur. "

- De même, les autres martyrs s'écrièrent : " Fais ce que tu veux. Nous sommes chrétiens, nous ne sacrifions pas aux idoles ".

- Alors le préfet Rusticus rendit sa sentence, ainsi conçue : " Les prévenus, n'ayant pas voulu sacrifier aux dieux en obéissant à l'ordre de l'empereur, seront fouettés et emmenés pour être punis de la peine capitale, conformément aux lois " .

Les saints martyrs glorifièrent Dieu, puis sortirent pour aller au lieu ordinaire des exécu-tions. Là, ils furent décapités, consommant ainsi leur martyre dans la confession du Sau-veur. Quelques-uns des fidèles, secrètement, enlevèrent leurs corps pour les déposer dans un lieu convenable, avec l'aide de la grâce de notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ, à qui soit gloire dans les siècles des siècles. Amen.

(Extrait de " La vraie Légende dorée ", relation de martyre traduites avec introduction et notices, par Paul Monceaux, de l'Institut, professeur au Collège de France. Editions Payot, Paris, 1928.)
______________________________________

Copyright © AVM 1997-2003. Tous droits réservès.

SOURCE : http://www.1000questions.net/fr/Qui-sont/saint_justin.html


St Justin, martyr


C’est le 14 avril 1882 que Léon XIII institua la fête de saint Justin sous le rite double, suite à la demande de plusieurs Pères du Concile Vatican I.

Justin fut martyrisé vers 165, à une époque où Rome ne célébrait pas encore le culte des martyrs : sa déposition nous est donc inconnue.

Il est inscrit par Florus de Lyon au 13 avril vers 850. Léon XIII adopta cette date en la déplaçant d’un jour à cause de la fête de saint Herménégilde, réduisant de ce fait la fête des sts Martyrs Tiburce, Valérien et Maxime à une mémoire.
Leçons des Matines avant 1960

Au deuxième nocturne.

Quatrième leçon. Justin, fils de Priscus, grec de nation, né à Flavia Néapolis, dans la Syrie Palestine, passa son adolescence dans l’étude assidue des belles-lettres. Arrivé à l’âge d’homme, il fut pris d’un tel amour pour la philosophie qu’il voulut, pour parvenir à la vérité, s’attacher à toutes les sectes de philosophes qu’il pût connaître et approfondir leur enseignement. Ne trouvant en toutes ces sectes qu’erreur et fausse sagesse, il fut éclairé d’en haut à la parole d’un vieillard inconnu et d’aspect vénérable, et embrassa la philosophie véritable de la foi chrétienne. Dès lors, il eut jour et nuit dans les mains les livres de la sainte Écriture, et son âme, à la méditation des paroles sacrées, devint si brûlante du feu divin, qu’appliquant fa force de son génie à acquérir la science éminente de Jésus-Christ, il composa plusieurs livres pour exposer et propager la foi chrétienne.

Cinquième leçon. Parmi les écrits les plus célèbres de saint Justin se distinguent les deux Apologies que, devant le sénat, il présenta aux empereurs Antonin le Pieux et ses fils, ainsi qu’à Marc-Antonin Vérus et Lucius Aurélius Commode, qui persécutaient cruellement les chrétiens et dont il obtint, après avoir éloquemment défendu cette même foi devant eux, un édit qui apaisa la persécution. Toutefois Justin ne fut point épargné ; accusé frauduleusement par le philosophe cynique Crescent, qu’il avait repris au sujet de sa vie et de ses mauvaises mœurs, il fut arrêté par des satellites. Amené au préfet de Rome, Rusticus, comme celui-ci lui demandait quelle était la loi chrétienne, il fit en présence d’un grand nombre de témoins cette belle confession de foi : « La doctrine véritable que nous, Chrétiens, nous gardons pieusement, est celle-ci : Nous croyons à un seul Dieu, qui a fait et créé tout ce qui se voit et tout ce que les yeux corporels ne peuvent apercevoir, et nous confessons le Seigneur Jésus-Christ Fils de Dieu, annoncé autrefois par les Prophètes, et qui doit venir juger le genre humain ».

Sixième leçon. Comme Justin dans sa première Apologie, afin de repousser les calomnies des Païens, avait exposé comment les Chrétiens s’assemblaient religieusement, et quels étaient les mystères de ces saintes assemblées, le président lui demanda quel était le lieu où lui-même et les Chrétiens de la ville se réunissaient. Justin ne voulut point découvrir les lieux des assemblées, pour ne point livrer aux chiens les saints mystères, ni trahir ses frères. Il se contenta d’indiquer sa propre demeure où il avait coutume d’instruire ses disciples, auprès du Titre célèbre du Pasteur, dans le palais de Pudens. A la fin, le préfet lui donna le choix de sacrifier aux dieux ou d’être flagellé par tout le corps. L’invincible défenseur de la foi déclara qu’il avait toujours désiré souffrir des tourments pour le Seigneur Jésus-Christ, dont il attendait au ciel une grande récompense, et le préfet prononça contre lui la sentence capitale. Ainsi, cet admirable philosophe, ne cessant de louer Dieu, après avoir été battu de verges, répandit son sang pour le Christ, et fut couronné par un glorieux martyre. Les fidèles enlevèrent secrètement son corps et l’ensevelirent dans un lieu convenable. Le souverain Pontife Léon XIII a ordonné de célébrer dans l’Église universelle l’Office et la Messe de sa Fête.

Au troisième nocturne.

Lecture du saint Évangile selon saint Luc. Cap. 12, 2-8.

En ce temps-là : Jésus dit à ses disciples : Il n’y a rien de secret qui ne doive être découvert, ni rien de caché qui ne doive être connu. Et le reste.

Homélie de S. Jean Chrysostome.

Septième leçon. « Il n’y a rien de caché qui ne sera révélé, rien de secret qui ne sera su ». Jésus leur dit par là : il doit vous suffire pour vous consoler, que moi, votre Seigneur et votre Maître, j’aie subi les mêmes injures. S’il vous en coûte de les entendre, songez d’autre part que vous ne tarderez pas à être délivrés de ces soupçons calomnieux. Pourquoi êtes-vous affligés ? Parce qu’on vous traite de séducteurs et d’imposteurs ? Attendez quelque temps, et toutes les bouches vous nommeront les sauveurs et les bienfaiteurs de l’univers. Le temps fera \la lumière sur ces points obscurs, confondra les calomnies, et montrera votre vertu dans tout son éclat. Or, quand l’expérience elle-même aura prouvé que vous êtes les sauveurs, les bienfaiteurs véritables de l’humanité, que vous avez mis en pratique toutes les vertus, alors les hommes, oubliant les propos de vos ennemis ; n’auront égard qu’à la vérité des choses ; et, tandis que ces derniers apparaîtront comme des sycophantes, des menteurs, des calomniateurs, vous resplendirez plus vivement que le soleil ; ainsi le temps vous fera connaître, proclamera vos mérites et, d’une voix plus éclatante que celle de la trompette, appellera tous les hommes à rendre témoignage à votre vertu. Ne vous laissez donc pas abattre par ce que vous entendez maintenant ; que l’espérance des biens qui vous sont réservés ranime votre âme ; car impossible de tenir caché ce qui vous concerne.

Huitième leçon. Après avoir délivré ses disciples de toute anxiété, de toute crainte, de toute sollicitude, et les avoir rendus même supérieurs à tous les outrages, le Sauveur saisit cette occasion pour les entretenir de la liberté dont ils doivent user dans leurs prédications. « Ce que je vous dis dans les les ténèbres, dites-le dans la lumière, leur dit-il, et ce qui vous est dit à l’oreille, prêchez-le sur les toits ». Certainement il n’y avait point de ténèbres quand il leur parlait, et il ne leur disait rien à l’oreille : Jésus s’exprime ainsi par hyperbole. Parce qu’il parlait à eux seuls et dans un petit coin de la Palestine, il emploie cette figure : « Ce que je vous dis à l’oreille », comparant cette façon de les instruire à la hardiesse de langage dont ils devront user plus tard. Ne prêchez pas seulement à une, deux ou trois cités, leur dit-il ; prêchez dans tout l’univers, parcourez les mers et la terre, les contrées habitées et celles qui ne le sont pas ; dites toutes ces choses aux tyrans et aux multitudes, aux philosophes et aux orateurs, avec une grande assurance. Telle est la signification de ces mots : « Prêchez sur les toits, dites-le à la lumière », sans recourir à aucun subterfuge, avec la plus complète liberté.

Neuvième leçon. Après avoir élevé de la sorte leurs sentiments, le Sauveur revient de nouveau sur les épreuves qui les attendent, et il leur inspire un si grand courage, qu’il met leur âme au-dessus de tous les maux. « Ne craignez point, leur dit-il, ceux qui tuent le corps et ne peuvent tuer l’âme ». Voyez-vous comment il les rend supérieurs à tous les maux, aux sollicitudes, aux calomnies, aux dangers, aux pièges, enfin à la plus terrible des choses, à la mort même ? Et non seulement il leur inspire le mépris d’une mort ordinaire, mais encore d’une mort .violente. Il ne leur dit pas : Vous serez mis à mort ; s’exprimant avec la dignité qui lui convenait : « Ne craignez point, leur dit-il, ceux qui tuent le corps et ne peuvent tuer l’âme ; mais craignez plutôt celui qui peut précipiter l’âme et le corps dans la géhenne ». Comme il le fait toujours, il dirige son discours vers un but tout opposé. Craignez-vous la mort veut-il leur dire, est-ce bien cette raison qui vous fait hésiter devant le ministère de la prédication ? Voilà pourquoi précisément vous devez l’embrasser : parce que la mort vous épouvante. C’est ainsi que vous serez préservés de la mort véritable. Les hommes, dussent-ils vous tuer, quels que soient leurs efforts, ils ne tueront pas la meilleure partie de vous-mêmes. Aussi le Sauveur ne s’exprime-t-il pas de cette manière : Ils ne tueront pas l’âme ; mais de celle-ci : « ils ne peuvent tuer l’âme ». Quand même ils le voudraient, ils n’y réussiront pas. Si donc les supplices vous effraient, craignez ce supplice beaucoup plus épouvantable. Vous le voyez, au lieu de leur promettre de les délivrer de la mort, il permet qu’ils la subissent, sauf à les combler de biens plus considérables que s’il les en eût délivrés. Certes, il est plus grand d’inspirer le mépris de la mort que de délivrer de la mort.


Dom Guéranger, l’Année Liturgique

L’Ibérie députait hier un de ses princes à la cour du vainqueur de la mort. Avec non moins d’honneur, le Christ admet aujourd’hui dans le cortège de son triomphe un représentant de la science mise au service des intérêts surnaturels. Le manteau des philosophes égale en éclat, sur les épaules de Justin, la pourpre d’Herménégilde ; car tous deux, philosophe et prince, ont teint de leur sang, mêlé à celui de l’Agneau, les vêtements devenus l’insigne de la gloire dont ils jouissent près de lui pour jamais.

Mais ce n’est pas seulement au ciel qu’il nous faut contempler le résultat du combat de ces témoins du Christ ; la propriété du sang des martyrs est de féconder la terre même. Contre le gré de l’hérésie, du sang royal d’Herménégilde est née la catholique Espagne ; le paganisme, en immolant Justin à sa haine, raviva dans le sol Romain la vigueur de la féconde semence que Pierre et Paul y avaient déposée. Nous en avons la preuve en ce jour même, où le Cycle sacré ramène également la mémoire des saints Valérien, Tiburce et Maxime : triumvirat glorieux, conquis au Christ par l’immortelle Cécile qui fut, en ces temps, la plus noble expression de la foi romaine défendue par Justin avec tant de science et d’amour ! Quand Cécile naquit, les conférences publiques de Justin avec les adversaires du christianisme remplissaient Rome du bruit de leurs réfutations victorieuses ; ses écrits, qu’il faisait parvenir intrépidement jusqu’au trône impérial, portaient la lumière là même où sa parole n’atteignait pas. Bientôt la hache du licteur, en s’abattant sur la tète de l’apologiste, donna plus de force encore à ses démonstrations que n’avait fait sa logique puissante, lorsqu’une première fois, il avait arrêté la persécution furieuse et dompté l’enfer.

Le monde, en effet, sollicité en sens contraire dans mille écoles célèbres qui semblent prendre à tâche, par leurs contradictions, de rendre la découverte du vrai impossible, le monde, du moins, est en mesure maintenant de savoir où se trouve la sincérité. Marc-Aurèle, qui vient de succéder à Antonin le Pieux, prétend établir la philosophie avec lui sur le trône ; plaçant l’idéal de toute perfection dans la satisfaction de soi et le dédain pour autrui, il part du scepticisme dogmatique pour établir la loi morale, et livre ses Pensées à l’admiration de quelques courtisans, sans se soucier de réformer les mœurs mêmes de son entourage. Justin, dès son adolescence, a cherché le vrai pour trouver la justice ; sans se laisser décourager par l’inutilité de ses premiers efforts, il n’a point pris prétexte, pour nier la lumière, de ce qu’elle tardait à se montrer ; lorsqu’à l’heure marquée par Dieu la nuit tombe, il dévoue sa vie à la sagesse enfin rencontrée, brûlant de la communiquer à tous, petits et grands, ne comptant pour rien les travaux, les supplices même, qui lui permettront de l’affirmer solennellement à la face de l’univers. Entre le héros chrétien et le sophiste couronné qui l’envoie à la mort, quel homme de bonne foi pourrait hésiter ? Qui, comme Cécile dans son admirable confession, ne déverserait le mépris sur les prétentions de ces faux philosophes devenus les maîtres du monde, et ne donnant d’autre preuve de leur amour pour la sagesse que le parti-pris d’étouffer la voix de ceux qui la prêchent ?

La philosophie, baptisée dans le sang du converti de Naplouse, est chrétienne pour jamais. Sa désolante stérilité cesse en ce grand jour. Le témoignage du martyre que, servante fidèle enfin, elle rend à la vérité, redresse d’un seul coup les écarts monstrueux de ses premiers âges. Sans se confondre avec la foi, elle sera désormais la noble auxiliaire de cette fille des cieux. La raison humaine verra ses forces décuplées par cette alliance illustre, et produira maintenant des fruits assurés. Malheur à elle toutefois, si, oubliant la consécration sublime qui la voue au Christ, elle en vient un jour à ne plus tenir compte de la divine Incarnation, et prétend se suffire avec les enseignements de la seule nature sur l’origine de l’homme, la fin de toutes choses et la règle des mœurs ! Cette lumière naturelle qui éclaire tout homme venant en ce monde est, elle aussi, sans doute, un rayonnement du Verbe [1] ; et c’est là sa grandeur. Mais depuis que ce Verbe divin, dépassant l’honneur fait à la seule raison, a gratifié l’humanité d’une manifestation de lui-même plus directe et plus haute, il n’entend pas que l’homme fasse deux parts en ses dons, qu’il laisse de côté la foi préparant la vision même, et se contente de la lointaine lueur qui eût suffi à la pure nature. Le Verbe est un, comme l’homme même, à qui il se manifeste en même temps, quoique si diversement, par la raison et la foi ; quand l’humanité voudra se soustraire à l’illumination surnaturelle, sa punition trop méritée sera de voir le Verbe divin retirer à lui par degrés cette lumière même de nature qu’elle s’assurait posséder en propre, et laisser le monde s’abîmer dans la déraison.

Nous saluons en vous, ô Justin, l’une des plus nobles conquêtes de notre divin Ressuscité sur l’empire de la mort. Né dans la région des ténèbres, vous avez cherché de bonne heure à briser les liens du mensonge qui vous enserraient comme tant d’autres. La Sagesse, que vous aimiez sans la connaître encore, vous avait, elle aussi, choisi entre tous [2]. Or elle n’entre point dans une âme fausse, elle n’habite point dans un corps soumis au péché [3]. Bien différent des hommes chez qui le beau nom de la philosophie ne recouvrait que l’amour d’eux-mêmes et la prétention de justifier tous les vices, la recherche de la science partait chez vous d’un cœur désireux de savoir, uniquement pour aimer la vérité connue et observer ses lois. Cette pureté de l’intelligence et du cœur vous rapprochait de Dieu ; elle vous rendait digne de rencontrer sur le chemin la Sagesse vivante, qui se donne maintenant à vous pour jamais dans la pleine lumière [4]. L’Église tout à l’heure, ô Justin, vous décorait à bon droit du nom de philosophe admirable ; car, le premier, vous avez compris que la philosophie vraiment digne de ce nom, le véritable amour de la sagesse, ne pouvait arrêter ses poursuites au domaine abstrait de la simple raison, depuis que la raison n’est plus qu’une introductrice aux régions supérieures où la Sagesse se révèle en personne à l’amour qui la cherche sans feinte.

Il est écrit de ceux qui vous ressemblent : La multitude des sages est le salut du monde [5]. Mais qu’ils sont rares aujourd’hui les vrais philosophes, ceux qui, comme vous, comprennent que le but du sage est d’arriver jusqu’à la vue de Dieu [6] par la voie de l’obéissance à ce Dieu très saint [7] ! L’indépendance de la raison est le seul dogme sur lequel s’accordent les sophistes du jour ; le procédé dont ils font le cachet de leur secte est un faux éclectisme, qu’ils entendent comme la faculté laissée à tous de se faire un système : à chacun de choisir ce qui, dans les affirmations des diverses écoles, des religions elles-mêmes, peut sourire davantage. Ainsi proclament-ils que cette raison qu’ils prétendent souveraine n’a pu jusqu’à eux rien produire d’assuré ; et, pour eux-mêmes, le doute sur tout, le scepticisme, comme l’avouent leurs chefs, est le dernier mot de la science. Vraiment, après cela, sont-ils mal venus pour reprocher à l’Église d’abaisser la raison, elle qui naguère encore, au concile du Vatican, exaltait le secours mutuel que se rendent la raison et la foi pour conduire l’homme à Dieu leur commun auteur ! elle qui rejette de son sein ceux qui dénient à la raison humaine le pouvoir de donner par elle-même la certitude sur l’existence de ce Dieu Créateur et Seigneur [8] ! Et pour définir ainsi dans nos temps la valeur respective de la raison et de la foi, sans les séparer et encore moins les confondre, l’Église n’a eu qu’à écouter le témoignage de tous les siècles chrétiens, en remontant jusqu’à vous dont les ouvrages, complétés l’un par l’autre, n’expriment pas une autre doctrine.

Vous avez été un témoin fidèle autant que courageux, vaillant martyr. En des jours où les besoins de la lutte contre l’hérésie n’avaient point encore suggéré à l’Église les termes nouveaux dont la précision allait bientôt devenir indispensable, vos écrits nous montrent combien alors pourtant la doctrine était la même sous l’infirmité du langage. Béni soyez-vous par tous les enfants de la sainte Église, ô Justin, pour cette démonstration précieuse de l’identité de notre croyance avec la foi du second siècle ! Béni soyez-vous d’avoir, à cette fin, distingué scrupuleusement entre ce qui pour tous alors était le dogme même, et les opinions privées auxquelles l’Église, comme elle l’a toujours fait, laissait la liberté sur des points de moindre importance !

Ne faites pas défaut à la confiance que met en vous la Mère commune. Si loin déjà du temps où vous vécûtes, elle veut que ses fils vous honorent plus qu’ils n’avaient fait dans les siècles antérieurs. C’est qu’en effet, après avoir été reconnue comme la reine des nations, la situation pour elle est redevenue la même qu’à l’époque où vous la défendiez contre les assauts d’un pouvoir hostile. Suscitez-lui des apologistes nouveaux. Apprenez-leur comment parfois, à force de zèle, de fermeté, d’éloquence, on arrive à faire reculer l’enfer. Mais que surtout ils aient garde de se méprendre sur la nature de la lutte confiée par l’Église à leur honneur ! C’est une reine qu’ils ont à défendre ; l’Épouse du Fils de Dieu ne saurait consentir à laisser quémander pour elle la protection qu’on donne à une esclave. La vérité a des droits par elle seule ; ou, plutôt, seule elle mérite la liberté. Comme vous donc, ô Justin, ils s’appliqueront sans doute à faire rougir le pouvoir civil de ne pas même reconnaître à l’Église les facultés qu’il accorde à toute secte ; mais l’argumentation d’un chrétien ne saurait s’arrêter à réclamer une tolérance commune à Satan et au Christ ; comme vous encore, et jusque sous la menace d’un redoublement de violences, ils devront ajouter : Notre cause est juste, parce que nous, et nous seuls, disons la vérité [9].

1] Johan. I, 9.

[2] Eccli. IV, 18.

[3] Sap. I. 4.

[4] Ibid. VI, 17-21.

[5] Sap. VI, 26.

[6] Eccli. VI, 23 ; Dialog. cumTryph. 3.

[7] Eccli. IV, 15.

[8] Sess. III ; cap. 4 ; can. 10.

[9] Apolog. Ia, 23.

Bhx Cardinal Schuster, Liber Sacramentorum

Justin le Philosophe est un des plus anciens auteurs ecclésiastiques, prêtre probablement, et qui passa d’abord par les diverses écoles philosophiques de son temps avant d’arriver à la sublime sagesse de la Croix. Il vient aujourd’hui déposer aux pieds du Sauveur sa couronne et la palme de son martyre. En dépit d’une si grande célébrité, le culte de saint Justin, comme en général celui de tous les martyrs romains antérieurs au IIIe siècle, était fort négligé dans la Ville éternelle. Aucun des anciens Itinéraires n’a su nous indiquer sa tombe ; et c’est seulement à titre de conjecture qu’on a cru pouvoir la reconnaître dans un loculus du cimetière de Priscille où, sur quelques tuiles plates, se trouve cette inscription au minium :

M • ZOYCTI • NOC

Ce fut Léon XIII qui, en 1882, imposa son office à l’Église universelle.

Une église de Saint-Justin existait jadis près de la basilique vaticane, à côté de la schola lombarde instituée par la reine Ansa. Mais il s’agissait probablement d’un autre martyr nommé aussi Justin, dont le tombeau était vénéré dans l’Agro Verano.

