jeudi 9 février 2012

Saint MARON ou MAROUN de BEIT-MARUN, moine, abbé et ermite



Saint Maron, ermite

Parmi les nombreux moines de Syrie adonnés aux formes les plus rudes et les plus rigoureuses de l’ascèse, Théodoret de Cyr fait mémoire de l’un d’eux qui « ayant décidé de vivre à ciel ouvert, se retira sur le sommet d’une montagne ». C’est le moine Maron, cet ermite qui vécut en anachorète dans le nord du Liban dans la région actuelle d'Homs, passant toute sa vie exposé aux intempéries et entièrement voué à la prière. Après sa mort, survenue vers 423, un monastère s'élèvera sur son tombeau et "Mar Maroun" deviendra un grand lieu de pèlerinage. Ce monastère sera la capitale religieuse des chrétiens de Syrie qui furent appelés "ceux de Maroun" ou maronites. Ils conservèrent ce nom quand, pour éviter d'être exterminés par les musulmans envahisseurs, ils se réfugièrent dans les montagnes du Liban. L'Eglise maronite compte actuellement près de deux millions de fidèles regroupés en un patriarcat rattaché à Rome de tout temps.

SOURCE : http://www.paroisse-saint-aygulf.fr/index.php/prieres-et-liturgie/saints-par-mois/icalrepeat.detail/2015/02/09/4775/-/saint-maron-ermite

SAINT MARON

Réference Historique

La seule référence capable de nous renseigner sur la vie du Saint est l’" Historia Religiosa" de Théodoret, évêque de Cyr, écrite vers l’an 440 et dans laquelle l’écrivain évoque la vie des ascètes de la Cyrrhestique et de ses environs. Le chapitre XVI du livre contient amples détails sur le Saint, sur sa vie mystique et son empreinte indéniable sur ses disciples.

Location géographique

La Cyrrhestique où se déroula la vie de Saint Maron est située en Syrie du Nord. L’organisation romaine de l’époque avait divisé la province de Syrie en trois parties: La Syrie Première ou Syrie Creuse (Coele-Syrie), avec Antioche pour métropole. La Syrie Seconde ou Syrie Heureuse (Salutaris), avec Apamée pour métropole. La Syrie Troisième ou Euphratèse, avec Hiérapolis (mieux connu sous le nom de Membej) pour métropole

Les régions situés au sud d'Apamée, s'étendant jusqu'aux frontiéres méridionales Libanaises étaient divisées en deux sections: La Phoenicie Libanaise, avec Homs puis Damas pour métropole et La Phoenicie Maritime avec Tyr pour capitale. Le diocése de Cyrrhestique, qui avait à sa téte l'évêque Théodoret de Cyr s'étendait à l'ouest de L'Euphratése.

Une distance évalué à deux jours de marches séparait la ville de Cyr situé au nord-est d'Antioches. Soixante dix kilomètres la séparaient de la ville d'Alep. Si l'on se refére à l'historien Théodoret de Cyr. St Marron, ayant choisit de mener une vie d'ascéte, élu domicile au sommet d'une montagne abrupte qui porte le nom de Nabo, (par reférence au dieu païen Nabo) dont le temple était au sommet de cette montagne. Le village avoisinant était connu sous le nom de Kfar Nabo.

Vie Exemplaire

Saint Maron consacra le temple au culte du vrai Dieu. A l’exemple de Saint Maron, et sous l’influence de sa vie édifiante, beaucoup de disciples vouèrent une bonne partie de leur existence à la prière, tandis que d’autres s’isolaient sur les cîmes des montagnes, ou se cloîtraient dans les grottes pour communier avec le divin. La renommée et la sainteté de Maron étaient si grandes que Saint Jean Chrysostome lui dépêcha une lettre vers l’an 405 qui témoignait du respect qu’il vouait au Saint et demandait d’intercéder pour lui dans sa prière.

D’après Théodoret, Saint Maron, décédé vers l’année 410, aurait exprimé son désir d’être inhumé dans la tombe de Saint Zabina, qui représentait pour lui le modèle de vie édifiante. Sitôt sa mort connue, "les habitants d’un bourg limitrophe fort peuplé, survinrent en masse, dispersèrent les autres, s’emparèrent de ce trésor tant convoité, édifièrent un vaste tombeau et depuis, ils en récoltent le profit, honorant ce vainqueur d’une fête publique".

Il semble que le village mentionné par l’historien est celui de Barad, proche de Kfar Nabo, si dense en population et chef-lieu d’une large contrée. Au début du Ve siècle, époque qui coïncide si bien avec la date du décès de Saint Maron en 410, une grande église y fut édifiée à l’intérieur de laquelle se trouve un sarcophage qui aurait servi à garder la dépouille de Saint Maron. Dans la tradition maronite, les disciples de Saint Maron auraient transféré ses reliques, en particulier son crâne, au couvent de Saint Maron ou "Beit Maroun", édifié en l’an 452 sur l’Oronte entre Alep et Hama en Syrie actuelle.