La messe est moderne, et les réminiscences historiques y abondent. Il s’agit d’un philosophe qui, après avoir vainement cherché la vérité dans les différentes écoles, stoïciennes, pythagoriciennes, platoniciennes, etc., qui s’en disputaient chacune le monopole, la trouve finalement dans la folie de la Croix, qu’il annonce courageusement, dans ses Apologies, aux Césars et au Sénat. D’où l’antithèse entre la sagesse humaine et la science divine, qui aujourd’hui, pour le rédacteur de la messe de saint Justin, est devenue le refrain de toute son ingénieuse construction liturgique. Les textes sont certes bien choisis et bien combinés, mais il manque dans l’ensemble un peu de cette spontanéité qui rend si belles, si coulantes, les antiques compositions liturgiques des Sacramentaires romains.

La collecte révèle fort bien la fin très élevée que se proposa Léon XIII en offrant à la vénération de toute l’Église le philosophe Justin. Ce Pape, pour sauver la société d’une foule d’erreurs, visait à restaurer la philosophie chrétienne, en ramenant toutes les écoles catholiques à l’étude de l’Aquinate. On comprend donc les raisons qu’avait le vieux Pontife de favoriser le culte envers les anciens docteurs de l’Église, pour lesquels saint Thomas eut un si religieux respect.

La lecture tirée de l’épître aux Corinthiens (I, I, 18-30) est un des plus beaux passages de l’Apôtre, où il oppose la sagesse de la Croix à celle du monde, laquelle est folie devant Dieu. Les prédicateurs surtout doivent méditer fréquemment ces paroles de saint Paul pour se convaincre de plus en plus que la conversion des âmes n’est pas promise par Dieu à l’éloquence et à la science humaine, mais à la simple prédication du Crucifié, dans l’esprit de Jésus, qui, par disposition divine, est devenu pour ses fidèles l’unique véritable sagesse, leur justice, leur sanctification et leur rédemption.

Les versets alléluiatiques suivants s’écartent des règles de l’antique psalmodie, car ce sont de simples passages, en prose, des épîtres de saint Paul, qui se prêtent mal au revêtement des modes musicaux grégoriens traditionnels.

Après la Septuagésime, au lieu du verset alléluiatique, on récite le trait, qui ressemble à un vrai centon des lettres de saint Paul. C’est un exemple du préjudice que porte au magnifique monument liturgique de l’Église romaine l’oubli des règles classiques de l’art grégorien :

Contrairement à l’usage antique de la liturgie romaine, en vertu duquel on réservait de préférence aux messes dominicales et aux fêtes des martyrs, durant le cycle pascal, la lecture du dernier discours de Jésus selon saint Jean, on lit aujourd’hui un passage de saint Luc (XII, 2-8). La raison de ce choix est que Justin fut l’apologiste de l’Église des Catacombes, c’est-à-dire l’un des premiers à faire connaître aux empereurs et au grand public romain et asiatique ce que, jusqu’alors, les chefs de la hiérarchie ecclésiastique avaient, comme en grand secret, révélé aux oreilles des initiés, dans la pénombre des cubicula des cimetières souterrains. Dans l’Église, tout est ordre et croissance. A l’origine, la foi était pour les seuls fidèles ; mais au deuxième siècle, l’Église est déjà mûre pour prendre l’offensive même contre les sages. Justin, avec ses deux apologies, ouvre donc pour le christianisme comme une période nouvelle, et il offre l’Évangile à la discussion du grand public païen, afin que le soleil de justice illumine désormais tous les hommes de bonne volonté.

Le verset antiphonique de l’offertoire révèle le même goût que les chants précédents.

Dans sa première Apologie, Justin est le seul parmi les anciens auteurs ecclésiastiques qui, soulevant prudemment le voile qui cachait aux non-initiés le Sacrement eucharistique, en explique aux païens l’essence, l’efficacité et le rite. L’auteur de la collecte sur l’oblation s’est inspiré de ce fait, et vise les calomnies des païens qui, peut-être parce qu’ils avaient mal compris des allusions relatives à la réalité du Corps du Sauveur dans la divine Eucharistie, faisaient un crime aux chrétiens de se nourrir dans leurs assemblées de la chair d’un enfant. Ce propos du vulgaire païen est d’ailleurs précieux pour l’histoire du dogme, puisqu’il suppose la foi des chrétiens à la présence réelle du Corps très saint de Jésus dans l’Eucharistie.

L’antienne pour la Communion des fidèles est tirée d’un texte de l’épître à Timothée (II, IV, 8).

Après la Communion, nous avons encore, dans la collecte, une nouvelle et précieuse réminiscence de l’Apologie de Justin, là où le martyr traite précisément de la divine Eucharistie.

Nous devons avoir un grand amour pour la vérité, puisqu’elle nous délivre de l’erreur et des passions et nous conduit à Dieu. Nous devons donc rechercher cette vérité religieusement, et non par vaine curiosité ; la rechercher hors de nous et en nous, puisqu’il est absolument nécessaire que nous soyons « vrais » tout d’abord. Là où, au livre de Job, la Vulgate lit : Erat ille homo rectus, d’autres versions portent ceci : Erat ille homo verus. Comme si l’on ne pouvait être vraiment homme, si l’on ne possède cette plénitude de droiture que Dieu désire de nous.

Dom Pius Parsch, le Guide dans l’année liturgique

La prédication de la Croix est la force de Dieu.

Saint Justin, surnommé le martyr, était d’origine grecque. Il naquit en Palestine. Ce fut un philosophe. Il se convertit alors qu’il était déjà parvenu à l’âge mûr. Il est au premier rang parmi les Apologistes, ces chrétiens qui défendirent hardiment la foi chrétienne contre les calomnies des païens. Sa première apologie a pour nous une importance particulière, car elle nous renseigne sur la vie morale et le culte de la primitive Église ; elle nous renseigne surtout sur la messe. Saint Justin mourut le 13 avril, entre 163 et 167, de la mort des martyrs. Son martyre nous est relaté par des actes authentiques et vénérables. Le cynique Crescens, qu’il avait convaincu d’immoralité, se vengea en le dénonçant. Ainsi, le fidèle et éloquent défenseur de la foi reçut comme récompense la couronne du martyre. Son tombeau est dans l’Église de saint Laurent, à Rome.

La messe (Narraverunt). — La messe, à la différence des messes de martyrs pendant le temps pascal, a des textes propres qui, d’ordinaire, font allusion à la vie de notre saint. Dans l’introït, nous voyons l’apologiste réfuter les « fables » des païens « devant les rois ». Sa vie est « sans tache ». Il « marche selon la loi du Seigneur ». Saint Justin a abandonné la philosophie du monde et adopté « la science suréminente de Jésus-Christ ». Puisse notre siècle, si fier de la science apparente du monde, demander cette véritable science et cette foi solide (Oraison). On peut adapter parfaitement à saint Justin le passage connu de l’Épître aux Corinthiens sur la « folie de la Croix » qui est la « force de Dieu ». « Les Juifs demandent des signes et les Grecs recherchent la sagesse. Pour nous, nous prêchons le Christ crucifié, ce qui est un scandale pour les Juifs et une folie pour les Grecs, mais ce qui est, pour ceux qui sont appelés, la force de Dieu et la sagesse de Dieu » (Ép.). L’Alléluia est l’écho de l’Épître dont il répète quelques versets. L’Évangile est un passage souvent utilisé dans les messes des martyrs. Le Christ s’adresse aux martyrs et leur demande d’annoncer publiquement ce que Dieu leur a dit dans leur cœur. « Ne craignez pas ceux qui peuvent tuer le corps et n’ont pas d’autre pouvoir ». « Quiconque me confesse devant les hommes, le Fils de l’Homme le confessera devant les anges de son Père ». Notre saint a réalisé ces paroles. A la communion, nous voyons le martyr recevoir « la couronne de justice » ; la sainte Eucharistie est pour nous le gage de cette couronne (Comm.). « Puissions-nous persévérer dans la reconnaissance pour les dons reçus » (Postcommunion).

Ce que saint Justin nous raconte de la messe dans la chrétienté primitive (1 Apol., 65-67). — « Au jour qu’on appelle dimanche, a lieu une réunion de ceux qui demeurent dans les villes ou bien à la campagne. Là, on lit les mémoires des apôtres (c’est-à-dire les évangiles) et les écrits des Prophètes, aussi longtemps qu’il convient. Quand le lecteur a fini, le président (l’évêque) fait une allocution dans laquelle il exhorte à imiter toutes ces bonnes choses : Ensuite, nous nous levons tous ensemble et nous faisons Aes prières pour nous et tous les autres dans le monde entier afin que, dans nos œuvres aussi, nous soyons trouvés de dignes membres de la communauté et qu’ainsi nous obtenions la béatitude éternelle. Quand nous avons terminé nos prières, nous nous saluons les uns les autres par le baiser de paix. Alors, on apporte, au président des frères, du pain et une coupe d’eau et de vin ; il les prend et adresse une louange au Père tout puissant par le nom du Fils et du Saint-Esprit et il prononce, de toute sa force, une longue action de grâces (Eucharistie) pour remercier Dieu de ce qu’il nous a jugés dignes de ces dons. Quand il a terminé les prières et l’Eucharistie, tout le peuple donne son adhésion en disant : “Amen ». Après l’action de grâces du président et l’adhésion du peuple tout entier, ceux qu’on appelle chez nous les diacres distribuent à chacun des assistants du pain eucharistique, du vin et de l’eau, et en portent même aux absents.

Cette nourriture s’appelle chez nous Eucharistie. Personne n’a le droit d’y participer, sauf ceux qui considèrent notre doctrine comme vraie, ont reçu le bain pour la rémission des péchés et la régénération, et vivent selon les prescriptions du Christ. Car nous ne prenons pas cette nourriture comme un pain ordinaire et une boisson ordinaire. Nous avons appris que cette nourriture, consacrée avec action de grâces, est la chair et le sang de ce Jésus fait chair... »

SOURCE : http://www.introibo.fr/14-04-St-Justin-martyr

Portrait de Saint Justin dans André Thevet, Les Vrais Portraits et Vies des Hommes Illustres, 1584

Saint Justin

Philosophe et martyr (✝ 165)

Il naquit à Naplouse, ville de Palestine bâtie sur l'ancien site de Sichem. Ses parents étaient des païens très aisés qui lui firent faire des études très poussées. Il est alors à la recherche de la sagesse. Il en parle dans ses 'dialogues avec Tryphon' où il nous raconte sa longue quête. Il se confie à un maître stoïcien, mais celui-ci ne lui parle pas de Dieu. Il le quitte pour un disciple d'Aristote qui ne s'intéresse qu'à ses honoraires. Les platoniciens lui offrent une doctrine solide et exaltante. Saint Justin pensait avoir trouvé ce qu'il cherchait. Mais sa rencontre avec un chrétien le fait aller plus loin: la vérité tant recherchée, seul le Christ peut la lui donner. A trente ans, devenu chrétien, il ne renie pas sa quête philosophique. Elle est, à ses yeux, une préparation de la révélation chrétienne, chaque doctrine contenant une parcelle de la vérité totale qui se trouve dans le Christ. Il commence alors une carrière d'enseignant, fonde des écoles de philosophie à Ephèse puis à Rome. C'est alors que l'empereur Marc-Aurèle commence sa grande persécution. Saint Justin refuse de sacrifier aux dieux et il est décapité.

Le 21 mars 2007, Benoît XVI a présenté la vie de saint Justin, philosophe et martyr, le plus important des Pères apologistes du IIe siècle, dans sa catéchèse...
(…)

Mémoire de saint Justin, martyr. Philosophe, quand il eut découvert la vraie sagesse dans la vérité du Christ, il la suivit entièrement, la montra dans son comportement, l’enseigna, la défendit par ses écrits et mit le sceau à son témoignage par sa mort à Rome, sous l’empereur Marc Aurèle, entre 163 et 167. Après avoir présenté à l’empereur son Apologie pour la religion chrétienne, il fut traduit devant le préfet Rusticus, se déclara chrétien et fut condamné à mort.

Avec lui sont commémorés ses disciples: les saints martyrs Chariton, et Charite, Évelpiste et Hiéron, Pacon et Libérien, qui reçurent en même temps que lui la couronne de gloire.

Martyrologe romain

Dernières paroles du mystérieux vieillard rencontré par le philosophe Justin au bord de la mer: "Prie avant tout pour que les portes de la lumière te soient ouvertes, parce que personne ne peut voir et comprendre, si Dieu et son Christ ne lui accordent pas de comprendre" (Dial. 7, 3).

SOURCE : http://nominis.cef.fr/contenus/saint/1256/Saint-Justin.html

Justin, de race grecque, fils de Priscus, né à Naplouse (Palestine), passa son adolescence à l'étude de toutes les disciplines de la littérature, puis il fut saisi d'une telle pasion pour la philosophie que, pour trouver la vérité, il fréquenta toutes les sectes philosophiques et scruta toutes leurs règles. Il n'avait trouvé qu'une sagesse trompeuse, lorsqu'éclairé par un vénérable vieillard resté inconnu, il découvrit la foi chrétienne. Depuis, la méditation des Écritures embrasa tellement son âme du feu divin, que sa puissante intelligence acquit dans un degré éminent la science de la grâce et qu'il écrivit de nombreux ouvrages pour l'exposition et la propagation de la foi.


Entre les plus remarquables œuvres de Justin tiennent le premier rang les deux Apologies de la foi chrétienne qu'il présenta au Sénat, à l'empereur Antonin le Pieux et à ses fils, ainsi qu'aux empereurs Marc Antonin Verus et Lucius Aurelius Commodus, qui persécutaient cruellement les Chrétiens. Par les conférences qu'il soutenait vaillamment, il obtint qu'un édit public arrêtât les persécutions. Justin, accusé par le perfide Crescent le Cynique, dont il dénonçait la vie et les mœurs criminelles, fut pris et amené au préfet Rusticus ; le Préfet l'ayant interrogé sur les règles des chrétiens, il répondit : L'exacte croyance que nous chrétiens gardons avec amour, en celle-ci : nous reconnaissons un Dieu unique, auteur et créateur de toutes choses, tant les visibles, que celles qui ne se soient pas des yeux du corps ; et nous confessons le Seigneur Jésus-Christ Fils de Dieu, annoncé autrefois par les prophètes, et qui doit venir comme juge du genre humain.

Comme Justin, pour repousser les calomnies des païens, avait exposé clairement, dans sa première Apologie, le culte, et les mystères, le préfet s'enquit du lieu où les fidèles de la ville se réunissaient, mais Justin, garda le silence pour ne pas livrer aux chiens les choses saintes, indiquant seulement son domicile où il formait ses disciples. Le préfet lui donna le choix entre sacrifier aux dieux ou être déchiré à coups de fouets ; Justin assura qu'il avait toujours souhaité souffrir pour le Seigneur Jésus-Christ, dont il espérait recevoir dans le Ciel une grande récompense, aussi fût-il condamné à mort. Il subit donc les fouets et, louant Dieu, répandit son sang pour le Christ dans un glorieux martyre. Quelques fidèles enlevèrent son corps secrètement et l'ensevelirent dans un lieu convenable. Le Souverain Pontife Léon XIII a ordonné que son office fut célébré par toute l'Église.

SOURCE : http://missel.free.fr/Sanctoral/06/01.php


BENEDICT XVI



GENERAL AUDIENCE



St Peter's Square



Wednesday, 21 March 2007



St Justin, Philosopher and Martyr (c. 100-165)


Dear Brothers and Sisters,

In these Catecheses, we are reflecting on the great figures of the early Church. Today, we will talk about St Justin, Philosopher and Martyr, the most important of the second-century apologist Fathers.

The word "apologist" designates those ancient Christian writers who set out to defend the new religion from the weighty accusations of both pagans and Jews, and to spread the Christian doctrine in terms suited to the culture of their time.

Thus, the apologists had a twofold concern: that most properly called "apologetic", to defend the newborn Christianity (apologhía in Greek means, precisely, "defence"), and the pro-positive, "missionary" concern, to explain the content of the faith in a language and on a wavelength comprehensible to their contemporaries.

Justin was born in about the year 100 near ancient Shechem, Samaria, in the Holy Land; he spent a long time seeking the truth, moving through the various schools of the Greek philosophical tradition.

Finally, as he himself recounts in the first chapters of his Dialogue with Tryphon, a mysterious figure, an old man he met on the seashore, initially leads him into a crisis by showing him that it is impossible for the human being to satisfy his aspiration to the divine solely with his own forces. He then pointed out to him the ancient prophets as the people to turn to in order to find the way to God and "true philosophy".

In taking his leave, the old man urged him to pray that the gates of light would be opened to him.

The story foretells the crucial episode in Justin's life: at the end of a long philosophical journey, a quest for the truth, he arrived at the Christian faith. He founded a school in Rome where, free of charge, he initiated students into the new religion, considered as the true philosophy. Indeed, in it he had found the truth, hence, the art of living virtuously.

For this reason he was reported and beheaded in about 165 during the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the philosopher-emperor to whom Justin had actually addressed one of his Apologia.

These - the two Apologies and the Dialogue with the Hebrew, Tryphon - are his only surviving works. In them, Justin intends above all to illustrate the divine project of creation and salvation, which is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, the Logos, that is, the eternal Word, eternal Reason, creative Reason.

Every person as a rational being shares in the Logos, carrying within himself a "seed", and can perceive glimmers of the truth. Thus, the same Logos who revealed himself as a prophetic figure to the Hebrews of the ancient Law also manifested himself partially, in "seeds of truth", in Greek philosophy.

Now, Justin concludes, since Christianity is the historical and personal manifestation of the Logos in his totality, it follows that "whatever things were rightly said among all men are the property of us Christians" (Second Apology of St Justin Martyr, 13: 4).

In this way, although Justin disputed Greek philosophy and its contradictions, he decisively oriented any philosophical truth to the Logos, giving reasons for the unusual "claim" to truth and universality of the Christian religion. If the Old Testament leaned towards Christ, just as the symbol is a guide to the reality represented, then Greek philosophy also aspired to Christ and the Gospel, just as the part strives to be united with the whole.

And he said that these two realities, the Old Testament and Greek philosophy, are like two paths that lead to Christ, to the Logos. This is why Greek philosophy cannot be opposed to Gospel truth, and Christians can draw from it confidently as from a good of their own.

Therefore, my venerable Predecessor, Pope John Paul II, described St Justin as a "pioneer of positive engagement with philosophical thinking - albeit with cautious discernment.... Although he continued to hold Greek philosophy in high esteem after his conversion, Justin claimed with power and clarity that he had found in Christianity 'the only sure and profitable philosophy' (Dial. 8: 1)" (Fides et Ratio, n. 38).

Overall, the figure and work of Justin mark the ancient Church's forceful option for philosophy, for reason, rather than for the religion of the pagans. With the pagan religion, in fact, the early Christians strenuously rejected every compromise. They held it to be idolatry, at the cost of being accused for this reason of "impiety" and "atheism".

Justin in particular, especially in his first Apology, mercilessly criticized the pagan religion and its myths, which he considered to be diabolically misleading on the path of truth.

Philosophy, on the other hand, represented the privileged area of the encounter between paganism, Judaism and Christianity, precisely at the level of the criticism of pagan religion and its false myths. "Our philosophy...": this is how another apologist, Bishop Melito of Sardis, a contemporary of Justin, came to define the new religion in a more explicit way (Ap. Hist. Eccl. 4, 26, 7).

In fact, the pagan religion did not follow the ways of the Logos, but clung to myth, even if Greek philosophy recognized that mythology was devoid of consistency with the truth.

Therefore, the decline of the pagan religion was inevitable: it was a logical consequence of the detachment of religion - reduced to an artificial collection of ceremonies, conventions and customs - from the truth of being.

Justin, and with him other apologists, adopted the clear stance taken by the Christian faith for the God of the philosophers against the false gods of the pagan religion.

It was the choice of the truth of being against the myth of custom. Several decades after Justin, Tertullian defined the same option of Christians with a lapidary sentence that still applies: "Dominus noster Christus veritatem se, non consuetudinem, cognominavit - Christ has said that he is truth not fashion" (De Virgin. Vel. 1, 1).

It should be noted in this regard that the term consuetudo, used here by Tertullian in reference to the pagan religion, can be translated into modern languages with the expressions: "cultural fashion", "current fads".

In a time like ours, marked by relativism in the discussion on values and on religion - as well as in interreligious dialogue - this is a lesson that should not be forgotten.

To this end, I suggest to you once again - and thus I conclude - the last words of the mysterious old man whom Justin the Philosopher met on the seashore: "Pray that, above all things, the gates of light may be opened to you; for these things cannot be perceived or understood by all, but only by the man to whom God and his Christ have imparted wisdom" (Dial. 7: 3).

* * *


To special groups

I offer a warm welcome to all the English-speaking visitors present at today's Audience. I extend particular greetings to the students from the American Taipei School, to the members of the Shinto religious delegation from Japan and to the pilgrims from St Vincent Archabbey in Latrobe. May this Lenten Season purify your hearts and fill you with joy, and may God bless you all!

Lastly, my greeting goes to the young people, the sick and the newly-weds. In the spiritual atmosphere of Lent, a season of conversion and reconciliation, I ask you, dear young people, to follow Jesus' example, to be faithful heralds of his saving message. I encourage you, dear sick people, to bear your daily cross in close union with Christ Our Lord. Lastly, I urge you, dear newly-weds, to make your families communities of ardent Christian witness.

© Copyright 2007 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana

SOURCE : http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/audiences/2007/documents/hf_ben-xvi_aud_20070321_en.html

St. Justin Martyr was born around the year 100 in the Palestinian province of Samaria in modern-day Nablus, the son of Greek-speaking parents whose ancestors were sent as colonists to that area of the Roman Empire. Justin’s father followed the Greek pagan religion and raised his son to do the same, but he also provided Justin with an excellent education in literature and history.

As a young man, Justin became interested in philosophy and looked for truth in the various schools of thought that had spread throughout the empire. But he became frustrated with the professional philosophers’ intellectual conceits and limitations, as well as their apparent indifference to God.

After several years of study, Justin had a life-changing encounter with an old man who urged him to study the Jewish prophets. He told Justin that these authors had not only spoken by God’s inspiration, but also predicted the coming of Christ and the foundation of his Church. The old man was not searching for truth but for some of his family. Nonetheless they began a discussion in which Justin identified himself as a philologian, a lover of reason. The old man challenged him — why was he not a lover of truth, a lover of deeds. Justin told him that reason led to truth, and philosophy led to happiness. This was certainly an interesting thing for Justin to say since he had not found the truth in the study of reason or happiness in his quest among the philosophers! Perhaps the old man sensed this for he asked for Justin’s definition of philosophy and of happiness.

In the long discussion that followed, Justin spoke eloquently to the old man’s searching questions but even Justin had to admit that philosophers may talk about God but had never seen him, may discuss the soul but didn’t really know it. But if the philosophers whom Justin admired and followed couldn’t, then nobody could, right? The old man told him about the ancient prophets, the Hebrew prophets, who had talked not of ideas but of what they had seen and heard, what they knew and experienced. And this was God. The old man ended the conversation by telling Justin to pray that the gates of light be opened to him.

Inflamed by this conversation, Justin sought out the Scriptures and came to love them. Christ words “possess a terrible power in themselves, and are sufficient to inspire those who turn aside from the path of rectitude with awe; while the sweetest rest is afforded those who make a diligent practice of them.”

After his conversion, Justin continued to wear the type of cloak that Greek culture associated with the philosophers. Inspired by the dedicated example of other Catholics whom he had seen put to death for their faith, he embraced a simple and austere lifestyle even after moving to Rome.

Justin was most likely ordained a deacon, since he preached, did not marry, and gave religious instruction in his home. He is best known as the author of early apologetic works which argued for the Catholic faith against the claims of Jews, pagans, and non-Christian philosophers. Several of these works were written to Roman officials, for the purpose of refuting lies that had been told about the Church. Justin sought to convince the rulers of the Roman Empire that they had nothing to gain, and much to lose, by persecuting the Christians.

In order to fulfill this task, Justin gave explicit written descriptions of the early Church’s beliefs and its mode of worship. In modern times, scholars have noted that Justin’s descriptions correspond to the traditions of the Catholic Church on every essential point. Justin describes the weekly Sunday liturgy as a sacrifice, and speaks of the Eucharist as the true body and blood of Christ. He further states that only baptized persons who believe the Church’s teachings, and are free of serious sin, may receive it. Justin also explains in his writings that the Church regards celibacy as a sacred calling, condemns the common practice of killing infants, and looks down on the accumulation of excessive wealth and property.

His first defense of the faith, written to Emperor Antonius Pius around 150, convinced that emperor to regard the Church with tolerance. In 167, however, persecution began again under Emperor Marcus Aurelius. It is not surprising that Justin was arrested during the persecution under Marcus Aurelius. Along with four others (Chariton, Charites, Paeon, and Liberianus) he was brought before the Roman prefect, Rusticus, to be accused under the law that required sacrificing to idols. When Rusticus demanded that they “Obey the gods at once, and submit to the kings,” Justin responded, “To obey the commandments of our Saviour Jesus Christ is worthy neither of blame nor of condemnation.”

When Rusticus asked what doctrines he believed, Justin told him that he had learned all the doctrines available during his quest but finally submitted to the true doctrines of the Christians, even though they didn’t please others. Just before Rusticus sentenced them he asked Justin, “If you are killed do you suppose you will go to heaven?” Justin said, “I do not suppose it, but I know and am fully persuaded of it.” Justin and his fellow martyrs were beheaded in the year 165 and went to be with the Truth Justin had longed for all his life. He is often known as Justin Martyr and his works are still available.

St. Justin Martyr has been regarded as a saint since the earliest centuries of the Church. Eastern Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians also celebrate his feast day on June 1

SOURCE : http://www.ucatholic.com/saints/saint-justin-martyr/

St. Justin Martyr

St. Justin Martyr

Christian apologist, born at Flavia Neapolis, about A.D. 100, converted to Christianity about A.D. 130, taught and defended the Christian religion in Asia Minor and at Rome, where he suffered martyrdom about the year 165. Two "Apologies" bearing his name and his "Dialogue with the Jew Tryphon" have come down to us. Leo XIII had a Mass and an Office composed in his honour and set his feast for 14 April.

Life

Among the Fathers of the second century his life is the best known, and from the most authentic documents. In both "Apologies" and in his "Dialogue" he gives many personal details, e.g. about his studies in philosophyand his conversion; they are not, however, an autobiography, but are partly idealized, and it is necessary to distinguish in them between poetry and truth; they furnish us however with several precious and reliable clues. For his martyrdom we have documents of undisputed authority. In the first line of his "Apology" he calls himself "Justin, the son of Priscos, son of Baccheios, of Flavia Neapolis, in Palestinian Syria". Flavia Neapolis, his native town, founded by Vespasian (A.D. 72), was built on the site of a place called Mabortha, or Mamortha, quite near Sichem (Guérin, "Samarie", I, Paris, 1874, 390-423; Schürer, "History of the Jewish People", tr., I, Edinburgh, 1885). Its inhabitants were all, or for the most part, pagans. The names of the father and grandfather of Justin suggest a pagan origin, and he speaks of himself as uncircumcised (Dialogue, xxviii). The date of his birth is uncertain, but would seem to fall in the first years of the second century. He received a good education in philosophy, an account of which he gives us at the beginning of his "Dialogue with the Jew Tryphon"; he placed himself first under a Stoic, but after some time found that he had learned nothing about God and that in fact his master had nothing to teach him on the subject. A Peripatetic whom he then found welcomed him at first but afterwards demanded a fee from him; this proved that he was not aphilosopher. A Pythagorean refused to teach him anything until he should have learned music, astronomy, and geometry. Finally a Platonist arrived on the scene and for some time delighted Justin. This account cannot be taken too literally; the facts seem to be arranged with a view to showing the weakness of the paganphilosophies and of contrasting them with the teachings of the Prophets and of Christ. The main facts, however, may be accepted; the works of Justin seem to show just such a philosophic development as is here described, Eclectic, but owing much to Stoicism and more to Platonism. He was still under the charm of thePlatonistic philosophy when, as he walked one day along the seashore, he met a mysterious old man; the conclusion of their long discussion was that he soul could not arrive through human knowledge at the idea ofGod, but that it needed to be instructed by the Prophets who, inspired by the Holy Ghost, had known God and could make Him known ("Dialogue", iii, vii; cf. Zahm, "Dichtung and Wahrheit in Justins Dialog mit dem JedenTrypho" in "Zeitschr. für Kirchengesch.", VIII, 1885-1886, 37-66).

The "Apologies" throw light on another phase of the conversion of Justin: "When I was a disciple of Plato", he writes, "hearing the accusations made against the Christians and seeing them intrepid in the face of death and of all that men fear, I said to myself that it was impossible that they should be living in evil and in thelove of pleasure" (II Apol., xviii, 1). Both accounts exhibit the two aspects of Christianity that most strongly influenced St. Justin; in the "Apologies" he is moved by its moral beauty (I Apol., xiv), in the "Dialogue" by itstruth. His conversion must have taken place at the latest towards A.D. 130, since St. Justin places during thewar of Bar-Cocheba (132-135) the interview with the Jew Tryphon, related in his "Dialogue". This interview is evidently not described exactly as it took place, and yet the account cannot be wholly fictitious. Tryphon, according to Eusebius (Church History IV.18.6), was "the best known Jew of that time", which description the historian may have borrowed from the introduction to the "Dialogue", now lost. It is possible to identify in a general way this Tryphon with the Rabbi Tarphon often mentioned in the Talmud (Schürer, "Gesch. d. Jud. Volkes", 3rd ed., II, 377 seq., 555 seq., cf., however, Herford, "Christianity in Talmud and Midrash", London, 1903, 156). The place of the interview is not definitely told, but Ephesus is clearly enough indicated; theliterary setting lacks neither probability nor life, the chance meetings under the porticoes, the groups of curious onlookers who stop a while and then disperse during the interviews, offer a vivid picture of suchextemporary conferences. St. Justin lived certainly some time at Ephesus; the Acts of his martyrdom tell us that he went to Rome twice and lived "near the baths of Timothy with a man named Martin". He taught schoolthere, and in the aforesaid Acts of his martyrdom we read of several of his disciples who were condemned with him.

In his second "Apology" (iii) Justin says: "I, too, expect to be persecuted and to be crucified by some of those whom I have named, or by Crescens, that friend of noise and of ostentation." Indeed Tatian relates (Address to the Greeks 19) that the Cynic philosopher Crescens did pursue him and Justin; he does not tell us the result and, moreover, it is not certain that the "Discourse" of Tatian was written after the death of Justin. Eusebius(Church History IV.16.7-8) says that it was the intrigues of Crescens which brought about the death of Justin; this is credible, but not certain; Eusebius has apparently no other reason for affirming it than the two passages cited above from Justin and Tatian. St. Justin was condemned to death by the prefect, Rusticus, towards A.D. 165, with six companions, Chariton, Charito, Evelpostos, Pæon, Hierax, and Liberianos. We still have the authentic account of their martyrdom ("Acta SS.", April, II, 104-19; Otto, "Corpus Apologetarum", III, Jena, 1879, 266-78; P.G., VI, 1565-72). The examination ends as follows:
"The Prefect Rusticus says: Approach and sacrifice, all of you, to the gods. Justin says: No one in hisright mind gives up piety for impiety. The Prefect Rusticus says: If you do not obey, you will be tortured without mercy. Justin replies: That is our desire, to be tortured for Our Lord, Jesus Christ, and so to be saved, for that will give us salvation and firm confidence at the more terrible universaltribunal of Our Lord and Saviour. And all the martyrs said: Do as you wish; for we are Christians, and we do not sacrifice to idols. The Prefect Rusticus read the sentence: Those who do not wish tosacrifice to the gods and to obey the emperor will be scourged and beheaded according to the laws. The holy martyrs glorifying God betook themselves to the customary place, where they were beheaded and consummated their martyrdom confessing their Saviour."

Works

Justin was a voluminous and important writer. He himself mentions a "Treatise against Heresy" (I Apology, xxvi, 8); St. Irenæus (Against Heresies IV.6.2) quotes a "Treatise against Marcion" which may have been only a part of the preceding work. Eusebius mentions both (Church History IV.11.8-10), but does not seem to have read them himself; a little further on (IV.18) he gives the following list of Justin's works: "Discourse in favour of our Faith to Antoninus Pius, to his sons, and to the Roman Senate"; an "Apology" addressed to Marcus Aurelius; "Discourse to the Greeks"; another discourse called "A Refutation"; "Treatise on the Divine Monarchy"; a book called "The Psalmist"; "Treatise on the soul"; "Dialogue against the Jews", which he had in the city of Ephesus with Tryphon, the most celebrated Israelite of that time. Eusebius adds that many more of his books are to be found in the hands of the brethren. Later writers add nothing certain to this list, itself possibly not altogether reliable. There are extant but three works of Justin, of which the authenticity is assured: the two "Apologies" and the "Dialogue". They are to be found in two manuscripts: Paris gr. 450, finished on 11 September, 1364; and Claromont. 82, written in 1571, actually at Cheltenham, in the possession of M.T.F. Fenwick. The second is only a copy of the first, which is therefore our sole authority; unfortunately this manuscript is very imperfect (Harnack, "Die Ueberlieferung der griech. Apologeten" in "Texte and Untersuchungen", I, Leipzig, 1883, i, 73-89; Archambault, "Justin, Dialogue a vec Tryphon", Paris, 1909, p. xii-xxxviii). There are many large gaps in this manuscript, thus II Apol., ii, is almost entirely wanting, but it has been found possible to restore the manuscript text from a quotation of Eusebius (Church History IV.17). The "Dialogue" was dedicated to a certain Marcus Pompeius (exli, viii); it must therefore have been preceded by a dedicatory epistle and probably by an introduction or preface; both are lacking. In the seventy-fourthchapter a large part must also be missing, comprising the end of the first book and the beginning of the second (Zahn, "Zeitschr. f. Kirchengesch.", VIII, 1885, 37 sq., Bardenhewer, "Gesch. der altkirchl. Litter.", I,Freiburg im Br., 1902, 210). There are other less important gaps and many faulty transcriptions. There being no other manuscript, the correction of this one is very difficult; conjectures have been often quite unhappy, and Krüger, the latest editor of the "Apology", has scarcely done more than return to the text of the manuscript.

In the manuscript the three works are found in the following order: second "Apology", first "Apology", the "Dialogue". Dom Maran (Paris, 1742) re-established the original order, and all other editors have followed him. There could not be as a matter of fact any doubt as to the proper order of the "Apologies", the first is quoted in the second (iv, 2; vi, 5; viii, 1). The form of these references shows that Justin is referring, not to a different work, but to that which he was then writing (II Apol., ix, 1, cf. vii, 7; I Apol., lxiii, 16, cf. xxxii, 14; lxiii, 4, cf. xxi, 1; lxi, 6, cf. lxiv, 2). Moreover, the second "Apology" is evidently not a complete work independent of the first, but rather an appendix, owing to a new fact that came to the writer's knowledge, and which he wished to utilize without recasting both works. It has been remarked that Eusebius often alludes to the second "Apology" as the first (Church History IV.8.5 and IV.17.1), but the quotations from Justin byEusebius are too inexact for us to attach much value to this fact (cf. Church History IV.11.8; Bardenhewer, op. cit., 201). Probably Eusebius also erred in making Justin write one apology under Antoninus (161) and another under Marcus Aurelius. The second "Apology", known to no other author, doubtless never existed(Bardenhewer, loc. cit.; Harnack, "Chronologie der christl. Litter.", I, Leipzig, 1897, 275). The date of the "Apology" cannot be determined by its dedication, which is not certain, but can be established with the aid of the following facts: it is 150 years since the birth of Christ (I, xlvi, 1); Marcion has already spread abroad hiserror (I, xxvi, 5); now, according to Epiphanius (Hæres., xlii, 1), he did not begin to teach until after the death of Hyginus (A.D. 140). The Prefect of Egypt, Felix (I, xxix, 2), occupied this charge in September, 151, probably from 150 to about 154 (Grenfell-Hunt, "Oxyrhinchus Papyri", II, London, 1899, 163, 175; cf. Harnack, "Theol. Literaturzeitung", XXII, 1897, 77). From all of this we may conclude that the "Apology" was written somewhere between 153 and 155. The second "Apology", as already said, is an appendix to the first and must have been written shortly afterwards. The Prefect Urbinus mentioned in it was in charge from 144 to 160. The "Dialogue" is certainly later than the "Apology" to which it refers (Dialogue with Trypho 120, cf. "I Apol.", xxvi); it seems, moreover, from this same reference that the emperors to whom the "Apology" was addressed were still living when the "Dialogue" was written. This places it somewhere before A.D. 161, the date of the death ofAntoninus.

The "Apology" and the "Dialogue" are difficult to analyse, for Justin's method of composition is free and capricious, and defies our habitual rules of logic. The content of the first "Apology" (Viel, "Justinus des Phil.Rechtfertigung", Strasburg, 1894, 58 seq.) is somewhat as follows:
  • i-iii: exordium to the emperors: Justin is about to enlighten them and free himself of responsibility, which will now be wholly theirs.
  • iv-xii: first part or introduction:
    • the anti-Christian procedure is iniquitous: they persecute in the Christians a name only (iv, v);
    • Christians are neither Atheists nor criminals (vi, vii);
    • they allow themselves to be killed rather than deny their God (viii);
    • they refuse to adore idols (ix, xii);
    • conclusion (xii).
  • xiii-lxvii: Second part (exposition and demonstration of Christianity):
    • Christians adore the crucified Christ, as well as God (xiii);
    • Christ is their Master; moral precepts (xiv-xvii);
    • the future life, judgement, etc. (xviii-xx).
    • Christ is the Incarnate Word (xxi-lx);
    • comparison with pagan heroes, Hermes, Æsculapius, etc. (xxi-xxii);
    • superiority of Christ and of Christianity before Christ (xlvi).
    • The similarities that we find in the pagan worship and philosophy come from the devils (liv-lx).
    • Description of Christian worship: baptism (lxi);
    • the Eucharist (lxv-lxvi);
    • Sunday-observance (lxvii).
Second "Apology":
  • Recent injustice of the Prefect Urbinus towards the Christians (i-iii).
  • Why it is that God permits these evils: Providence, human liberty, last judgement (iv-xii).
The "Dialogue" is much longer than the two apologies taken together ("Apol." I and II in P.G., VI, 328-469;Dialogue with Trypho), the abundance of exegetical discussions makes any analysis particularly difficult. The following points are noteworthy:
  • i-ix. Introduction: Justin gives the story of his philosophic education and of this conversion. One mayknow God only through the Holy Ghost; the soul is not immortal by its nature; to know truth it isnecessary to study the Prophets.
  • x-xxx: On the law. Tryphon reproaches the Christians for not observing the law. Justin replies that according to the Prophets themselves the law should be abrogated, it had only been given to the Jews on account of their hardness. Superiority of the Christian circumcision, necessary even for the Jews. Theeternal law laid down by Christ.
  • xxxi-cviii: On Christ: His two comings (xxxi sqq.); the law a figure of Christ (xl-xlv); the Divinity and the pre-existence of Christ proved above all by the Old Testament apparitions (theophanies) (lvi-lxii);incarnation and virginal conception (lxv sqq.); the death of Christ foretold (lxxxvi sqq.); His resurrection(cvi sqq.).
  • cviii to the end: On the Christians. The conversion of the nations foretold by the Prophets (cix sqq.);Christians are a holier people than the Jews (cxix sqq.); the promises were made to them (cxxi); they were prefigured in the Old Testament (cxxxiv sqq.). The "Dialogue" concludes with wishes for theconversion of the Jews.
Besides these authentic works we possess others under Justin's name that are doubtful or apocryphal.
  • "On the Resurrection" (for its numerous fragments see Otto, "Corpus Apolog.", 2nd ed., III, 210-48 and the "Sacra Parallela", Holl, "Fragmente vornicänischer Kirchenväter aus den Sacra Parallela" in "Texte und Untersuchungen", new series, V, 2, Leipzig, 1899, 36-49). The treatise from which these fragments are taken was attributed to St. Justin by St. Methodius (early fourth century) and was quoted by St. Irenæusand Tertullian, who do not, however, name the author. The attribution of the fragments to Justin is therefore probable (Harnack, "Chronologie", 508; Bousset, "Die Evangeliencitaten Justins", Göttingen, 1891, 123sq.; archambault, "Le témoignage de l'ancienne littérature Chrétienne sur l'authenticité d'un traité sur la resurrection attribué à Justin l'Apologiste" in "Revuede Philologie", XXIX, 1905, 73-93). The chief interest of these fragments consists in the introduction, where is explained with much force the transcendent nature of faith and the proper nature of its motives.
  • "A Discourse to the Greeks" (Otto, op. cit., III, 1, 2, 18), an apocryphal tract, dated by Harnack (Sitzungsberichte der k. preuss. Akad. d. Wiss. zu Berlin, 1896, 627-46), about A.D. 180-240. Later it was altered and enlarged in Syriac: text and English translation by Cureton, "Spicileg. Syr.", London, 1855, 38-42, 61-69.
  • "Exhortation to the Greeks" (Otto, op. cit., 18-126). The authenticity of this has been defended without success by Widman ("Die Echtheit der Mahnrede Justins an die Heiden", Mainz, 1902); Puech, "Sur lelogos parainetikos attribué à Justin" in "Mélanges Weil", Paris, 1898, 395-406, dates it about 260-300, but most critics say, with more probability, A.D. 180-240 (Gaul, "Die Abfassungsverhältnisse der pseudojustinischen Cohortatio ad Græcos", Potsdam, 1902).
  • "On Monarchy" (Otto, op. cit., 126-158), tract of uncertain date, in which are freely quoted Greek poets altered by some Jew.
  • "Exposition of the Faith" (Otto, op. cit., IV, 2-66), a dogmatic treatise on the Trinity and the Incarnationpreserved in two copies the longer of which seems the more ancient. It is quoted for the first time byLeontius of Byzantium (d. 543) and refers to the Christological discussions of the fifth century; it seems, therefore, to date from the second half of that century.
  • "Letter to Zenas and Serenus" (Otto, op. cit., 66-98), attributed by Batiffol in "Revue Biblique", VI, 1896, 114-22, to Sisinnios, the Novatian Bishop of Constantinople about A.D. 400.
  • "Answers to the Orthodox."
  • "The Christian's Questions to the Greeks."
  • "The Greek's Questions to the Christians."
  • "Refutation of certain Aristotelean theses" (Otto, op. cit., IV, 100-222; V, 4-366).
The "Answers to the Orthodox" was re-edited in a different and more primitive form by Papadopoulos-Kerameus (St. Petersburg, 1895), from a Constantinople manuscript which ascribed the work to Theodoret. Though this ascription was adopted by the editor, it has not been generally accepted. Harnack has studied profoundly these four books and maintains, not without probability, that they are the work of Diodorus of Tarsus (Harnack, "Diodor von Tarsus., vier pseudojustinische Schriften als Eigentum Diodors nachgewiesen" in "Texte und Untersuch.", XII, 4, Leipzig, 1901).