Relique du Saint

Le crâne fut ramené au Liban, au couvent de Kfarhaï, dans le région de Batroun, au début du VII’ siècle. Ecoutons ce que dit le patriarche Douaihi: "Quand Jean Maron fut établi à Kfarhaï, il construisit un sanctuaire et un couvent dédiés à Saint Maron. Il y déposa le crâne du Saint artisan miraculeux de guérison des rnaladies. C’est pour cette raison que le couvent fut connu par Rech Maro c’est-à-dire Tête de Maron",

La tête du Saint fut transférée plus tard en Italie. En l’année 1130, débarquait en Syrie l’un des moines bénédictins, alors chef du Couvent de la Croix situé à peu de distance de la ville de Foligno en Italie, prit livraison du crâne de Saint Maron, après avoir effectué son pélerinage aux Lieux Saints. De retour en son pays, il prêcha les vertus du Saint auquel la foule des fidèles voua un culte fervent. C’est alors que l’évêque de Foligno fit transférer le crâne dans l’église de l’archevêché en 1194. Les fidèles coulèrent une statue en argent représentant l’effigie du Saint et dans laquelle ils déposèrent ses reliques. Monseigneur Youssef-el-Debs relate que lors de son passage en Italie en 1887, l’évêque de Foligno lui remit quelques fragments de reliques de Saint.

SOURCE : http://www.opuslibani.org.lb/maroun/st001fr.htm

Saint Maron

Moine au Liban, père de l'Eglise maronite (✝ 410)

Il vécut en anachorète dans le nord du Liban dans la région actuelle d'Homs. Il s'était construit une petite hutte à côté d'un temple païen abandonné, mais en fait il passait tout son temps en plein air, s'exposant volontairement à toutes les intempéries. Après sa mort, un monastère s'élèvera sur son tombeau et "Mar Maroun" deviendra un grand lieu de pèlerinage. Ce monastère sera la capitale religieuse des chrétiens de Syrie qui furent appelés "ceux de Maroun" ou maronites. Ils conservèrent ce nom quand, pour éviter d'être exterminés par les musulmans envahisseurs, ils se réfugièrent dans les montagnes du Liban. L'Église maronite compte actuellement près de deux millions de fidèles regroupés en un patriarcat rattaché à Rome de tout temps.

Saint Maroun est fêté le 9 février au Liban.

"A l’exemple de Saint Maron, et sous l’influence de sa vie édifiante, beaucoup de disciples vouèrent une bonne partie de leur existence à la prière, tandis que d’autres s’isolaient sur les cimes des montagnes, ou se cloîtraient dans les grottes pour communier avec le divin. La renommée et la sainteté de Maron étaient si grandes que Saint Jean Chrysostome lui dépêcha une lettre vers l’an 405 qui témoignait du respect qu’il vouait au Saint et demandait d’intercéder pour lui dans sa prière."

(source: vie de Saint Maron - Opus Libani)

Sur la montagne près d’Apamée en Syrie, vers 423, saint Maron, ermite, qui se donna de tout son cœur à une pénitence et une vie intérieure profonde. Sur sa tombe fut construit un monastère célèbre, d’où tire son origine la nation qui plus tard portera son nom.

Martyrologe romain

SOURCE : http://nominis.cef.fr/contenus/saint/600/Saint-Maron.html




St. Maroun (ca 345-410) was from the ancient area of Cyrrhus (Cyrus) in what is now southern Turkey, not far from the Syrian city of Aleppo. He lived the life of an ascetic, at a hill top where an ancient temple to the Babylonian god Nabo stood, which he converted to a Christian church. His hermit lifestyle was characterized as living “in the open air.” Where he resided, the summers were very hot and the winters very cold, but he was willing to be exposed to these extremes in order to focus on his spiritual goals and overcome concerns for his body.

The Christian tradition of the area where he lived dates back to St. Peter, who established a church in Antioch and visited there several times, approximately during the period 35-55 A.D., before moving on to Rome, where he was martyred around 67 A.D.

A record of St. Maroun’s life comes to us from St. Theodoret (393-457), who was born in Antioch and became bishop of Cyrrhus (423-457); he was a respected writer of his time. He wrote the book Historia Religiosa, describing a number of hermit-monks, and gave praise to St. Maroun, noting his powers of healing, after describing St. Acepsimas:

“After him [Acepsimas] I shall recall Maroun, for he too adorned the godly choir of the saints. Embracing the open-air life, he repaired to a hill-top formerly honored by the impious. Consecrating to God the precinct of demons on it, he lived there, pitching a small tent which he seldom used. He practiced not only the usual labors, but devised others as well, heaping up the wealth of philosophy.”

“The Umpire measured out grace according to his labors: so the magnificent one gave in abundance the gift of healing, with the result that his fame circulated everywhere, attracted everyone from every side and taught by experience the truth of the report. One could see fevers quenched by the dew of his blessing, shivering quieted, demons put to flight, and varied diseases of every kind cured by a single remedy; the progeny of physicians apply to each disease the appropriate remedy, but the prayer of the saint is a common antidote for every distress.”