Doctrine

Justin and philosophy

The only pagan quotations to be found in Justin's works are from Homer, Euripides, Xenophon, Menander, and especially Plato (Otto, II, 593 sq.). His philosophic development has been well estimated by Purves ("TheTestimony of Justin Martyr to early Christianity", London, 1882, 132): "He appears to have been a man of moderate culture. He was certainly not a genius nor an original thinker." A true eclectic, he draws inspirationfrom different systems, especially from Stoicism and Platonism. Weizsäcker (Jahrbücher f. Protest. Theol., XII, 1867, 75) thought he recognized a Peripatetic idea, or inspiration, in his conception of God as immovable above the heavens (Dialogue with Trypho 127); it is much more likely an idea borrowed from AlexandrianJudaism, and one which furnished a very efficacious argument to Justin in his anti-Jewish polemic. In theStoics Justin admires especially their ethics (II Apol., viii, 1); he willingly adopts their theory of a universalconflagration (ekpyrosis). In I Apol., xx, lx; II, vii, he adopts, but at the same time transforms, their concept of the seminal Word (logos spermatikos). However, he condemns their Fatalism (II Apol., vii) and theirAtheism (Dialogue with Trypho 2). His sympathies are above all with Platonism. He likes to compare it withChristanity; apropos of the last judgment, he remarks, however (I Apol., viii, 4), that according to Plato the punishment will last a thousand years, whereas according to the Christians it will be eternal; speaking ofcreation (I Apol., xx, 4; lix), he says that Plato borrowed from Moses his theory of formless matter; similarly he compares Plato and Christianity apropos of human responsibility (I Apol., xliv, 8) and the Word and theSpirit (I Apol., lx). However, his acquaintance with Plato was superficial; like his contemporaries (Philo, Plutarch, St. Hippolytus), he found his chief inspiration in the Timæus. Some historians have pretended thatpagan philosophy entirely dominated Justin's Christianity (Aubé, "S. Justin", Paris, 1861), or at least weakened it (Engelhardt, "Das Christentum Justins des Märtyrers", Erlangen, 1878). To appreciate fairly this influence it is necessary to remember that in his "Apology" Justin is seeking above all the points of contact between Hellenism and Christianity. It would certainly be wrong to conclude from the first "Apology" (xxii) that Justin actually likens Christ to the pagan heroes of semi-heroes, Hermes, Perseus, or Æsculapius; neither can we conclude from his first "Apology" (iv, 8 or vii, 3, 4) that philosophy played among the Greeks the same role that Christianity did among the barbarians, but only that their position and their reputation were analogous.

In many passages, however, Justin tries to trace a real bond between philosophy and Christianity: according to him both the one and the other have a part in the Logos, partially disseminated among men and wholly manifest in Jesus Christ (I, v, 4; I, xlvi; II, viii; II, xiii, 5, 6). The idea developed in all these passages is given in the Stoic form, but this gives to its expression a greater worth. For the Stoics the seminal Word(logos spermatikos) is the form of every being; here it is the reason inasmuch as it partakes of God. This theory of the full participation in the Divine Word (Logos) by the sage has its full value only in Stoicism (seeLOGOS). In Justin thought and expression are antithetic, and this lends a certain incoherence to the theory; the relation established between the integral Word, i.e. Jesus Christ, and the partial Word disseminated in the world, is more specious than profound. Side by side with this theory, and quite different in its origin and scope, we find in Justin, as in most of his contemporaries, the conviction that Greek philosophy borrowed from the Bible: it was by stealing from Moses and the Prophets that Plato and the other philosophers developed their doctrines (I, xliv, lix, ls). Despite the obscurities and incoherences of this thought, he affirms clearly and positively the transcendent character of Christianity: "Our doctrine surpasses all human doctrine because the real Word became Christ who manifested himself for us, body, word and soul." (II, Apol., x, 1.) This Divine origin assures Christianity an absolute truth (II, xiii, 2) and gives to the Christians complete confidence; they die for Christ's doctrine; no one died for that of Socrates (II, x, 8). The first chapters of the "Dialogue" complete and correct these ideas. In them the rather complaisant syncretism of the "Apology" disappears, and the Christian thought is stronger.

Justin's chief reproach to the philosophers is their mutual divisions; he attributes this to the pride of the heads of sects and the servile acquiescence of their adherents; he also says a little later on (vi): "I care neither for Plato nor for Pythagoras." From it all he concludes that for the pagans philosophy is not a serious or profound thing; life does not depend on it, nor action: "Thou art a friend of discourse", says the old man to him before his conversion, "but not of action nor of truth" (iv). For Platonism he retained a kindly feeling as for a study dear in childhood or in youth. Yet he attacks it on two essential points: the relation between God andman, and the nature of the soul (Dialogue with Trypho 3, 6). Nevertheless he still seems influenced by it in his conception of the Divine transcendency and the interpretation that he gives to the aforesaid theophanies.

Justin and Christian revelation

That which Justin despairs of attaining through philosophy he is now sure of possessing through Jewish andChristian revelation. He admits that the soul can naturally comprehend that God is, just as it understands thatvirtue is beautiful (Dialogue with Trypho 4) but he denies that the soul without the assistance of the Holy Ghost can see God or contemplate Him directly through ecstasy, as the Platonic philosophers contended. And yet this knowledge of God is necessary for us: "We cannot know God as we know music, arithmetic orastronomy" (iii); it is necessary for us to know God not with an abstract knowledge but as we know any personwith whom we have relations. Thr problem which it seems impossible to solve is settled by revelation; Godhas spoken directly to the Prophets, who in their turn have made Him known to us (viii). It is the first time inChristian theology that we find so concise an explanation of the difference which separates Christianrevelation from human speculation. It does away with the confusion that might arise from the theory, taken from the "Apology", of the partial Logos and the Logos absolute or entire.

The Bible of Justin

The Old Testament

For Philo the Bible is very particularly the Pentateuch (Ryle, "Philo and Holy Scripture", XVII, London, 1895, 1-282). In keeping with the difference of his purpose, Justin has other preferences. He quotes the Pentateuchoften and liberally, especially Genesis, Exodus, and Deuteronomy; but he quotes still more frequently and at greater length the Psalms and the Books of Prophecy — above all, Isaias. The Books of Wisdom are seldom quoted, the historical books still less. The books that we never find in his works are Judges, Esdras (except one passage which is attributed to him by mistake—Dialogue with Trypho 72), Tobias, Judith, Ester, Canticles, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Abdias, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophonias, Aggeus. It has been noticed, too (St. JohnThackeray in "Journ. of Theol. Study", IV, 1903, 265, n.3), that he never cites the last chapters of Jeremias(apropos of the first "Apology", xlvii, Otto is wrong in his reference to Jeremiah 50:3). Of these omissions the most noteworthy is that of Wisdom, precisely on account of the similarity of ideas. It is to be noted, moreover, that this book, surely used in the New Testament, cited by St. Clement of Rome (xxvii, 5) and later by St. Irenæus (Eusebius, Church History V.26), is never met with in the works of the apologists (the reference of Otto to Tatian 7 is inexact). On the other hand one finds in Justin some apocryphal texts: pseudo-Esdras(Dialogue with Trypho 72), pseudo-Jeremias (ibid.), Psalm 96:10 (Dialogue with Trypho 72; I Apol., xli); sometimes also errors in ascribing quotations: Zacharias for Malachias (Dialogue with Trypho 49), Osee forZacharias for Malachias (Dialogue with Trypho 14). For the Biblical text of Justin, see Swete, "Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek", Cambridge, 1902, 417-24.

The New Testament

The testimony of Justin is here of still greater importance, especially for the Gospels, and has been more often discussed. The historical side of the question is given by W. Bousset, "Die Evangeliencitaten Justins" (Göttingen, 1891), 1-12, and since then, by Baldus, "Das Verhältniss Justins der Märt. zu unseren synopt. Evangelien" (Münster, 1895); Lippelt, "Quæ fuerint Justini mart. apomnemoneumata quaque ratione cum formaEvangeliorum syro-latina cohæserint" (Halle, 1901). The books quoted by Justin are called by him "Memoirs of the Apostles". This term, otherwise very rare, appears in Justin quite probably as an analogy with the "Memorabilia" of Xenophon (quoted in "II Apol.", xi, 3) and from a desire to accommodate his language to thehabits of mind of his readers. At any rate it seems that henceforth the word "gospels" was in current usage; it is in Justin that we find it for the first time used in the plural, "the Apostles in their memoirs that are calledgospels" (I Apol., lxvi, 3). These memoirs have authority, not only because they relate the words of Our Lord(as Bossuet contends, op. cit., 16 seq.), but because, even in their narrative parts, they are considered asScripture (Dialogue with Trypho 49, citing Matthew 17:13). This opinion of Justin is upheld, moreover, by theChurch who, in her public service reads the memoirs of the Apostles as well as the writings of the prophets (I Apol., lxvii, 3). These memoirs were composed by the Apostles and by those who followed them (Dialogue with Trypho 103); he refers in all probability to the four Evangelists, i.e. to two Apostles and two disciples ofChrist (Stanton, "New Testament canon" in Hastings, "Dictionary of the Bible", III, 535). The authors, however, are not named: once (Dialogue with Trypho 103) he mentions the "memoirs of Peter", but the text is very obscure and uncertain (Bousset, op. cit., 18).

All facts of the life of Christ that Justin takes from these memoirs are found indeed in our Gospels (Baldus, op. cit., 13 sqq.); he adds to them a few other and less important facts (I Apol., xxxii; xxxv; Dialogue with Trypho 35, 47, 51, 78), but he does not assert that he found them in the memoirs. It is quite probable that Justin used a concordance, or harmony, in which were united the three synoptic Gospels (Lippelt, op. cit., 14, 94) and it seems that the text of this concordance resembled in more than one point the so-called Westerntext of the Gospels (cf. ibid., 97). Justin's dependence on St. John is indisputably established by the facts which he takes from Him (I Apol., lxi, 4, 5; Dialogue with Trypho 69, 88), still more by the very striking similarity in vocabulary and doctrine. It is certain, however, that Justin does not use the fourth Gospel as abundantly as he does the others (Purves, op. cit., 233); this may be owing to the aforesaid concordance, orharmony, of the synoptic Gospels. He seems to use the apocryphal Gospel of Peter (I Apol., xxxv, 6; cf.Dialogue with Trypho 103; Revue Biblique, III, 1894, 531 sqq.; Harnack, "Bruchstücke des Evang. des Petrus", Leipzig, 1893, 37). His dependence on the Protoevangelium of James (Dialogue with Trypho 78) doubtful.

Apologetical method

Justin's attitude towards philosophy, described above, reveals at once the tendency of his polemics; he never exhibits the indignation of a Tatian or even of a Tertullian. To the hideous calumnies spread abroad against the Christians he sometimes answers, as do the other apologists, by taking the offensive and attacking paganmorality (I Apol., xxvii; II, xii, 4, 5), but he dislikes to insist on these calumnies: the interlocutor in the "Dialogue" (ix) he is careful to ignore those who would trouble him with their loud laughter. He has not the eloquence of Tertullian, and can obtain a hearing only in a small circle of men capable of understanding reasonand of being moved by an idea. His chief argument, and one calculated to convert this hearers as it hadconverted him (II Apol., xii), is the great new fact of Christian morality. He speaks of men and women who have no fear of death (I Apol., ii, xi, xlv; II, ii; Dialogue with Trypho 30), who prefer truth to life (I Apol., ii; II, iv) and are yet ready to await the time allotted by God (II, iv, 1); he makes known their devotion to their children (I, xxvii), their charity even towards their enemies, and their desire to save them (I Apol., lvii;Dialogue with Trypho 133), their patience and their prayers in persecution (Dialogue with Trypho 18), theirlove of mankind (Dialogue with Trypho 93, 110). When he contrasts the life that they led in paganism with their Christian life (I Apol., xiv), he expresses the same feeling of deliverance and exaltation as did St. Paul (1 Corinthians 6:11). He is careful, moreover, to emphasize, especially from the Sermon on the Mount, the moralteaching of Christ so as to show in it the real source of these new virtues (I Apol., xv-xviii). Throughout his exposé of the new religion it is Christian chastity and the courage of the martyrs that he most insists upon.

The rational evidences of Christianity Justin finds especially in the prophecies; he gives to this argument more than a third of his "Apology" (xxx-liii) and almost the entire "Dialogue". When he is disputing with the paganshe is satisfied with drawing attention to the fact that the books of the Prophets were long anterior to Christ, guaranteed as to their authenticity by the Jews themselves, and says that they contain prophecies concerning the life of Christ and the spread of the Church that can only be explained by a Divine revelation (I Apol., xxxi). In the "Dialogue", arguing with Jews, he can assume this revelation which they also recognize, and he caninvoke the Scriptures as sacred oracles. These evidences of the prophecies are for him absolutely certain. "Listen to the texts which I am about to cite; it is not necessary for me to comment upon them, but only for you to hear them" (Dialogue with Trypho 53; cf. I Apol., xxx, liii). Nevertheless he recognizes that Christ alone could have given the explanation of them (I Apol., xxxii; Dialogue with Trypho 76 and 105); to understand them the men and women of his time must have the interior dispositions that make the true Christian(Dialogue with Trypho 112), i.e., Divine grace is necessary (Dialogue with Trypho 7, 58, 112 and 119). He alsoappeals to miracles (Dialogue with Trypho 7, 35 and 69; cf. II Apol., vi), but with less insistence than to theprophecies.

Theology

God

Justin's teaching concerning God has been very diversely interpreted, some seeing in it nothing but aphilosophic speculation (Engelhardt, 127 sq., 237 sqq.), others a truly Christian faith (Flemming, "Zur Beurteilung des Christentums Justins des Märtyrers", Leipzig, 1893, 70 sqq.; Stählin, "Justin der Märtyrer und sein neuester Beurtheiler", 34 sqq., Purves, op. cit., 142 sqq.). In reality it is possible to find in it these two tendencies: on one side the influence of philosophy betrays itself in his concept of the Divine transcendency, thus God is immovable (I Apol., ix; x, 1; lxiii, 1; etc.); He is above the heaven, can neither be seen nor enclosed within space (Dialogue with Trypho 56, 60 and 127); He is called Father, in a philosophic andPlatonistic sense, inasmuch as He is the Creator of the world (I Apol., xlv, 1; lxi, 3; lxv, 3; II Apol., vi, 1, etc.). On the other hand we see the God of the Bible in his all-powerful (Dialogue with Trypho 84; I Apol., xix, 6), and merciful God (Dialogue with Trypho 84; I Apol., xix, 6); if He ordained the Sabbath it was not that He had need of the homage of the Jews, but that He desired to attach them to Himself (Dialogue with Trypho22); through His mercy He preserved among them a seed of salvation (lv); through His Divine Providence He has rendered the nations worthy of their inheritance (cxviiicxxx); He delays the end of the world on account of the Christians (xxxix; I Apol., xxviii, xlv). And the great duty of man is to love Him (Dialogue with Trypho 93).

The Logos

The Word is numerically distinct from the Father (Dialogue with Trypho 128-129; cf. Dialogue with Trypho 56, 62). He was born of the very substance of the Father, not that this substance was divided, but He proceeds from it as one fire does from another at which it is lit (cxxviii, lxi); this form of production (procession) is compared also with that of human speech (lxi). The Word (Logos) is therefore the Son: much more, He alone may properly be called Son (II Apol., vi, 3); He is the monogenes, the unigenitus (Dialogue with Trypho 105). Elsewhere, however, Justin, like St. Paul, calls Him the eldest Son, prototokos (I Apol., xxxiii; xlvi; lxiii;Dialogue with Trypho 84, 85 and 125). The Word is God (I Apol., lxiii; Dialogue with Trypho 34, 36, 37, 56, 63,76, 86, 87, 113, 115, 125, 126 and 128). His Divinity, however, seems subordinate, as does the worship which is rendered to Him (I Apol., vi; cf. lxi, 13; Teder, "Justins des Märtyrers Lehre von Jesus Christus", Freiburg im Br., 1906, 103-19). The Father engendered Him by a free and voluntary act (Dialogue with Trypho 61, 100, 127and 128; cf. Teder, op. cit., 104), at the beginning of all His works (Dialogue with Trypho 61-62, II Apol., vi, 3); in this last text certain authors thought they distinguished in the Word two states of being, one intimate, the other outspoken, but this distinction, though found in some other apologists, is in Justin very doubtful. Through the Word God has made everything (II Apol., vi; Dialogue with Trypho 114). The Word is diffused through all humanity (I Apol., vi; II, viii; xiii); it was He who appeared to the patriarchs (I Apol., lxii; lxiii;Dialogue with Trypho 56, 59, 60 etc.). Two influences are plainly discernible in the aforesaid body of doctrine. It is, of course, to Christian revelation that Justin owes his concept of the distinct personality of the Word, HisDivinity and Incarnation; but philosophic speculation is responsible for his unfortunate concepts of the temporal and voluntary generation of the Word, and for the subordinationism of Justin's theology. It must be recognized, moreover, that the latter ideas stand out more boldly in the "Apology" than in the "Dialogue."

The Holy Ghost occupies the third place in the Trinity (I Apol., vi). He inspired the prophets (I Apol., vi;xxxi;Dialogue with Trypho 7). He gave seven gifts to Christ and descended upon Him (Dialogue with Trypho 87-88). For the real distinction between the Son and the Spirit see Teder, op. cit., 119-23. Justin insists constantly on the virgin birth (I Apol., xxii; xxxiii; Dialogue with Trypho 43, 76, 84, etc.) and the reality of the flesh of Christ(Dialogue with Trypho 48, 98 and 103; cf. II Apol., x, 1). He states that among the Christians there are some who do not admit the Divinity of Christ but they are a minority; he differs from them because of the authority of the Prophets (Dialogue with Trypho 96); the entire dialogue, moreover, is devoted to proving this thesis.Christ is the Master whose doctrine enlightens us (I Apol., xiii, 3; xxiii, 2; xxxii, 2; II, viii, 5; xiii, 2; Dialogue with Trypho 8, 77, 83, 100 and 113), also the Redeemer whose blood saves us (I Apol., lxiii, 10, 16; Dialogue with Trypho 13, 40, 41, 95 and 106; cf. Rivière, "Hist. du dogme de la rédemption", Paris, 1905, 115, and tr., London, 1908). The rest of Justin's theology is less personal, therefore less interesting. As to the Eucharist, the baptismal Mass and the Sunday Mass are described in the first "Apology" (lxv-lxvii), with a richness of detail unique for that age. Justin here explains the dogma of the Real Presence with a wonderful clearness (lxvi, 2): "In the same way that through the power of the Word of God Jesus Christ our Saviour took flesh and blood for our salvation, so the nourishment consecrated by the prayer formed of the words of Christ . . . is the flesh and blood of this incarnate Jesus." The "Dialogue" (cxvii; cf. xli) completes this doctrine by the idea of aEucharistic sacrifice as a memorial of the Passion.


The role of St. Justin may be summed up in one word: it is that of a witness. We behold in him one of the highest and purest pagan souls of his time in contact with Christianity, compelled to accept its irrefragabletruth, its pure moral teaching, and to admire its superhuman constancy. He is also a witness of the second-century Church which he describes for us in its faith, its life, its worship, at a time when Christianity yet lacked the firm organization that it was soon to develop (see ST. IRENÆUS), but the larger outlines of whose constitution and doctrine are already luminously drawn by Justin. Finally, Justin was a witness for Christ unto death.

Sources

PRINCIPAL EDITIONS:-MARAN, S. Patris Nostri Justini philosophi et martyris opera quæ exstant omnia (Paris, 1742), and in P.G., VI; OTTO, Corpus apologetarum christianorum sæculi secundi, I-V (3rd ed., Jena, 1875-81); Krüger, Die Apologien Justins des Märtyrers (3rd ed., ed., Tübingen, 1904); PAUTIGNY, Justin, Apologies (Paris, 1904); ARCHAMBAULT, Justin, Dialogue avec Tryphon, I (Paris, 1909).

PRINCIPAL STUDIES:-VON ENGELHARDT, Das Christenthum Justins des Märtyrers. Eine Untersuchung über die Anfänge der katholischen Glaubenslehre (Erlangen, 1878); PURVES, The Testimony of Justin Martyr to Early Christianity (lectures delivered on the L.P. Stone Foundation at Princeton Theological Seminary) (London, 1888); TEDER, Justins des Märtyrers Lehre von Jesus Christus, dem Messias und dem menschgewordenen Sohne Gottes (Freiburg im Br., 1906). Works on special points and works of less importance have been mentioned in the course of the article. A more complete bibliography may be found in BARDENHEWER, Gesch. der altkirchl. Litteratur, I (Freiburg im Br., 1902), 240-42.


From Constantine Cavarnos’s overview of philosophy in the Church Fathers, Orthodoxy and Philosophy (Belmont, MA: Institute for Byzantine & Modern Greek Studies, 2003), pp. 20-2:

The greatest of the Apologists was Justin Martyr the Philosopher. He was born in Palestine about 114 and was martyred around 165. As a young man he acquainted himself with the teachings of the Stoics, the Aristotelians, the Pythagoreans, and the Platonists.

He found best the teachings of Plato. But even these did not completely satisfy his deep yearning for the truth. Having learned about the teachings of Christianity, he studied them, was won by them, and became a Christian. His conversion probably took place at Ephesus, in Asia Minor.

After his conversion, Justin continued to cherish all that he had found good in the philosophy of Plato, such as the belief in the immortality of the soul, retribution after death, and moral responsibility (see e.g. B.L. Gildersleeve, The Apologies of Justin Martyr, NY, 1877, p. xi).

He pointed out, however, that ‘although the doctrines of Plato are not unlike those of Christ, they are not in all respects the same’ (Apology II, 13).

Besides Plato, he particularly admired Socrates, who was Plato’s great teacher, and the Pre-Socratic philosopher Heracleitos. Thus, Justin says: ‘Those who lived according to reason (λόγος) are Christians, even though they were accounted atheists. Such among the Greeks were Socrates and Heracleitos, and those who resembled them’ (Apology I, 46).

The term ‘reason’ as used here by Justin denotes the mental faculty or power in man that apprehends values, that distinguishes between truth and error, good and evil, that orders one’s inner and outer life with a view to acquiring and doing what is good, and avoiding or overcoming what is evil, orienting an individual towards God.

With regard to Socrates, Justin adds that he exhorted men to seek God, endeavoured to draw them away from demons, and taught them the immortality of the soul, as is done by Christianity, too.

Justin undertook to defend the Christian Faith, which was beign maligned by its enemies, and thereby to defend the Christians, who, as a result of hostility to Christianity were being persecuted by command of the Roman Emperors. He wrote two Apologies addressed to the Emperors.

In these he made use of the teachings of the ancient Greek philosophers—especially thosse of Pythagoras, Hercleitos, Socrates, and Plato. He found these teachings very helpful in his endeavor to overcome the hostility of the Emperors by calling attention to certain important similarities between the beliefs of Christians and those of these philosophers, whom they respected.

Justin’s Apologies strengthened the morale of Christians. He himself endured martyrdom for his Christian faith. His martyrdom took place in Rome between 163 and 167, when Junius Rusticus was Prefect of that city (F.L. Cross, The Early Christian Fathers, London 1960, p. 49).

* * *

O God, who through the folly of the Cross wondrously taught Saint Justin the Martyr the surpassing knowledge of Jesus Christ, grant us, through his intercession, that, having rejected deception and error, we may become steadfast in the faith. Through our Lord.

SOURCE : http://archbishopterry.blogspot.ca/2011/06/saint-justin-philosopher-and-martyr.html

Saint JUSTIN. The First Apology

Chapter 1. Address

To the Emperor Titus Ælius Adrianus Antoninus Pius Augustus Cæsar, and to his son Verissimus the Philosopher, and to Lucius the Philosopher, the natural son of Cæsar, and the adopted son of Pius, a lover of learning, and to the sacred Senate, with the whole People of the Romans, I, Justin, the son of Priscus and grandson of Bacchius, natives of Flavia Neapolis in Palestine, present this address and petition in behalf of those of all nations who are unjustly hated and wantonly abused, myself being one of them.

Chapter 2. Justice demanded

Reason directs those who are truly pious and philosophical to honour and love only what is true, declining to follow traditional opinions, if these be worthless. For not only does sound reason direct us to refuse the guidance of those who did or taught anything wrong, but it is incumbent on the lover of truth, by all means, and if death be threatened, even before his own life, to choose to do and say what is right. Do you, then, since you are called pious and philosophers, guardians of justice and lovers of learning, give good heed, and hearken to my address; and if you are indeed such, it will be manifested. For we have come, not to flatter you by this writing, nor please you by our address, but to beg that you pass judgment, after an accurate and searching investigation, not flattered by prejudice or by a desire of pleasing superstitious men, nor induced by irrational impulse or evil rumours which have long been prevalent, to give a decision which will prove to be against yourselves. For as for us, we reckon that no evil can be done us, unless we be convicted as evil-doers or be proved to be wicked men; and you, you can kill, but not hurt us.

Chapter 3. Claim of judicial investigation

But lest any one think that this is an unreasonable and reckless utterance, we demand that the charges against the Christians be investigated, and that, if these be substantiated, they be punished as they deserve; [or rather, indeed, we ourselves will punish them.] But if no one can convict us of anything, true reason forbids you, for the sake of a wicked rumour, to wrong blameless men, and indeed rather yourselves, who think fit to direct affairs, not by judgment, but by passion. And every sober-minded person will declare this to be the only fair and equitable adjustment, namely, that the subjects render an unexceptional account of their own life and doctrine; and that, on the other hand, the rulers should give their decision in obedience, not to violence and tyranny, but to piety and philosophy. For thus would both rulers and ruled reap benefit. For even one of the ancients somewhere said, Unless both rulers and ruled philosophize, it is impossible to make states blessed. It is our task, therefore, to afford to all an opportunity of inspecting our life and teachings, lest, on account of those who are accustomed to be ignorant of our affairs, we should incur the penalty due to them for mental blindness; and it is your business, when you hear us, to be found, as reason demands, good judges. For if, when you have learned the truth, you do not what is just, you will be before God without excuse.

Chapter 4. Christians unjustly condemned for their mere name

By the mere application of a name, nothing is decided, either good or evil, apart from the actions implied in the name; and indeed, so far at least as one may judge from the name we are accused of, we are most excellent people. But as we do not think it just to beg to be acquitted on account of the name, if we be convicted as evil-doers, so, on the other hand, if we be found to have committed no offense, either in the matter of thus naming ourselves, or of our conduct as citizens, it is your part very earnestly to guard against incurring just punishment, by unjustly punishing those who are not convicted. For from a name neither praise nor punishment could reasonably spring, unless something excellent or base in action be proved. And those among yourselves who are accused you do not punish before they are convicted; but in our case you receive the name as proof against us, and this although, so far as the name goes, you ought rather to punish our accusers. For we are accused of being Christians, and to hate what is excellent (Chrestian) is unjust. Again, if any of the accused deny the name, and say that he is not a Christian, you acquit him, as having no evidence against him as a wrong-doer; but if any one acknowledge that he is a Christian, you punish him on account of this acknowledgment. Justice requires that you inquire into the life both of him who confesses and of him who denies, that by his deeds it may be apparent what kind of man each is. For as some who have been taught by the Master, Christ, not to deny Him, give encouragement to others when they are put to the question, so in all probability do those who lead wicked lives give occasion to those who, without consideration, take upon them to accuse all the Christians of impiety and wickedness. And this also is not right. For of philosophy, too, some assume the name and the garb who do nothing worthy of their profession; and you are well aware, that those of the ancients whose opinions and teachings were quite diverse, are yet all called by the one name of philosophers. And of these some taught atheism; and the poets who have flourished among you raise a laugh out of the uncleanness of Jupiter with his own children. And those who now adopt such instruction are not restrained by you; but, on the contrary, you bestow prizes and honours upon those who euphoniously insult the gods.

Chapter 5. Christians charged with atheism

Why, then, should this be? In our case, who pledge ourselves to do no wickedness, nor to hold these atheistic opinions, you do not examine the charges made against us; but, yielding to unreasoning passion, and to the instigation of evil demons, you punish us without consideration or judgment. For the truth shall be spoken; since of old these evil demons, effecting apparitions of themselves, both defiled women and corrupted boys, and showed such fearful sights to men, that those who did not use their reason in judging of the actions that were done, were struck with terror; and being carried away by fear, and not knowing that these were demons, they called them gods, and gave to each the name which each of the demons chose for himself. And when Socrates endeavoured, by true reason and examination, to bring these things to light, and deliver men from the demons, then the demons themselves, by means of men who rejoiced in iniquity, compassed his death, as an atheist and a profane person, on the charge that he was introducing new divinities; and in our case they display a similar activity. For not only among the Greeks did reason (Logos) prevail to condemn these things through Socrates, but also among the Barbarians were they condemned by Reason (or the Word, the Logos) Himself, who took shape, and became man, and was called Jesus Christ; and in obedience to Him, we not only deny that they who did such things as these are gods, but assert that they are wicked and impious demons, whose actions will not bear comparison with those even of men desirous of virtue.

Chapter 6. Charge of atheism refuted

Hence are we called atheists. And we confess that we are atheists, so far as gods of this sort are concerned, but not with respect to the most true God, the Father of righteousness and temperance and the other virtues, who is free from all impurity. But both Him, and the Son (who came forth from Him and taught us these things, and the host of the other good angels who follow and are made like to Him), and the prophetic Spirit, we worship and adore, knowing them in reason and truth, and declaring without grudging to every one who wishes to learn, as we have been taught.

Chapter 7. Each Christian must be tried by his own life

But some one will say, Some have ere now been arrested and convicted as evil-doers. For you condemn many, many a time, after inquiring into the life of each of the accused severally, but not on account of those of whom we have been speaking. And this we acknowledge, that as among the Greeks those who teach such theories as please themselves are all called by the one name Philosopher, though their doctrines be diverse, so also among the Barbarians this name on which accusations are accumulated is the common property of those who are and those who seem wise. For all are called Christians. Wherefore we demand that the deeds of all those who are accused to you be judged, in order that each one who is convicted may be punished as an evil-doer, and not as a Christian; and if it is clear that any one is blameless, that he may be acquitted, since by the mere fact of his being a Christian he does no wrong. For we will not require that you punish our accusers; they being sufficiently punished by their present wickedness and ignorance of what is right.

Chapter 8. Christians confess their faith in God

And reckon that it is for your sakes we have been saying these things; for it is in our power, when we are examined, to deny that we are Christians; but we would not live by telling a lie. For, impelled by the desire of the eternal and pure life, we seek the abode that is with God, the Father and Creator of all, and hasten to confess our faith, persuaded and convinced as we are that they who have proved to God by their works that they followed Him, and loved to abide with Him where there is no sin to cause disturbance, can obtain these things. This, then, to speak shortly, is what we expect and have learned from Christ, and teach. And Plato, in like manner, used to say that Rhadamanthus and Minos would punish the wicked who came before them; and we say that the same thing will be done, but at the hand of Christ, and upon the wicked in the same bodies united again to their spirits which are now to undergo everlasting punishment; and not only, as Plato said, for a period of a thousand years. And if any one say that this is incredible or impossible, this error of ours is one which concerns ourselves only, and no other person, so long as you cannot convict us of doing any harm.

Chapter 9. Folly of idol worship

And neither do we honour with many sacrifices and garlands of flowers such deities as men have formed and set in shrines and called gods; since we see that these are soulless and dead, and have not the form of God (for we do not consider that God has such a form as some say that they imitate to His honour), but have the names and forms of those wicked demons which have appeared. For why need we tell you who already know, into what forms the craftsmen, Isaiah 44:9-20; Jeremiah 10:3. carving and cutting, casting and hammering, fashion the materials? And often out of vessels of dishonour, by merely changing the form, and making an image of the requisite shape, they make what they call a god; which we consider not only senseless, but to be even insulting to God, who, having ineffable glory and form, thus gets His name attached to things that are corruptible, and require constant service. And that the artificers of these are both intemperate, and, not to enter into particulars, are practised in every vice, you very well know; even their own girls who work along with them they corrupt. What infatuation! That dissolute men should be said to fashion and make gods for your worship, and that you should appoint such men the guardians of the temples where they are enshrined; not recognising that it is unlawful even to think or say that men are the guardians of gods.

Chapter 10. How God is to be served

But we have received by tradition that God does not need the material offerings which men can give, seeing, indeed, that He Himself is the provider of all things. And we have been taught, and are convinced, and do believe, that He accepts those only who imitate the excellences which reside in Him, temperance, and justice, and philanthropy, and as many virtues as are peculiar to a God who is called by no proper name. And we have been taught that He in the beginning did of His goodness, for man's sake, create all things out of unformed matter; and if men by their works show themselves worthy of this His design, they are deemed worthy, and so we have received— of reigning in company with Him, being delivered from corruption and suffering. For as in the beginning He created us when we were not, so do we consider that, in like manner, those who choose what is pleasing to Him are, on account of their choice, deemed worthy of incorruption and of fellowship with Him. For the coming into being at first was not in our own power; and in order that we may follow those things which please Him, choosing them by means of the rational faculties He has Himself endowed us with, He both persuades us and leads us to faith. And we think it for the advantage of all men that they are not restrained from learning these things, but are even urged thereto. For the restraint which human laws could not effect, the Word, inasmuch as He is divine, would have effected, had not the wicked demons, taking as their ally the lust of wickedness which is in every man, and which draws variously to all manner of vice, scattered many false and profane accusations, none of which attach to us.

Chapter 11. What kingdom Christians look for

And when you hear that we look for a kingdom, you suppose, without making any inquiry, that we speak of a human kingdom; whereas we speak of that which is with God, as appears also from the confession of their faith made by those who are charged with being Christians, though they know that death is the punishment awarded to him who so confesses. For if we looked for a human kingdom, we should also deny our Christ, that we might not be slain; and we should strive to escape detection, that we might obtain what we expect. But since our thoughts are not fixed on the present, we are not concerned when men cut us off; since also death is a debt which must at all events be paid.

Chapter 12. Christians live as under God's eye

And more than all other men are we your helpers and allies in promoting peace, seeing that we hold this view, that it is alike impossible for the wicked, the covetous, the conspirator, and for the virtuous, to escape the notice of God, and that each man goes to everlasting punishment or salvation according to the value of his actions. For if all men knew this, no one would choose wickedness even for a little, knowing that he goes to the everlasting punishment of fire; but would by all means restrain himself, and adorn himself with virtue, that he might obtain the good gifts of God, and escape the punishments. For those who, on account of the laws and punishments you impose, endeavour to escape detection when they offend (and they offend, too, under the impression that it is quite possible to escape your detection, since you are but men), those persons, if they learned and were convinced that nothing, whether actually done or only intended, can escape the knowledge of God, would by all means live decently on account of the penalties threatened, as even you yourselves will admit. But you seem to fear lest all men become righteous, and you no longer have any to punish. Such would be the concern of public executioners, but not of good princes. But, as we before said, we are persuaded that these things are prompted by evil spirits, who demand sacrifices and service even from those who live unreasonably; but as for you, we presume that you who aim at [a reputation for] piety and philosophy will do nothing unreasonable. But if you also, like the foolish, prefer custom to truth, do what you have power to do. But just so much power have rulers who esteem opinion more than truth, as robbers have in a desert. And that you will not succeed is declared by the Word, than whom, after God who begot Him, we know there is no ruler more kingly and just. For as all shrink from succeeding to the poverty or sufferings or obscurity of their fathers, so whatever the Word forbids us to choose, the sensible man will not choose. That all these things should come to pass, I say, our Teacher foretold, He who is both Son and Apostle of God the Father of all and the Ruler, Jesus Christ; from whom also we have the name of Christians. Whence we become more assured of all the things He taught us, since whatever He beforehand foretold should come to pass, is seen in fact coming to pass; and this is the work of God, to tell of a thing before it happens, and as it was foretold so to show it happening. It were possible to pause here and add no more, reckoning that we demand what is just and true; but because we are well aware that it is not easy suddenly to change a mind possessed by ignorance, we intend to add a few things, for the sake of persuading those who love the truth, knowing that it is not impossible to put ignorance to flight by presenting the truth.

Chapter 13. Christians serve God rationally

What sober-minded man, then, will not acknowledge that we are not atheists, worshipping as we do the Maker of this universe, and declaring, as we have been taught, that He has no need of streams of blood and libations and incense; whom we praise to the utmost of our power by the exercise of prayer and thanksgiving for all things wherewith we are supplied, as we have been taught that the only honour that is worthy of Him is not to consume by fire what He has brought into being for our sustenance, but to use it for ourselves and those who need, and with gratitude to Him to offer thanks by invocations and hymns for our creation, and for all the means of health, and for the various qualities of the different kinds of things, and for the changes of the seasons; and to present before Him petitions for our existing again in incorruption through faith in Him. Our teacher of these things is Jesus Christ, who also was born for this purpose, and was crucified under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judæa, in the times of Tiberius Cæsar; and that we reasonably worship Him, having learned that He is the Son of the true God Himself, and holding Him in the second place, and the prophetic Spirit in the third, we will prove. For they proclaim our madness to consist in this, that we give to a crucified man a place second to the unchangeable and eternal God, the Creator of all; for they do not discern the mystery that is herein, to which, as we make it plain to you, we pray you to give heed.

Chapter 14. The demons misrepresent Christian doctrine

For we forewarn you to be on your guard, lest those demons whom we have been accusing should deceive you, and quite divert you from reading and understanding what we say. For they strive to hold you their slaves and servants; and sometimes by appearances in dreams, and sometimes by magical impositions, they subdue all who make no strong opposing effort for their own salvation. And thus do we also, since our persuasion by the Word, stand aloof from them (i.e., the demons), and follow the only unbegotten God through His Son — we who formerly delighted in fornication, but now embrace chastity alone; we who formerly used magical arts, dedicate ourselves to the good and unbegotten God; we who valued above all things the acquisition of wealth and possessions, now bring what we have into a common stock, and communicate to every one in need; we who hated and destroyed one another, and on account of their different manners would not live with men of a different tribe, now, since the coming of Christ, live familiarly with them, and pray for our enemies, and endeavour to persuade those who hate us unjustly to live conformably to the good precepts of Christ, to the end that they may become partakers with us of the same joyful hope of a reward from God the ruler of all. But lest we should seem to be reasoning sophistically, we consider it right, before giving you the promised explanation, to cite a few precepts given by Christ Himself. And be it yours, as powerful rulers, to inquire whether we have been taught and do teach these things truly. Brief and concise utterances fell from Him, for He was no sophist, but His word was the power of God.

Chapter 15. What Christ himself taught

Concerning chastity, He uttered such sentiments as these: Whosoever looks upon a woman to lust after her, has committed adultery with her already in his heart before God. And, If your right eye offend you, cut it out; for it is better for you to enter into the kingdom of heaven with one eye, than, having two eyes, to be cast into everlasting fire. And, Whosoever shall marry her that is divorced from another husband, commits adultery. And, There are some who have been made eunuchs of men, and some who were born eunuchs, and some who have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake; but all cannot receive this saying. Matthew 19:12 So that all who, by human law, are twice married, are in the eye of our Master sinners, and those who look upon a woman to lust after her. For not only he who in act commits adultery is rejected by Him, but also he who desires to commit adultery: since not only our works, but also our thoughts, are open before God. And many, both men and women, who have been Christ's disciples from childhood, remain pure at the age of sixty or seventy years; and I boast that I could produce such from every race of men. For what shall I say, too, of the countless multitude of those who have reformed intemperate habits, and learned these things? For Christ called not the just nor the chaste to repentance, but the ungodly, and the licentious, and the unjust; His words being, I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. Matthew 9:13 For the heavenly Father desires rather the repentance than the punishment of the sinner. And of our love to all, He taught thus: If you love them that love you, what new thing are you doing? For even fornicators do this. But I say unto you, Pray for your enemies, and love them that hate you, and bless them that curse you, and pray for them that despitefully use you. Matthew 5:46, 44; Luke 6:28 And that we should communicate to the needy, and do nothing for glory, He said, Give to him that asks, and from him that would borrow turn not away; for if you lend to them of whom you hope to receive, what new thing are you doing? Even the publicans do this. Lay not up for yourselves treasure upon earth, where moth and rust does corrupt, and where robbers break through; but lay up for yourselves treasure in heaven, where neither moth nor rust does corrupt. For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? Or what shall a man give in exchange for it? Lay up treasure, therefore, in heaven, where neither moth nor rust does corrupt. And, Be kind and merciful, as your Father also is kind and merciful, and makes His sun to rise on sinners, and the righteous, and the wicked. Take no thought what you shall eat, or what you shall put on: are you not better than the birds and the beasts? And God feeds them. Take no thought, therefore, what you shall eat, or what you shall put on; for your heavenly Father knows that you have need of these things. But seek the kingdom of heaven, and all these things shall be added unto you. For where his treasure is, there also is the mind of a man. And, Do not these things to be seen of men; otherwise you have no reward from your Father which is in heaven. Matthew 6:1

Chapter 16. Concerning patience and swearing

And concerning our being patient of injuries, and ready to serve all, and free from anger, this is what He said: To him that smites you on the one cheek, offer also the other; and him that takes away your cloak or coat, forbid not. And whosoever shall be angry, is in danger of the fire. And every one that compels you to go with him a mile, follow him two. And let your good works shine before men, that they, seeing them, may glorify your Father which is in heaven. For we ought not to strive; neither has He desired us to be imitators of wicked men, but He has exhorted us to lead all men, by patience and gentleness, from shame and the love of evil. And this indeed is proved in the case of many who once were of your way of thinking, but have changed their violent and tyrannical disposition, being overcome either by the constancy which they have witnessed in their neighbours' lives, or by the extraordinary forbearance they have observed in their fellow-travellers when defrauded, or by the honesty of those with whom they have transacted business.

And with regard to our not swearing at all, and always speaking the truth, He enjoined as follows: Swear not at all; but let your yea be yea, and your nay, nay; for whatsoever is more than these comes of evil. Matthew 5:34, 27 And that we ought to worship God alone, He thus persuaded us: The greatest commandment is, You shall worship the Lord your God, and Him only shall you serve, with all your heart, and with all your strength, the Lord God that made you. Mark 12:30 And when a certain man came to Him and said, Good Master, He answered and said, There is none good but God only, who made all things. Matthew 19:6, 17 And let those who are not found living as He taught, be understood to be no Christians, even though they profess with the lip the precepts of Christ; for not those who make profession, but those who do the works, shall be saved, according to His word: Not every one who says to Me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven, but he that does the will of My Father which is in heaven. For whosoever hears Me, and does My sayings, hears Him that sent Me. And many will say unto Me, Lord, Lord, have we not eaten and drunk in Your name, and done wonders? And then will I say unto them, Depart from Me, you workers of iniquity. Then shall there be wailing and gnashing of teeth, when the righteous shall shine as the sun, and the wicked are sent into everlasting fire. For many shall come in My name, clothed outwardly in sheep's clothing, but inwardly being ravening wolves. By their works you shall know them. And every tree that brings not forth good fruit, is hewn down and cast into the fire. And as to those who are not living pursuant to these His teachings, and are Christians only in name, we demand that all such be punished by you.

Chapter 17. Christ taught civil obedience

And everywhere we, more readily than all men, endeavour to pay to those appointed by you the taxes both ordinary and extraordinary, as we have been taught by Him; for at that time some came to Him and asked Him, if one ought to pay tribute to Cæsar; and He answered, Tell Me, whose image does the coin bear? And they said, Cæsar's. And again He answered them, Render therefore to Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's, and to God the things that are God's. Whence to God alone we render worship, but in other things we gladly serve you, acknowledging you as kings and rulers of men, and praying that with your kingly power you be found to possess also sound judgment. But if you pay no regard to our prayers and frank explanations, we shall suffer no loss, since we believe (or rather, indeed, are persuaded) that every man will suffer punishment in eternal fire according to the merit of his deed, and will render account according to the power he has received from God, as Christ intimated when He said, To whom God has given more, of him shall more be required. Luke 12:48

Chapter 18. Proof of immortality and the resurrection

For reflect upon the end of each of the preceding kings, how they died the death common to all, which, if it issued in insensibility, would be a godsend to all the wicked. But since sensation remains to all who have ever lived, and eternal punishment is laid up (i.e., for the wicked), see that you neglect not to be convinced, and to hold as your belief, that these things are true. For let even necromancy, and the divinations you practise by immaculate children, and the evoking of departed human souls, and those who are called among the magi, Dream-senders and Assistant-spirits (Familiars), and all that is done by those who are skilled in such matters — let these persuade you that even after death souls are in a state of sensation; and those who are seized and cast about by the spirits of the dead, whom all call dæmoniacs or madmen; and what you repute as oracles, both of Amphilochus, Dodana, Pytho, and as many other such as exist; and the opinions of your authors, Empedocles and Pythagoras, Plato and Socrates, and the pit of Homer, and the descent of Ulysses to inspect these things, and all that has been uttered of a like kind. Such favour as you grant to these, grant also to us, who not less but more firmly than they believe in God; since we expect to receive again our own bodies, though they be dead and cast into the earth, for we maintain that with God nothing is impossible.

Chapter 19. The resurrection possible

And to any thoughtful person would anything appear more incredible, than, if we were not in the body, and some one were to say that it was possible that from a small drop of human seed bones and sinews and flesh be formed into a shape such as we see? For let this now be said hypothetically: if you yourselves were not such as you now are, and born of such parents [and causes], and one were to show you human seed and a picture of a man, and were to say with confidence that from such a substance such a being could be produced, would you believe before you saw the actual production? No one will dare to deny [that such a statement would surpass belief]. In the same way, then, you are now incredulous because you have never seen a dead man rise again. But as at first you would not have believed it possible that such persons could be produced from the small drop, and yet now you see them thus produced, so also judge that it is not impossible that the bodies of men, after they have been dissolved, and like seeds resolved into earth, should in God's appointed time rise again and put on incorruption. For what power worthy of God those imagine who say, that each thing returns to that from which it was produced, and that beyond this not even God Himself can do anything, we are unable to conceive; but this we see clearly, that they would not have believed it possible that they could have become such and produced from such materials, as they now see both themselves and the whole world to be. And that it is better to believe even what is impossible to our own nature and to men, than to be unbelieving like the rest of the world, we have learned; for we know that our Master Jesus Christ said, that what is impossible with men is possible with God, Matthew 19:26 and, Fear not them that kill you, and after that can do no more; but fear Him who after death is able to cast both soul and body into hell. Matthew 10:28 And hell is a place where those are to be punished who have lived wickedly, and who do not believe that those things which God has taught us by Christ will come to pass.

Chapter 20. Heathen analogies to Christian doctrine

And the Sibyl and Hystaspes said that there should be a dissolution by God of things corruptible. And the philosophers called Stoics teach that even God Himself shall be resolved into fire, and they say that the world is to be formed anew by this revolution; but we understand that God, the Creator of all things, is superior to the things that are to be changed. If, therefore, on some points we teach the same things as the poets and philosophers whom you honour, and on other points are fuller and more divine in our teaching, and if we alone afford proof of what we assert, why are we unjustly hated more than all others? For while we say that all things have been produced and arranged into a world by God, we shall seem to utter the doctrine of Plato; and while we say that there will be a burning up of all, we shall seem to utter the doctrine of the Stoics: and while we affirm that the souls of the wicked, being endowed with sensation even after death, are punished, and that those of the good being delivered from punishment spend a blessed existence, we shall seem to say the same things as the poets and philosophers; and while we maintain that men ought not to worship the works of their hands, we say the very things which have been said by the comic poet Menander, and other similar writers, for they have declared that the workman is greater than the work.

Chapter 21. Analogies to the history of Christ

And when we say also that the Word, who is the first-birth of God, was produced without sexual union, and that He, Jesus Christ, our Teacher, was crucified and died, and rose again, and ascended into heaven, we propound nothing different from what you believe regarding those whom you esteem sons of Jupiter. For you know how many sons your esteemed writers ascribed to Jupiter: Mercury, the interpreting word and teacher of all; Æsculapius, who, though he was a great physician, was struck by a thunderbolt, and so ascended to heaven; and Bacchus too, after he had been torn limb from limb; and Hercules, when he had committed himself to the flames to escape his toils; and the sons of Leda, and Dioscuri; and Perseus, son of Danae; and Bellerophon, who, though sprung from mortals, rose to heaven on the horse Pegasus. For what shall I say of Ariadne, and those who, like her, have been declared to be set among the stars? And what of the emperors who die among yourselves, whom you deem worthy of deification, and in whose behalf you produce some one who swears he has seen the burning Cæsar rise to heaven from the funeral pyre? And what kind of deeds are recorded of each of these reputed sons of Jupiter, it is needless to tell to those who already know. This only shall be said, that they are written for the advantage and encouragement of youthful scholars; for all reckon it an honourable thing to imitate the gods. But far be such a thought concerning the gods from every well-conditioned soul, as to believe that Jupiter himself, the governor and creator of all things, was both a parricide and the son of a parricide, and that being overcome by the love of base and shameful pleasures, he came in to Ganymede and those many women whom he had violated and that his sons did like actions. But, as we said above, wicked devils perpetrated these things. And we have learned that those only are deified who have lived near to God in holiness and virtue; and we believe that those who live wickedly and do not repent are punished in everlasting fire.

Chapter 22. Analogies to the sonship of Christ

Moreover, the Son of God called Jesus, even if only a man by ordinary generation, yet, on account of His wisdom, is worthy to be called the Son of God; for all writers call God the Father of men and gods. And if we assert that the Word of God was born of God in a peculiar manner, different from ordinary generation, let this, as said above, be no extraordinary thing to you, who say that Mercury is the angelic word of God. But if any one objects that He was crucified, in this also He is on a par with those reputed sons of Jupiter of yours, who suffered as we have now enumerated. For their sufferings at death are recorded to have been not all alike, but diverse; so that not even by the peculiarity of His sufferings does He seem to be inferior to them; but, on the contrary, as we promised in the preceding part of this discourse, we will now prove Him superior— or rather have already proved Him to be so— for the superior is revealed by His actions. And if we even affirm that He was born of a virgin, accept this in common with what you accept of Perseus. And in that we say that He made whole the lame, the paralytic, and those born blind, we seem to say what is very similar to the deeds said to have been done by Æsculapius.

Chapter 23. The argument

And that this may now become evident to you— (firstly ) that whatever we assert in conformity with what has been taught us by Christ, and by the prophets who preceded Him, are alone true, and are older than all the writers who have existed; that we claim to be acknowledged, not because we say the same things as these writers said, but because we say true things: and (secondly) that Jesus Christ is the only proper Son who has been begotten by God, being His Word and first-begotten, and power; and, becoming man according to His will, He taught us these things for the conversion and restoration of the human race: and (thirdly) that before He became a man among men, some, influenced by the demons before mentioned, related beforehand, through the instrumentality of the poets, those circumstances as having really happened, which, having fictitiously devised, they narrated, in the same manner as they have caused to be fabricated the scandalous reports against us of infamous and impious actions, of which there is neither witness nor proof— we shall bring forward the following proof.

Chapter 24. Varieties of heathen worship

In the first place [we furnish proof], because, though we say things similar to what the Greeks say, we only are hated on account of the name of Christ, and though we do no wrong, are put to death as sinners; other men in other places worshipping trees and rivers, and mice and cats and crocodiles, and many irrational animals. Nor are the same animals esteemed by all; but in one place one is worshipped, and another in another, so that all are profane in the judgment of one another, on account of their not worshipping the same objects. And this is the sole accusation you bring against us, that we do not reverence the same gods as you do, nor offer to the dead libations and the savour of fat, and crowns for their statues, and sacrifices. For you very well know that the same animals are with some esteemed gods, with others wild beasts, and with others sacrificial victims.

Chapter 25. False Gods abandoned by Christians

And, secondly, because we— who, out of every race of men, used to worship Bacchus the son of Semele, and Apollo the son of Latona (who in their loves with men did such things as it is shameful even to mention), and Proserpine and Venus (who were maddened with love of Adonis, and whose mysteries also you celebrate), or Æsculapius, or some one or other of those who are called gods— have now, through Jesus Christ, learned to despise these, though we be threatened with death for it, and have dedicated ourselves to the unbegotten and impossible God; of whom we are persuaded that never was he goaded by lust of Antiope, or such other women, or of Ganymede, nor was rescued by that hundred-handed giant whose aid was obtained through Thetis, nor was anxious on this account that her son Achilles should destroy many of the Greeks because of his concubine Briseis. Those who believe these things we pity, and those who invented them we know to be devils.

Chapter 26. Magicians not trusted by Christians

And, thirdly, because after Christ's ascension into heaven the devils put forward certain men who said that they themselves were gods; and they were not only not persecuted by you, but even deemed worthy of honours. There was a Samaritan, Simon, a native of the village called Gitto, who in the reign of Claudius Cæsar, and in your royal city of Rome, did mighty acts of magic, by virtue of the art of the devils operating in him. He was considered a god, and as a god was honoured by you with a statue, which statue was erected on the river Tiber, between the two bridges, and bore this inscription, in the language of Rome:— Simoni Deo Sancto, To Simon the holy God. And almost all the Samaritans, and a few even of other nations, worship him, and acknowledge him as the first god; and a woman, Helena, who went about with him at that time, and had formerly been a prostitute, they say is the first idea generated by him. And a man, Menander, also a Samaritan, of the town Capparetæa, a disciple of Simon, and inspired by devils, we know to have deceived many while he was in Antioch by his magical art. He persuaded those who adhered to him that they should never die, and even now there are some living who hold this opinion of his. And there is Marcion, a man of Pontus, who is even at this day alive, and teaching his disciples to believe in some other god greater than the Creator. And he, by the aid of the devils, has caused many of every nation to speak blasphemies, and to deny that God is the maker of this universe, and to assert that some other being, greater than He, has done greater works. All who take their opinions from these men, are, as we before said, called Christians; just as also those who do not agree with the philosophers in their doctrines, have yet in common with them the name of philosophers given to them. And whether they perpetrate those fabulous and shameful deeds — the upsetting of the lamp, and promiscuous intercourse, and eating human flesh— we know not; but we do know that they are neither persecuted nor put to death by you, at least on account of their opinions. But I have a treatise against all the heresies that have existed already composed, which, if you wish to read it, I will give you.

Chapter 27. Guilt of exposing children

But as for us, we have been taught that to expose newly-born children is the part of wicked men; and this we have been taught lest we should do any one an injury, and lest we should sin against God, first, because we see that almost all so exposed (not only the girls, but also the males) are brought up to prostitution. And as the ancients are said to have reared herds of oxen, or goats, or sheep, or grazing horses, so now we see you rear children only for this shameful use; and for this pollution a multitude of females and hermaphrodites, and those who commit unmentionable iniquities, are found in every nation. And you receive the hire of these, and duty and taxes from them, whom you ought to exterminate from your realm. And any one who uses such persons, besides the godless and infamous and impure intercourse, may possibly be having intercourse with his own child, or relative, or brother. And there are some who prostitute even their own children and wives, and some are openly mutilated for the purpose of sodomy; and they refer these mysteries to the mother of the gods, and along with each of those whom you esteem gods there is painted a serpent, a great symbol and mystery. Indeed, the things which you do openly and with applause, as if the divine light were overturned and extinguished, these you lay to our charge; which, in truth, does no harm to us who shrink from doing any such things, but only to those who do them and bear false witness against us.

Chapter 28. God's care for men

For among us the prince of the wicked spirits is called the serpent, and Satan, and the devil, as you can learn by looking into our writings. And that he would be sent into the fire with his host, and the men who follow him, and would be punished for an endless duration, Christ foretold. For the reason why God has delayed to do this, is His regard for the human race. For He foreknows that some are to be saved by repentance, some even that are perhaps not yet born. In the beginning He made the human race with the power of thought and of choosing the truth and doing right, so that all men are without excuse before God; for they have been born rational and contemplative. And if any one disbelieves that God cares for these things, he will thereby either insinuate that God does not exist, or he will assert that though He exists He delights in vice, or exists like a stone, and that neither virtue nor vice are anything, but only in the opinion of men these things are reckoned good or evil. And this is the greatest profanity and wickedness.

Chapter 29. Continence of Christians

And again [we fear to expose children], lest some of them be not picked up, but die, and we become murderers. But whether we marry, it is only that we may bring up children; or whether we decline marriage, we live continently. And that you may understand that promiscuous intercourse is not one of our mysteries, one of our number a short time ago presented to Felix the governor in Alexandria a petition, craving that permission might be given to a surgeon to make him an eunuch. For the surgeons there said that they were forbidden to do this without the permission of the governor. And when Felix absolutely refused to sign such a permission, the youth remained single, and was satisfied with his own approving conscience, and the approval of those who thought as he did. And it is not out of place, we think, to mention here Antinous, who was alive but lately, and whom all were prompt, through fear, to worship as a god, though they knew both who he was and what was his origin.

Chapter 30. Was Christ not a magician?

But lest any one should meet us with the question, What should prevent that He whom we call Christ, being a man born of men, performed what we call His mighty works by magical art, and by this appeared to be the Son of God? We will now offer proof, not trusting mere assertions, but being of necessity persuaded by those who prophesied [of Him] before these things came to pass, for with our own eyes we behold things that have happened and are happening just as they were predicted; and this will, we think appear even to you the strongest and truest evidence.

Chapter 31. Of the Hebrew prophets

There were, then, among the Jews certain men who were prophets of God, through whom the prophetic Spirit published beforehand things that were to come to pass, ere ever they happened. And their prophecies, as they were spoken and when they were uttered, the kings who happened to be reigning among the Jews at the several times carefully preserved in their possession, when they had been arranged in books by the prophets themselves in their own Hebrew language. And when Ptolemy king of Egypt formed a library, and endeavoured to collect the writings of all men, he heard also of these prophets, and sent to Herod, who was at that time king of the Jews, requesting that the books of the prophets be sent to him. And Herod the king did indeed send them, written, as they were, in the foresaid Hebrew language. And when their contents were found to be unintelligible to the Egyptians, he again sent and requested that men be commissioned to translate them into the Greek language. And when this was done, the books remained with the Egyptians, where they are until now. They are also in the possession of all Jews throughout the world; but they, though they read, do not understand what is said, but count us foes and enemies; and, like yourselves, they kill and punish us whenever they have the power, as you can well believe. For in the Jewish war which lately raged, Barchochebas, the leader of the revolt of the Jews, gave orders that Christians alone should be led to cruel punishments, unless they would deny Jesus Christ and utter blasphemy. In these books, then, of the prophets we found Jesus our Christ foretold as coming, born of a virgin, growing up to man's estate, and healing every disease and every sickness, and raising the dead, and being hated, and unrecognised, and crucified, and dying, and rising again, and ascending into heaven, and being, and being called, the Son of God. We find it also predicted that certain persons should be sent by Him into every nation to publish these things, and that rather among the Gentiles [than among the Jews] men should believe in Him. And He was predicted before He appeared, first 5000 years before, and again 3000, then 2000, then 1000, and yet again 800; for in the succession of generations prophets after prophets arose.

Chapter 32. Christ predicted by Moses

Moses then, who was the first of the prophets, spoke in these very words: The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until He come for whom it is reserved; and He shall be the desire of the nations, binding His foal to the vine, washing His robe in the blood of the grape. Genesis 49:10 It is yours to make accurate inquiry, and ascertain up to whose time the Jews had a lawgiver and king of their own. Up to the time of Jesus Christ, who taught us, and interpreted the prophecies which were not yet understood, [they had a lawgiver] as was foretold by the holy and divine Spirit of prophecy through Moses, that a ruler would not fail the Jews until He should come for whom the kingdom was reserved (for Judah was the forefather of the Jews, from whom also they have their name of Jews); and after He (i.e., Christ) appeared, you began to rule the Jews, and gained possession of all their territory. And the prophecy, He shall be the expectation of the nations, signified that there would be some of all nations who should look for Him to come again. And this indeed you can see for yourselves, and be convinced of by fact. For of all races of men there are some who look for Him who was crucified in Judæa, and after whose crucifixion the land was straightway surrendered to you as spoil of war. And the prophecy, binding His foal to the vine, and washing His robe in the blood of the grape, was a significant symbol of the things that were to happen to Christ, and of what He was to do. For the foal of an ass stood bound to a vine at the entrance of a village, and He ordered His acquaintances to bring it to Him then; and when it was brought, He mounted and sat upon it, and entered Jerusalem, where was the vast temple of the Jews which was afterwards destroyed by you. And after this He was crucified, that the rest of the prophecy might be fulfilled. For this washing His robe in the blood of the grape was predictive of the passion He was to endure, cleansing by His blood those who believe in Him. For what is called by the Divine Spirit through the prophet His robe, are those men who believe in Him in whom abides the seed of God, the Word. And what is spoken of as the blood of the grape, signifies that He who should appear would have blood, though not of the seed of man, but of the power of God. And the first power after God the Father and Lord of all is the Word, who is also the Son; and of Him we will, in what follows, relate how He took flesh and became man. For as man did not make the blood of the vine, but God, so it was hereby intimated that the blood should not be of human seed, but of divine power, as we have said above. And Isaiah, another prophet, foretelling the same things in other words, spoke thus: A star shall rise out of Jacob, and a flower shall spring from the root of Jesse; and His arm shall the nations trust. Isaiah 11:1 And a star of light has arisen, and a flower has sprung from the root of Jesse— this Christ. For by the power of God He was conceived by a virgin of the seed of Jacob, who was the father of Judah, who, as we have shown, was the father of the Jews; and Jesse was His forefather according to the oracle, and He was the son of Jacob and Judah according to lineal descent.

Chapter 33. Manner of Christ's birth predicted

And hear again how Isaiah in express words foretold that He should be born of a virgin; for he spoke thus: Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bring forth a son, and they shall say for His name, 'God with us.' Isaiah 7:14 For things which were incredible and seemed impossible with men, these God predicted by the Spirit of prophecy as about to come to pass, in order that, when they came to pass, there might be no unbelief, but faith, because of their prediction. But lest some, not understanding the prophecy now cited, should charge us with the very things we have been laying to the charge of the poets who say that Jupiter went in to women through lust, let us try to explain the words. This, then, Behold, a virgin shall conceive, signifies that a virgin should conceive without intercourse. For if she had had intercourse with any one whatever, she was no longer a virgin; but the power of God having come upon the virgin, overshadowed her, and caused her while yet a virgin to conceive. And the angel of God who was sent to the same virgin at that time brought her good news, saying, Behold, you shall conceive of the Holy Ghost, and shall bear a Son, and He shall be called the Son of the Highest, and you shall call His name Jesus; for He shall save His people from their sins, Luke 1:32; Matthew 1:21 — as they who have recorded all that concerns our Saviour Jesus Christ have taught, whom we believed, since by Isaiah also, whom we have now adduced, the Spirit of prophecy declared that He should be born as we intimated before. It is wrong, therefore, to understand the Spirit and the power of God as anything else than the Word, who is also the first-born of God, as the foresaid prophet Moses declared; and it was this which, when it came upon the virgin and overshadowed her, caused her to conceive, not by intercourse, but by power. And the name Jesus in the Hebrew language means Σωτήρ (Saviour) in the Greek tongue. Wherefore, too, the angel said to the virgin, You shall call His name Jesus, for He shall save His people from their sins. And that the prophets are inspired by no other than the Divine Word, even you, as I fancy, will grant.

Chapter 34. Place of Christ's birth foretold

And hear what part of earth He was to be born in, as another prophet, Micah, foretold. He spoke thus: And you, Bethlehem, the land of Judah, are not the least among the princes of Judah; for out of you shall come forth a Governor, who shall feed My people. Micah 5:2 Now there is a village in the land of the Jews, thirty-five stadia from Jerusalem, in which Jesus Christ was born, as you can ascertain also from the registers of the taxing made under Cyrenius, your first procurator in Judæa.

Chapter 35. Other fulfilled prophecies

And how Christ after He was born was to escape the notice of other men until He grew to man's estate, which also came to pass, hear what was foretold regarding this. There are the following predictions: — Unto us a child is born, and unto us a young man is given, and the government shall be upon His shoulders; Isaiah 9:6 which is significant of the power of the cross, for to it, when He was crucified, He applied His shoulders, as shall be more clearly made out in the ensuing discourse. And again the same prophet Isaiah, being inspired by the prophetic Spirit, said, I have spread out my hands to a disobedient and gainsaying people, to those who walk in a way that is not good. They now ask of me judgment, and dare to draw near to God. Isaiah 65:2Isaiah 58:2 And again in other words, through another prophet, He says, They pierced My hands and My feet, and for My vesture they cast lots. And indeed David, the king and prophet, who uttered these things, suffered none of them; but Jesus Christ stretched forth His hands, being crucified by the Jews speaking against Him, and denying that He was the Christ. And as the prophet spoke, they tormented Him, and set Him on the judgment-seat, and said, Judge us. And the expression, They pierced my hands and my feet, was used in reference to the nails of the cross which were fixed in His hands and feet. And after He was crucified they cast lots upon His vesture, and they that crucified Him parted it among them. And that these things did happen, you can ascertain from the Acts of Pontius Pilate. And we will cite the prophetic utterances of another prophet, Zephaniah, to the effect that He was foretold expressly as to sit upon the foal of an ass and to enter Jerusalem. The words are these: Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, your King comes unto you; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass. Zechariah 9:9

Chapter 36. Different modes of prophecy

But when you hear the utterances of the prophets spoken as it were personally, you must not suppose that they are spoken by the inspired themselves, but by the Divine Word who moves them. For sometimes He declares things that are to come to pass, in the manner of one who foretells the future; sometimes He speaks as from the person of God the Lord and Father of all; sometimes as from the person of Christ; sometimes as from the person of the people answering the Lord or His Father, just as you can see even in your own writers, one man being the writer of the whole, but introducing the persons who converse. And this the Jews who possessed the books of the prophets did not understand, and therefore did not recognise Christ even when He came, but even hate us who say that He has come, and who prove that, as was predicted, He was crucified by them.

Chapter 37. Utterances of the Father

And that this too may be clear to you, there were spoken from the person of the Father through Isaiah the prophet, the following words: The ox knows his owner, and the ass his master's crib; but Israel does not know, and My people has not understood. Woe, sinful nation, a people full of sins, a wicked seed, children that are transgressors, you have forsaken the Lord. And again elsewhere, when the same prophet speaks in like manner from the person of the Father, What is the house that you will build for Me? Says the Lord. The heaven is My throne, and the earth is My footstool. Isaiah 66:1 And again, in another place, Your new moons and your sabbaths My soul hates; and the great day of the fast and of ceasing from labour I cannot away with; nor, if you come to be seen of Me, will I hear you: your hands are full of blood; and if you bring fine flour, incense, it is abomination unto Me: the fat of lambs and the blood of bulls I do not desire. For who has required this at your hands? But loose every bond of wickedness, tear asunder the tight knots of violent contracts, cover the houseless and naked, deal your bread to the hungry. Isaiah 1:14Isaiah 58:6 What kind of things are taught through the prophets from [the person of] God, you can now perceive.

Chapter 38. Utterances of the Son

And when the Spirit of prophecy speaks from the person of Christ, the utterances are of this sort: I have spread out My hands to a disobedient and gainsaying people, to those who walk in a way that is not good. Isaiah 65:2 And again: I gave My back to the scourges, and My cheeks to the buffetings; I turned not away My face from the shame of spittings; and the Lord was My helper: therefore was I not confounded: but I set My face as a firm rock; and I knew that I should not be ashamed, for He is near that justifies Me. Isaiah 50:6 And again, when He says, They cast lots upon My vesture, and pierced My hands and My feet. And I lay down and slept, and rose again, because the Lord sustained Me. And again, when He says, They spoke with their lips, they wagged the head, saying, Let Him deliver Himself. And that all these things happened to Christ at the hands of the Jews, you can ascertain. For when He was crucified, they did shoot out the lip, and wagged their heads, saying, Let Him who raised the dead save Himself. Matthew 27:39

Chapter 39. Direct predictions by the Spirit

And when the Spirit of prophecy speaks as predicting things that are to come to pass, He speaks in this way: For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And He shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many people; and they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more. Isaiah 2:3 And that it did so come to pass, we can convince you. For from Jerusalem there went out into the world, men, twelve in number, and these illiterate, of no ability in speaking: but by the power of God they proclaimed to every race of men that they were sent by Christ to teach to all the word of God; and we who formerly used to murder one another do not only now refrain from making war upon our enemies, but also, that we may not lie nor deceive our examiners, willingly die confessing Christ. For that saying, The tongue has sworn but the mind is unsworn, might be imitated by us in this matter. But if the soldiers enrolled by you, and who have taken the military oath, prefer their allegiance to their own life, and parents, and country, and all kindred, though you can offer them nothing incorruptible, it were verily ridiculous if we, who earnestly long for incorruption, should not endure all things, in order to obtain what we desire from Him who is able to grant it.

Chapter 40. Christ's advent foretold

And hear how it was foretold concerning those who published His doctrine and proclaimed His appearance, the above-mentioned prophet and king speaking thus by the Spirit of prophecy Day unto day utters speech, and night unto night shows knowledge. There is no speech nor language where their voice is not heard. Their voice has gone out into all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world. In the sun has He set His tabernacle, and he as a bridegroom going out of his chamber shall rejoice as a giant to run his course. And we have thought it right and relevant to mention some other prophetic utterances of David besides these; from which you may learn how the Spirit of prophecy exhorts men to live, and how He foretold the conspiracy which was formed against Christ by Herod the king of the Jews, and the Jews themselves, and Pilate, who was your governor among them, with his soldiers; and how He should be believed on by men of every race; and how God calls Him His Son, and has declared that He will subdue all His enemies under Him; and how the devils, as much as they can, strive to escape the power of God the Father and Lord of all, and the power of Christ Himself; and how God calls all to repentance before the day of judgment comes. These things were uttered thus: Blessed is the man who has not walked in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful: but his delight is in the law of the Lord; and in His law will he meditate day and night. And he shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of waters, which shall give his fruit in his season; and his leaf shall not wither, and whatsoever he does shall prosper. The ungodly are not so, but are like the chaff which the wind drives away from the face of the earth. Therefore the ungodly shall not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the council of the righteous. For the Lord knows the way of the righteous; but the way of the ungodly shall perish. Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine new things? The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against His Anointed, saying, Let us break their bands asunder, and cast their yoke from us. He that dwells in the heavens shall laugh at them, and the Lord shall have them in derision. Then shall He speak to them in His wrath, and vex them in His sore displeasure. Yet have I been set by Him a King on Zion His holy hill, declaring the decree of the Lord. The Lord said to Me, You are My Son; this day have I begotten You. Ask of Me, and I shall give You the heathen for Your inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth as Your possession. You shall herd them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall You dash them in pieces. Be wise now, therefore, O you kings; be instructed, all you judges of the earth. Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling. Embrace instruction, lest at any time the Lord be angry, and you perish from the right way, when His wrath has been suddenly kindled. Blessed are all they that put their trust in Him.

Chapter 41. The crucifixion predicted

And again, in another prophecy, the Spirit of prophecy, through the same David, intimated that Christ, after He had been crucified, should reign, and spoke as follows: Sing to the Lord, all the earth, and day by day declare His salvation. For great is the Lord, and greatly to be praised, to be feared above all the gods. For all the gods of the nations are idols of devils; but God made the heavens. Glory and praise are before His face, strength and glorying are in the habitation of His holiness. Give Glory to the Lord, the Father everlasting. Receive grace, and enter His presence, and worship in His holy courts. Let all the earth fear before His face; let it be established, and not shaken. Let them rejoice among the nations. The Lord has reigned from the tree.

Chapter 42. Prophecy using the past tense

But when the Spirit of prophecy speaks of things that are about to come to pass as if they had already taken place, — as may be observed even in the passages already cited by me, — that this circumstance may afford no excuse to readers [for misinterpreting them], we will make even this also quite plain. The things which He absolutely knows will take place, He predicts as if already they had taken place. And that the utterances must be thus received, you will perceive, if you give your attention to them. The words cited above, David uttered 1500 years before Christ became a man and was crucified; and no one of those who lived before Him, nor yet of His contemporaries, afforded joy to the Gentiles by being crucified. But our Jesus Christ, being crucified and dead, rose again, and having ascended to heaven, reigned; and by those things which were published in His name among all nations by the apostles, there is joy afforded to those who expect the immortality promised by Him.

Chapter 43. Responsibility asserted

But lest some suppose, from what has been said by us, that we say that whatever happens, happens by a fatal necessity, because it is foretold as known beforehand, this too we explain. We have learned from the prophets, and we hold it to be true, that punishments, and chastisements, and good rewards, are rendered according to the merit of each man's actions. Since if it be not so, but all things happen by fate, neither is anything at all in our own power. For if it be fated that this man, e.g., be good, and this other evil, neither is the former meritorious nor the latter to be blamed. And again, unless the human race have the power of avoiding evil and choosing good by free choice, they are not accountable for their actions, of whatever kind they be. But that it is by free choice they both walk uprightly and stumble, we thus demonstrate. We see the same man making a transition to opposite things. Now, if it had been fated that he were to be either good or bad, he could never have been capable of both the opposites, nor of so many transitions. But not even would some be good and others bad, since we thus make fate the cause of evil, and exhibit her as acting in opposition to herself; or that which has been already stated would seem to be true, that neither virtue nor vice is anything, but that things are only reckoned good or evil by opinion; which, as the true word shows, is the greatest impiety and wickedness. But this we assert is inevitable fate, that they who choose the good have worthy rewards, and they who choose the opposite have their merited awards. For not like other things, as trees and quadrupeds, which cannot act by choice, did God make man: for neither would he be worthy of reward or praise did he not of himself choose the good, but were created for this end; nor, if he were evil, would he be worthy of punishment, not being evil of himself, but being able to be nothing else than what he was made.

Chapter 44. Not nullified by prophecy

And the holy Spirit of prophecy taught us this, telling us by Moses that God spoke thus to the man first created: Behold, before your face are good and evil: choose the good. And again, by the other prophet Isaiah, that the following utterance was made as if from God the Father and Lord of all: Wash you, make you clean; put away evils from your souls; learn to do well; judge the orphan, and plead for the widow: and come and let us reason together, says the Lord: And if your sins be as scarlet, I will make them white as wool; and if they be red like as crimson, I will make them white as snow. And if you be willing and obey Me, you shall eat the good of the land; but if you do not obey Me, the sword shall devour you: for the mouth of the Lord has spoken it. Isaiah 1:16, etc. And that expression, The sword shall devour you, does not mean that the disobedient shall be slain by the sword, but the sword of God is fire, of which they who choose to do wickedly become the fuel. Wherefore He says, The sword shall devour you: for the mouth of the Lord has spoken it. And if He had spoken concerning a sword that cuts and at once dispatches, He would not have said, shall devour. And so, too, Plato, when he says, The blame is his who chooses, and God is blameless, took this from the prophet Moses and uttered it. For Moses is more ancient than all the Greek writers. And whatever both philosophers and poets have said concerning the immortality of the soul, or punishments after death, or contemplation of things heavenly, or doctrines of the like kind, they have received such suggestions from the prophets as have enabled them to understand and interpret these things. And hence there seem to be seeds of truth among all men; but they are charged with not accurately understanding [the truth] when they assert contradictories. So that what we say about future events being foretold, we do not say it as if they came about by a fatal necessity; but God foreknowing all that shall be done by all men, and it being His decree that the future actions of men shall all be recompensed according to their several value, He foretells by the Spirit of prophecy that He will bestow meet rewards according to the merit of the actions done, always urging the human race to effort and recollection, showing that He cares and provides for men. But by the agency of the devils death has been decreed against those who read the books of Hystaspes, or of the Sibyl, or of the prophets, that through fear they may prevent men who read them from receiving the knowledge of the good, and may retain them in slavery to themselves; which, however, they could not always effect. For not only do we fearlessly read them, but, as you see, bring them for your inspection, knowing that their contents will be pleasing to all. And if we persuade even a few, our gain will be very great; for, as good husbandmen, we shall receive the reward from the Master.

Chapter 45. Christ's session in heaven foretold

And that God the Father of all would bring Christ to heaven after He had raised Him from the dead, and would keep Him there until He has subdued His enemies the devils, and until the number of those who are foreknown by Him as good and virtuous is complete, on whose account He has still delayed the consummation— hear what was said by the prophet David. These are his words: The Lord said unto My Lord, Sit at My right hand, until I make Your enemies Your footstool. The Lord shall send to You the rod of power out of Jerusalem; and rule You in the midst of Your enemies. With You is the government in the day of Your power, in the beauties of Your saints: from the womb of morning have I begotten You. That which he says, He shall send to You the rod of power out of Jerusalem, is predictive of the mighty word, which His apostles, going forth from Jerusalem, preached everywhere; and though death is decreed against those who teach or at all confess the name of Christ, we everywhere both embrace and teach it. And if you also read these words in a hostile spirit, you can do no more, as I said before, than kill us; which indeed does no harm to us, but to you and all who unjustly hate us, and do not repent, brings eternal punishment by fire.

Chapter 46. The Word in the world before Christ

But lest some should, without reason, and for the perversion of what we teach, maintain that we say that Christ was born one hundred and fifty years ago under Cyrenius, and subsequently, in the time of Pontius Pilate, taught what we say He taught; and should cry out against us as though all men who were born before Him were irresponsible — let us anticipate and solve the difficulty. We have been taught that Christ is the first-born of God, and we have declared above that He is the Word of whom every race of men were partakers; and those who lived reasonably are Christians, even though they have been thought atheists; as, among the Greeks, Socrates and Heraclitus, and men like them; and among the barbarians, Abraham, and Ananias, and Azarias, and Misael, and Elias, and many others whose actions and names we now decline to recount, because we know it would be tedious. So that even they who lived before Christ, and lived without reason, were wicked and hostile to Christ, and slew those who lived reasonably. But who, through the power of the Word, according to the will of God the Father and Lord of all, He was born of a virgin as a man, and was named Jesus, and was crucified, and died, and rose again, and ascended into heaven, an intelligent man will be able to comprehend from what has been already so largely said. And we, since the proof of this subject is less needful now, will pass for the present to the proof of those things which are urgent.

Chapter 47. Desolation of Judæa foretold

That the land of the Jews, then, was to be laid waste, hear what was said by the Spirit of prophecy. And the words were spoken as if from the person of the people wondering at what had happened. They are these: Sion is a wilderness, Jerusalem a desolation. The house of our sanctuary has become a curse, and the glory which our fathers blessed is burned up with fire, and all its glorious things are laid waste: and You refrain Yourself at these things, and have held Your peace, and have humbled us very sore. Isaiah 64:10-12 And you are convinced that Jerusalem has been laid waste, as was predicted. And concerning its desolation, and that no one should be permitted to inhabit it, there was the following prophecy by Isaiah: Their land is desolate, their enemies consume it before them, and none of them shall dwell therein. Isaiah 1:7 And that it is guarded by you lest any one dwell in it, and that death is decreed against a Jew apprehended entering it, you know very well.

Chapter 48. Christ's work and death foretold

And that it was predicted that our Christ should heal all diseases and raise the dead, hear what was said. There are these words: At His coming the lame shall leap as an hart, and the tongue of the stammerer shall be clear speaking: the blind shall see, and the lepers shall be cleansed; and the dead shall rise, and walk about. Isaiah 35:6 And that He did those things, you can learn from the Acts of Pontius Pilate. And how it was predicted by the Spirit of prophecy that He and those who hoped in Him should be slain, hear what was said by Isaiah. These are the words: Behold now the righteous perishes, and no man lays it to heart; and just men are taken away, and no man considers. From the presence of wickedness is the righteous man taken, and his burial shall be in peace: he is taken from our midst. Isaiah 57:1

Chapter 49. His rejection by the Jews foretold

And again, how it was said by the same Isaiah, that the Gentile nations who were not looking for Him should worship Him, but the Jews who always expected Him should not recognise Him when He came. And the words are spoken as from the person of Christ; and they are these I was manifest to them that asked not for Me; I was found of them that sought Me not: I said, Behold Me, to a nation that called not on My name. I spread out My hands to a disobedient and gainsaying people, to those who walked in a way that is not good, but follow after their own sins; a people that provokes Me to anger to My face. Isaiah 65:1-3 For the Jews having the prophecies, and being always in expectation of the Christ to come, did not recognise Him; and not only so, but even treated Him shamefully. But the Gentiles, who had never heard anything about Christ, until the apostles set out from Jerusalem and preached concerning Him, and gave them the prophecies, were filled with joy and faith, and cast away their idols, and dedicated themselves to the Unbegotten God through Christ. And that it was foreknown that these infamous things should be uttered against those who confessed Christ, and that those who slandered Him, and said that it was well to preserve the ancient customs, should be miserable, hear what was briefly said by Isaiah; it is this: Woe unto them that call sweet bitter, and bitter sweet. Isaiah 5:20

Chapter 50. His humiliation predicted

But that, having become man for our sakes, He endured to suffer and to be dishonoured, and that He shall come again with glory, hear the prophecies which relate to this; they are these: Because they delivered His soul unto death, and He was numbered with the transgressors, He has borne the sin of many, and shall make intercession for the transgressors. For, behold, My Servant shall deal prudently, and shall be exalted, and shall be greatly extolled. As many were astonished at You, so marred shall Your form be before men, and so hidden from them Your glory; so shall many nations wonder, and the kings shall shut their mouths at Him. For they to whom it was not told concerning Him, and they who have not heard, shall understand. O Lord, who has believed our report? And to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed? We have declared before Him as a child, as a root in a dry ground. He had no form, nor glory; and we saw Him, and there was no form nor comeliness: but His form was dishonoured and marred more than the sons of men. A man under the stroke, and knowing how to bear infirmity, because His face was turned away: He was despised, and of no reputation. It is He who bears our sins, and is afflicted for us; yet we did esteem Him smitten, stricken, and afflicted. But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities, the chastisement of peace was upon Him, by His stripes we are healed. All we, like sheep, have gone astray; every man has wandered in his own way. And He delivered Him for our sins; and He opened not His mouth for all His affliction. He was brought as a sheep to the slaughter, and as a lamb before his shearer is dumb, so He opens not His mouth. In His humiliation, His judgment was taken away. Isaiah 52:13-15Isaiah 53:1-8 Accordingly, after He was crucified, even all His acquaintances forsook Him, having denied Him; and afterwards, when He had risen from the dead and appeared to them, and had taught them to read the prophecies in which all these things were foretold as coming to pass, and when they had seen Him ascending into heaven, and had believed, and had received power sent thence by Him upon them, and went to every race of men, they taught these things, and were called apostles.

Chapter 51. The majesty of Christ

And that the Spirit of prophecy might signify to us that He who suffers these things has an ineffable origin, and rules His enemies, He spoke thus: His generation who shall declare? Because His life is cut off from the earth: for their transgressions He comes to death. And I will give the wicked for His burial, and the rich for His death; because He did no violence, neither was any deceit in His mouth. And the Lord is pleased to cleanse Him from the stripe. If He be given for sin, your soul shall see His seed prolonged in days. And the Lord is pleased to deliver His soul from grief, to show Him light, and to form Him with knowledge, to justify the righteous who richly serves many. And He shall bear our iniquities. Therefore He shall inherit many, and He shall divide the spoil of the strong; because His soul was delivered to death: and He was numbered with the transgressors; and He bore the sins of many, and He was delivered up for their transgressions. Isaiah 53:8-12 Hear, too, how He was to ascend into heaven according to prophecy. It was thus spoken: Lift up the gates of heaven; be opened, that the King of glory may come in. Who is this King of glory? The Lord, strong and mighty. And how also He should come again out of heaven with glory, hear what was spoken in reference to this by the prophet Jeremiah. His words are: Behold, as the Son of man He comes in the clouds of heaven, and His angels with Him. Daniel 7:13

Chapter 52. Certain fulfilment of prophecy

Since, then, we prove that all things which have already happened had been predicted by the prophets before they came to pass, we must necessarily believe also that those things which are in like manner predicted, but are yet to come to pass, shall certainly happen. For as the things which have already taken place came to pass when foretold, and even though unknown, so shall the things that remain, even though they be unknown and disbelieved, yet come to pass. For the prophets have proclaimed two advents of His: the one, that which is already past, when He came as a dishonoured and suffering Man; but the second, when, according to prophecy, He shall come from heaven with glory, accompanied by His angelic host, when also He shall raise the bodies of all men who have lived, and shall clothe those of the worthy with immortality, and shall send those of the wicked, endued with eternal sensibility, into everlasting fire with the wicked devils. And that these things also have been foretold as yet to be, we will prove. By Ezekiel the prophet it was said: Joint shall be joined to joint, and bone to bone, and flesh shall grow again; and every knee shall bow to the Lord, and every tongue shall confess Him. Ezekiel 37:7-8; Isaiah 45:24 And in what kind of sensation and punishment the wicked are to be, hear from what was said in like manner with reference to this; it is as follows: Their worm shall not rest, and their fire shall not be quenched; Isaiah 66:24 and then shall they repent, when it profits them not. And what the people of the Jews shall say and do, when they see Him coming in glory, has been thus predicted by Zechariah the prophet: I will command the four winds to gather the scattered children; I will command the north wind to bring them, and the south wind, that it keep not back. And then in Jerusalem there shall be great lamentation, not the lamentation of mouths or of lips, but the lamentation of the heart; and they shall rend not their garments, but their hearts. Tribe by tribe they shall mourn, and then they shall look on Him whom they have pierced; and they shall say, Why, O Lord, have You made us to err from Your way? The glory which our fathers blessed, has for us been turned into shame.

Chapter 53. Summary of the prophecies

Though we could bring forward many other prophecies, we forbear, judging these sufficient for the persuasion of those who have ears to hear and understand; and considering also that those persons are able to see that we do not make mere assertions without being able to produce proof, like those fables that are told of the so-called sons of Jupiter. For with what reason should we believe of a crucified man that He is the first-born of the unbegotten God, and Himself will pass judgment on the whole human race, unless we had found testimonies concerning Him published before He came and was born as man, and unless we saw that things had happened accordingly— the devastation of the land of the Jews, and men of every race persuaded by His teaching through the apostles, and rejecting their old habits, in which, being deceived, they had their conversation; yea, seeing ourselves too, and knowing that the Christians from among the Gentiles are both more numerous and more true than those from among the Jews and Samaritans? For all the other human races are called Gentiles by the Spirit of prophecy; but the Jewish and Samaritan races are called the tribe of Israel, and the house of Jacob. And the prophecy in which it was predicted that there should be more believers from the Gentiles than from the Jews and Samaritans, we will produce: it ran thus: Rejoice, O barren, you that do not bear; break forth and shout, you that do not travail, because many more are the children of the desolate than of her that has an husband. Isaiah 54:1 For all the Gentiles were desolate of the true God, serving the works of their hands; but the Jews and Samaritans, having the word of God delivered to them by the prophets, and always expecting the Christ, did not recognise Him when He came, except some few, of whom the Spirit of prophecy by Isaiah had predicted that they should be saved. He spoke as from their person: Unless the Lord had left us a seed, we should have been as Sodom and Gomorrha. Isaiah 1:9 For Sodom and Gomorrha are related by Moses to have been cities of ungodly men, which God burned with fire and brimstone, and overthrew, no one of their inhabitants being saved except a certain stranger, a Chaldæan by birth, whose name was Lot; with whom also his daughters were rescued. And those who care may yet see their whole country desolate and burned, and remaining barren. And to show how those from among the Gentiles were foretold as more true and more believing, we will cite what was said by Isaiah the prophet; for he spoke as follows Israel is uncircumcised in heart, but the Gentiles are uncircumcised in the flesh. So many things therefore, as these, when they are seen with the eye, are enough to produce conviction and belief in those who embrace the truth, and are not bigoted in their opinions, nor are governed by their passions.

Chapter 54. Origin of heathen mythology

But those who hand down the myths which the poets have made, adduce no proof to the youths who learn them; and we proceed to demonstrate that they have been uttered by the influence of the wicked demons, to deceive and lead astray the human race. For having heard it proclaimed through the prophets that the Christ was to come, and that the ungodly among men were to be punished by fire, they put forward many to be called sons of Jupiter, under the impression that they would be able to produce in men the idea that the things which were said with regard to Christ were mere marvellous tales, like the things which were said by the poets. And these things were said both among the Greeks and among all nations where they [the demons] heard the prophets foretelling that Christ would specially be believed in; but that in hearing what was said by the prophets they did not accurately understand it, but imitated what was said of our Christ, like men who are in error, we will make plain. The prophet Moses, then, was, as we have already said, older than all writers; and by him, as we have also said before, it was thus predicted: There shall not fail a prince from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until He come for whom it is reserved; and He shall be the desire of the Gentiles, binding His foal to the vine, washing His robe in the blood of the grape. Genesis 49:10 The devils, accordingly, when they heard these prophetic words, said that Bacchus was the son of Jupiter, and gave out that he was the discoverer of the vine, and they number wine [or, the ass] among his mysteries; and they taught that, having been torn in pieces, he ascended into heaven. And because in the prophecy of Moses it had not been expressly intimated whether He who was to come was the Son of God, and whether He would, riding on the foal, remain on earth or ascend into heaven, and because the name of foal could mean either the foal of an ass or the foal of a horse, they, not knowing whether He who was foretold would bring the foal of an ass or of a horse as the sign of His coming, nor whether He was the Son of God, as we said above, or of man, gave out that Bellerophon, a man born of man, himself ascended to heaven on his horse Pegasus. And when they heard it said by the other prophet Isaiah, that He should be born of a virgin, and by His own means ascend into heaven, they pretended that Perseus was spoken of. And when they knew what was said, as has been cited above, in the prophecies written aforetime, Strong as a giant to run his course, they said that Hercules was strong, and had journeyed over the whole earth. And when, again, they learned that it had been foretold that He should heal every sickness, and raise the dead, they produced Æsculapius.

Chapter 55. Symbols of the cross

But in no instance, not even in any of those called sons of Jupiter, did they imitate the being crucified; for it was not understood by them, all the things said of it having been put symbolically. And this, as the prophet foretold, is the greatest symbol of His power and role; as is also proved by the things which fall under our observation. For consider all the things in the world, whether without this form they could be administered or have any community. For the sea is not traversed except that trophy which is called a sail abide safe in the ship; and the earth is not ploughed without it: diggers and mechanics do not their work, except with tools which have this shape. And the human form differs from that of the irrational animals in nothing else than in its being erect and having the hands extended, and having on the face extending from the forehead what is called the nose, through which there is respiration for the living creature; and this shows no other form than that of the cross. And so it was said by the prophet, The breath before our face is the Lord Christ. And the power of this form is shown by your own symbols on what are called vexilla [banners] and trophies, with which all your state possessions are made, using these as the insignia of your power and government, even though you do so unwittingly. And with this form you consecrate the images of your emperors when they die, and you name them gods by inscriptions. Since, therefore, we have urged you both by reason and by an evident form, and to the utmost of our ability, we know that now we are blameless even though you disbelieve; for our part is done and finished.

Chapter 56. The demons still mislead men

But the evil spirits were not satisfied with saying, before Christ's appearance, that those who were said to be sons of Jupiter were born of him; but after He had appeared, and been born among men, and when they learned how He had been foretold by the prophets, and knew that He should be believed on and looked for by every nation, they again, as was said above, put forward other men, the Samaritans Simon and Menander, who did many mighty works by magic, and deceived many, and still keep them deceived. For even among yourselves, as we said before, Simon was in the royal city Rome in the reign of Claudius Cæsar, and so greatly astonished the sacred senate and people of the Romans, that he was considered a god, and honoured, like the others whom you honour as gods, with a statue. Wherefore we pray that the sacred senate and your people may, along with yourselves, be arbiters of this our memorial, in order that if any one be entangled by that man's doctrines, he may learn the truth, and so be able to escape error; and as for the statue, if you please, destroy it.

Chapter 57. And cause persecution

Nor can the devils persuade men that there will be no conflagration for the punishment of the wicked; as they were unable to effect that Christ should be hidden after He came. But this only can they effect, that they who live irrationally, and were brought up licentiously in wicked customs, and are prejudiced in their own opinions, should kill and hate us; whom we not only do not hate, but, as is proved, pity and endeavour to lead to repentance. For we do not fear death, since it is acknowledged we must surely die; and there is nothing new, but all things continue the same in this administration of things; and if satiety overtakes those who enjoy even one year of these things, they ought to give heed to our doctrines, that they may live eternally free both from suffering and from want. But if they believe that there is nothing after death, but declare that those who die pass into insensibility, then they become our benefactors when they set us free from sufferings and necessities of this life, and prove themselves to be wicked, and inhuman, and bigoted. For they kill us with no intention of delivering us, but cut us off that we may be deprived of life and pleasure.

Chapter 58. And raise up heretics

And, as we said before, the devils put forward Marcion of Pontus, who is even now teaching men to deny that God is the maker of all things in heaven and on earth, and that the Christ predicted by the prophets is His Son, and preaches another god besides the Creator of all, and likewise another son. And this man many have believed, as if he alone knew the truth, and laugh at us, though they have no proof of what they say, but are carried away irrationally as lambs by a wolf, and become the prey of atheistical doctrines, and of devils. For they who are called devils attempt nothing else than to seduce men from God who made them, and from Christ His first-begotten; and those who are unable to raise themselves above the earth they have riveted, and do now rivet, to things earthly, and to the works of their own hands; but those who devote themselves to the contemplation of things divine, they secretly beat back; and if they have not a wise sober-mindedness, and a pure and passionless life, they drive them into godlessness.

Chapter 59. Plato's obligation to Moses

And that you may learn that it was from our teachers— we mean the account given through the prophets— that Plato borrowed his statement that God, having altered matter which was shapeless, made the world, hear the very words spoken through Moses, who, as above shown, was the first prophet, and of greater antiquity than the Greek writers; and through whom the Spirit of prophecy, signifying how and from what materials God at first formed the world, spoke thus: In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was invisible and unfurnished, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God moved over the waters. And God said, Let there be light; and it was so. So that both Plato and they who agree with him, and we ourselves, have learned, and you also can be convinced, that by the word of God the whole world was made out of the substance spoken of before by Moses. And that which the poets call Erebus, we know was spoken of formerly by Moses. Deuteronomy 32:22

Chapter 60. Plato's doctrine of the cross

And the physiological discussion concerning the Son of God in the Timæus of Plato, where he says, He placed him crosswise in the universe, he borrowed in like manner from Moses; for in the writings of Moses it is related how at that time, when the Israelites went out of Egypt and were in the wilderness, they fell in with poisonous beasts, both vipers and asps, and every kind of serpent, which slew the people; and that Moses, by the inspiration and influence of God, took brass, and made it into the figure of a cross, and set it in the holy tabernacle, and said to the people, If you look to this figure, and believe, you shall be saved thereby. Numbers 21:8 And when this was done, it is recorded that the serpents died, and it is handed down that the people thus escaped death. Which things Plato reading, and not accurately understanding, and not apprehending that it was the figure of the cross, but taking it to be a placing crosswise, he said that the power next to the first God was placed crosswise in the universe. And as to his speaking of a third, he did this because he read, as we said above, that which was spoken by Moses, that the Spirit of God moved over the waters. For he gives the second place to the Logos which is with God, who he said was placed crosswise in the universe; and the third place to the Spirit who was said to be borne upon the water, saying, And the third around the third. And hear how the Spirit of prophecy signified through Moses that there should be a conflagration. He spoke thus: Everlasting fire shall descend, and shall devour to the pit beneath. Deuteronomy 32:22 It is not, then, that we hold the same opinions as others, but that all speak in imitation of ours. Among us these things can be heard and learned from persons who do not even know the forms of the letters, who are uneducated and barbarous in speech, though wise and believing in mind; some, indeed, even maimed and deprived of eyesight; so that you may understand that these things are not the effect of human wisdom, but are uttered by the power of God.

Chapter 61. Christian baptism

I will also relate the manner in which we dedicated ourselves to God when we had been made new through Christ; lest, if we omit this, we seem to be unfair in the explanation we are making. As many as are persuaded and believe that what we teach and say is true, and undertake to be able to live accordingly, are instructed to pray and to entreat God with fasting, for the remission of their sins that are past, we praying and fasting with them. Then they are brought by us where there is water, and are regenerated in the same manner in which we were ourselves regenerated. For, in the name of God, the Father and Lord of the universe, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit, they then receive the washing with water. For Christ also said, Unless you be born again, you shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven. John 3:5 Now, that it is impossible for those who have once been born to enter into their mothers' wombs, is manifest to all. And how those who have sinned and repent shall escape their sins, is declared by Esaias the prophet, as I wrote above; he thus speaks: Wash you, make you clean; put away the evil of your doings from your souls; learn to do well; judge the fatherless, and plead for the widow: and come and let us reason together, says the Lord. And though your sins be as scarlet, I will make them white like wool; and though they be as crimson, I will make them white as snow. But if you refuse and rebel, the sword shall devour you: for the mouth of the Lord has spoken it. Isaiah 1:16-20

And for this [rite] we have learned from the apostles this reason. Since at our birth we were born without our own knowledge or choice, by our parents coming together, and were brought up in bad habits and wicked training; in order that we may not remain the children of necessity and of ignorance, but may become the children of choice and knowledge, and may obtain in the water the remission of sins formerly committed, there is pronounced over him who chooses to be born again, and has repented of his sins, the name of God the Father and Lord of the universe; he who leads to the laver the person that is to be washed calling him by this name alone. For no one can utter the name of the ineffable God; and if any one dare to say that there is a name, he raves with a hopeless madness. And this washing is called illumination, because they who learn these things are illuminated in their understandings. And in the name of Jesus Christ, who was crucified under Pontius Pilate, and in the name of the Holy Ghost, who through the prophets foretold all things about Jesus, he who is illuminated is washed.

Chapter 62. Its imitation by demons

And the devils, indeed, having heard this washing published by the prophet, instigated those who enter their temples, and are about to approach them with libations and burnt-offerings, also to sprinkle themselves; and they cause them also to wash themselves entirely, as they depart [from the sacrifice], before they enter into the shrines in which their images are set. And the command, too, given by the priests to those who enter and worship in the temples, that they take off their shoes, the devils, learning what happened to the above-mentioned prophet Moses, have given in imitation of these things. For at that juncture, when Moses was ordered to go down into Egypt and lead out the people of the Israelites who were there, and while he was tending the flocks of his maternal uncle in the land of Arabia, our Christ conversed with him under the appearance of fire from a bush, and said, Put off your shoes, and draw near and hear. And he, when he had put off his shoes and drawn near, heard that he was to go down into Egypt and lead out the people of the Israelites there; and he received mighty power from Christ, who spoke to him in the appearance of fire, and went down and led out the people, having done great and marvellous things; which, if you desire to know, you will learn them accurately from his writings.

Chapter 63. How God appeared to Moses

And all the Jews even now teach that the nameless God spoke to Moses; whence the Spirit of prophecy, accusing them by Isaiah the prophet mentioned above, said The ox knows his owner, and the ass his master's crib; but Israel does not know Me, and My people do not understand. Isaiah 1:3 And Jesus the Christ, because the Jews knew not what the Father was, and what the Son, in like manner accused them; and Himself said, No one knows the Father, but the Son; nor the Son, but the Father, and they to whom the Son reveals Him. Matthew 11:27 Now the Word of God is His Son, as we have before said. And He is called Angel and Apostle; for He declares whatever we ought to know, and is sent forth to declare whatever is revealed; as our Lord Himself says, He that hears Me, hears Him that sent Me. Luke 10:16 From the writings of Moses also this will be manifest; for thus it is written in them, And the Angel of God spoke to Moses, in a flame of fire out of the bush, and said, I am that I am, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob, the God of your fathers; go down into Egypt, and bring forth My people. Exodus 3:6 And if you wish to learn what follows, you can do so from the same writings; for it is impossible to relate the whole here. But so much is written for the sake of proving that Jesus the Christ is the Son of God and His Apostle, being of old the Word, and appearing sometimes in the form of fire, and sometimes in the likeness of angels; but now, by the will of God, having become man for the human race, He endured all the sufferings which the devils instigated the senseless Jews to inflict upon Him; who, though they have it expressly affirmed in the writings of Moses, And the angel of God spoke to Moses in a flame of fire in a bush, and said, I am that I am, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, yet maintain that He who said this was the Father and Creator of the universe. Whence also the Spirit of prophecy rebukes them, and says, Israel does not know Me, my people have not understood Me. Isaiah 1:3 And again, Jesus, as we have already shown, while He was with them, said, No one knows the Father, but the Son; nor the Son but the Father, and those to whom the Son will reveal Him. Matthew 11:27 The Jews, accordingly, being throughout of opinion that it was the Father of the universe who spoke to Moses, though He who spoke to him was indeed the Son of God, who is called both Angel and Apostle, are justly charged, both by the Spirit of prophecy and by Christ Himself, with knowing neither the Father nor the Son. For they who affirm that the Son is the Father, are proved neither to have become acquainted with the Father, nor to know that the Father of the universe has a Son; who also, being the first-begotten Word of God, is even God. And of old He appeared in the shape of fire and in the likeness of an angel to Moses and to the other prophets; but now in the times of your reign, having, as we before said, become Man by a virgin, according to the counsel of the Father, for the salvation of those who believe in Him, He endured both to be set at nought and to suffer, that by dying and rising again He might conquer death. And that which was said out of the bush to Moses, I am that I am, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, and the God of your fathers, Exodus 3:6 this signified that they, even though dead, are yet in existence, and are men belonging to Christ Himself. For they were the first of all men to busy themselves in the search after God; Abraham being the father of Isaac, and Isaac of Jacob, as Moses wrote.

Chapter 64. Further misrepresentations of the truth

From what has been already said, you can understand how the devils, in imitation of what was said by Moses, asserted that Proserpine was the daughter of Jupiter, and instigated the people to set up an image of her under the name of Kore [Cora, i.e., the maiden or daughter] at the spring-heads. For, as we wrote above, Moses said, In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form and unfurnished: and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. In imitation, therefore, of what is here said of the Spirit of God moving on the waters, they said that Proserpine [or Cora] was the daughter of Jupiter. And in like manner also they craftily feigned that Minerva was the daughter of Jupiter, not by sexual union, but, knowing that God conceived and made the world by the Word, they say that Minerva is the first conception [ἔννοια]; which we consider to be very absurd, bringing forward the form of the conception in a female shape. And in like manner the actions of those others who are called sons of Jupiter sufficiently condemn them.

Chapter 65. Administration of the sacraments

But we, after we have thus washed him who has been convinced and has assented to our teaching, bring him to the place where those who are called brethren are assembled, in order that we may offer hearty prayers in common for ourselves and for the baptized [illuminated] person, and for all others in every place, that we may be counted worthy, now that we have learned the truth, by our works also to be found good citizens and keepers of the commandments, so that we may be saved with an everlasting salvation. Having ended the prayers, we salute one another with a kiss. There is then brought to the president of the brethren bread and a cup of wine mixed with water; and he taking them, gives praise and glory to the Father of the universe, through the name of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, and offers thanks at considerable length for our being counted worthy to receive these things at His hands. And when he has concluded the prayers and thanksgivings, all the people present express their assent by saying Amen. This word Amen answers in the Hebrew language to γένοιτο [so be it]. And when the president has given thanks, and all the people have expressed their assent, those who are called by us deacons give to each of those present to partake of the bread and wine mixed with water over which the thanksgiving was pronounced, and to those who are absent they carry away a portion.

Chapter 66. Of the Eucharist

And this food is called among us Εὐχαριστία [the Eucharist], of which no one is allowed to partake but the man who believes that the things which we teach are true, and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is so living as Christ has enjoined. For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these; but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Saviour, having been made flesh by the Word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so likewise have we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh. For the apostles, in the memoirs composed by them, which are called Gospels, have thus delivered unto us what was enjoined upon them; that Jesus took bread, and when He had given thanks, said, This do in remembrance of Me, Luke 22:19 this is My body; and that, after the same manner, having taken the cup and given thanks, He said, This is My blood; and gave it to them alone. Which the wicked devils have imitated in the mysteries of Mithras, commanding the same thing to be done. For, that bread and a cup of water are placed with certain incantations in the mystic rites of one who is being initiated, you either know or can learn.

Chapter 67. Weekly worship of the Christians

And we afterwards continually remind each other of these things. And the wealthy among us help the needy; and we always keep together; and for all things wherewith we are supplied, we bless the Maker of all through His Son Jesus Christ, and through the Holy Ghost. And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need. But Sunday is the day on which we all hold our common assembly, because it is the first day on which God, having wrought a change in the darkness and matter, made the world; and Jesus Christ our Saviour on the same day rose from the dead. For He was crucified on the day before that of Saturn (Saturday); and on the day after that of Saturn, which is the day of the Sun, having appeared to His apostles and disciples, He taught them these things, which we have submitted to you also for your consideration.

Chapter 68. Conclusion

And if these things seem to you to be reasonable and true, honour them; but if they seem nonsensical, despise them as nonsense, and do not decree death against those who have done no wrong, as you would against enemies. For we forewarn you, that you shall not escape the coming judgment of God, if you continue in your injustice; and we ourselves will invite you to do that which is pleasing to God. And though from the letter of the greatest and most illustrious Emperor Adrian, your father, we could demand that you order judgment to be given as we have desired, yet we have made this appeal and explanation, not on the ground of Adrian's decision, but because we know that what we ask is just. And we have subjoined the copy of Adrian's epistle, that you may know that we are speaking truly about this. And the following is the copy:—

Appendix

Epistle of Adrian in behalf of the Christians

I have received the letter addressed to me by your predecessor Serenius Granianus, a most illustrious man; and this communication I am unwilling to pass over in silence, lest innocent persons be disturbed, and occasion be given to the informers for practising villany. Accordingly, if the inhabitants of your province will so far sustain this petition of theirs as to accuse the Christians in some court of law, I do not prohibit them from doing so. But I will not suffer them to make use of mere entreaties and outcries. For it is far more just, if any one desires to make an accusation, that you give judgment upon it. If, therefore, any one makes the accusation, and furnishes proof that the said men do anything contrary to the laws, you shall adjudge punishments in proportion to the offenses. And this, by Hercules, you shall give special heed to, that if any man shall, through mere calumny, bring an accusation against any of these persons, you shall award to him more severe punishments in proportion to his wickedness.

Epistle of Antoninus to the common assembly of Asia

The Emperor Cæsar Titus Ælius Adrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, Supreme Pontiff, in the fifteenth year of his tribuneship, Consul for the third time, Father of the fatherland, to the Common Assembly of Asia, greeting: I should have thought that the gods themselves would see to it that such offenders should not escape. For if they had the power, they themselves would much rather punish those who refuse to worship them; but it is you who bring trouble on these persons, and accuse as the opinion of atheists that which they hold, and lay to their charge certain other things which we are unable to prove. But it would be advantageous to them that they should be thought to die for that of which they are accused, and they conquer you by being lavish of their lives rather than yield that obedience which you require of them. And regarding the earthquakes which have already happened and are now occurring, it is not seemly that you remind us of them, losing heart whenever they occur, and thus set your conduct in contrast with that of these men; for they have much greater confidence towards God than you yourselves have. And you, indeed, seem at such times to ignore the gods, and you neglect the temples, and make no recognition of the worship of God. And hence you are jealous of those who do serve Him, and persecute them to the death. Concerning such persons, some others also of the governors of provinces wrote to my most divine father; to whom he replied that they should not at all disturb such persons, unless they were found to be attempting anything against the Roman government. And to myself many have sent intimations regarding such persons, to whom I also replied in pursuance of my father's judgment. But if any one has a matter to bring against any person of this class, merely as such a person, let the accused be acquitted of the charge, even though he should be found to be such an one; but let the accuser be amenable to justice.

Epistle of Marcus Aurelius to the senate, in which he testifies that the Christians were the cause of his victory

The Emperor Cæsar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Germanicus, Parthicus, Sarmaticus, to the People of Rome, and to the sacred Senate greeting: I explained to you my grand design, and what advantages I gained on the confines of Germany, with much labour and suffering, in consequence of the circumstance that I was surrounded by the enemy; I myself being shut up in Carnuntum by seventy-four cohorts, nine miles off. And the enemy being at hand, the scouts pointed out to us, and our general Pompeianus showed us that there was close on us a mass of a mixed multitude of 977,000 men, which indeed we saw; and I was shut up by this vast host, having with me only a battalion composed of the first, tenth, double and marine legions. Having then examined my own position, and my host, with respect to the vast mass of barbarians and of the enemy, I quickly betook myself to prayer to the gods of my country. But being disregarded by them, I summoned those who among us go by the name of Christians. And having made inquiry, I discovered a great number and vast host of them, and raged against them, which was by no means becoming; for afterwards I learned their power. Wherefore they began the battle, not by preparing weapons, nor arms, nor bugles; for such preparation is hateful to them, on account of the God they bear about in their conscience. Therefore it is probable that those whom we suppose to be atheists, have God as their ruling power entrenched in their conscience. For having cast themselves on the ground, they prayed not only for me, but also for the whole army as it stood, that they might be delivered from the present thirst and famine. For during five days we had got no water, because there was none; for we were in the heart of Germany, and in the enemy's territory. And simultaneously with their casting themselves on the ground, and praying to God (a God of whom I am ignorant), water poured from heaven, upon us most refreshingly cool, but upon the enemies of Rome a withering hail. And immediately we recognised the presence of God following on the prayer — a God unconquerable and indestructible. Founding upon this, then, let us pardon such as are Christians, lest they pray for and obtain such a weapon against ourselves. And I counsel that no such person be accused on the ground of his being a Christian. But if any one be found laying to the charge of a Christian that he is a Christian, I desire that it be made manifest that he who is accused as a Christian, and acknowledges that he is one, is accused of nothing else than only this, that he is a Christian; but that he who arraigns him be burned alive. And I further desire, that he who is entrusted with the government of the province shall not compel the Christian, who confesses and certifies such a matter, to retract; neither shall he commit him. And I desire that these things be confirmed by a decree of the Senate. And I command this my edict to be published in the Forum of Trajan, in order that it may be read. The prefect Vitrasius Pollio will see that it be transmitted to all the provinces round about, and that no one who wishes to make use of or to possess it be hindered from obtaining a copy from the document I now publish.



JUSTIN. DIALOGUE DE SAINT JUSTIN AVEC LE JUIF TRYPHON.Τοῦ ἁγίου Ἰουστίνου πρὸς Τρύφωνα Ἰουδαῖον Διάλογος. Traduction française : M. DE GENOUDE. Oeuvre numérisée par Marc Szwajcer : http://remacle.org/bloodwolf/eglise/justin/tryphon.htm


JUSTIN. DEUXIÈME APOLOGIE. Ἀπολογία ὑπὲρ Χριστιανῶν πρὸς τὴν Ῥωμαίων Σύγκλητον. Traduction française : LOUIS PAUTIGNY. Oeuvre numérisée par Marc Szwajcer : http://remacle.org/bloodwolf/eglise/justin/apologie2.htm

Voir aussi : http://www.patristique.org/Justin-martyr-Dialogue-avec.html

http://www.samizdat.qc.ca/vc/pdfs/Apologetique_justin.pdf