“He cured not only infirmities of the body, but applied suitable treatment to souls as well, healing this man’s greed and that man’s anger, to this man supplying teaching in self-control and to that providing lessons in justice, correcting this man’s intemperance and shaking up another man’s sloth. Applying this mode of cultivation, he produced many plants of philosophy, and it was he who planted for God the garden that now flourishes in the region of Cyrrhus. A product of his planting was the great James [known now as St. James of Cyrrhestica], to whom one could reasonably apply the prophetic utterance, ‘the righteous man will flower as the palm tree, and be multiplied like the cedar of Lebanon’, [Psalm 92:12] and also all the others whom, with God’s help, I shall recall individually….”

In Theodoret’s description, one of the specific conditions mentioned as being alleviated by St. Maroun was ‘shivering,’ for which he retained a strong reputation even after his death. Thus, St. Maroun has long been known as the saint to appeal to in cases of disorders involving trembling and shaking, such as Parkinson’s disease.

We learn of the respect St. Maroun gained during his life from a letter by the well-known theologian St. John Chrysostom (347-407), who was later declared a “doctor of the Church:”

“To Maroun, the Monk Priest: 
We are bound to you by love and interior disposition, and see you here before us as if you were actually present. For such are the eyes of love; their vision is neither interrupted by distance nor dimmed by time. We wished to write more frequently to your reverence, but since this is not easy on account of the difficulty of the road and the problems to which travelers are subject, whenever opportunity allows we address ourselves to your honor and assure you that we hold you constantly in our mind and carry you about in our soul wherever we may be. And take care yourself that you write to us as often as you can, telling us how you are, so that although separated physically we might be cheered by learning constantly about your health and receive much consolation as we sit in solitude. For it brings us no small joy to hear about your health. And above all please pray for us.”

Chrysostom was in Antioch, about a two days journey from Maroun’s residence, and the difficulty of the road mentioned in his letter revealed the dangerous travel at the time. Concerns for Maroun’s health probably reflected his old age at the time this was written (around 405 A.D.), while Maroun continued to live in the often severe environment.

St. Maroun became so popular that his numerous followers were known as Maronites. After his death, a Maronite monastery (Beth-Maroun) was built around 452 near Saint Maroun’s tomb; Theodoret also described the profound devotion which the monks of the monastery had to their departed spiritual father. The monastery engendered a larger community where men and women, under the guidance of the monks, could find material and spiritual happiness. The monastery, situated not far from Mount Lebanon, belonged to the patriarchy of the Church of Antioch. As the hardships of the early Christian church continued, the faithful set their hopes on the Maronite community where, in spite of persecutions and devastating wars, the spiritual leaders provided guidance and protection. For centuries the spiritual leaders of the Maronites have kept watch over the political and social rights of their people.

The Maronite movement reached Lebanon during its earliest days when St. Maroun’s first disciple, Abraham of Cyrrhus, moved there to evangelize; he became known as the Apostle of Lebanon. For the past few centuries, the center of Maronite life has been in Lebanon (it is pointed out that the town of Cana, where the famous wedding feast took place with Mary, Jesus, and his new disciples in attendance, is in southern Lebanon). Today, there are Maronites in most countries, and they number more than 4 million. The liturgical rite of St. Chrysostom, which has been utilized in the Eastern churches (some rely on the rite of St. Basil), is adapted for the Maronite rite, one of 22 rites of the Catholic Church.

A unique cross was developed to represent the Marionite faith, one which gives tribute to the Holy Trinity by having three crossbars representing Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. There is also frequent reference in Marion tradition to the cedars of Lebanon (Cedrus libani), mentioned several times in the bible; these cedars make-up a large forest in northern Lebanon near the area where St. Maroun lived. The cross has an appearance like these cedars (dramatically presented in the painting below from 1907); in fact, sometimes the three-bar cross is drawn as a cedar.

There were many people inspired by Maroun, who led lives imitating his, living as hermits and avoiding any comforts; others lived in an isolated monastic setting. Monastic life in the Maronite community was formally organized in 1695, when several independent monasteries in Lebanon were collected under one religious order. The monks were divided into three categories: lay brothers, priests and hermits; all pronounced vows of poverty, chastity, obedience, and humility. In 1770, this Order was then divided into two organizations: the Lebanese Maronite Order (Baladite Order) and the Aleppine Order, renamed the Lebanese Mariamite in 1969.

Saint Maroun’s feast day is celebrated on February 9 in the Maronite churches around the world. This day is also an official national day in the State of Lebanon.

SOURCE : http://www.ucatholic.com/saints/saint-maroun/

Maro of Beit-Marun, Abbot (AC)

(also known as Maron)

Died c. 435. Saint Maro was a hermit on a mountain in Syria near the Orontes River, where he had a little hut covered with sheep skins to shelter him from the weather, but lived in a spirit of mortification in the open air most of the time. When he found a pagan temple nearby, he dedicated it to God and made it his oratory. In 405 Maro was ordained to the priesthood.


Saint John Chrysostom had a singular regard for Maro. During one of his banishments, John wrote from Cucusus and commended himself to Maro's prayers and begged to hear from him at every opportunity (Chrysostom's epistle 36).

Under the direction of Saint Zebinus, Maro learned to pray without ceasing. Zebinus surpassed all the solitaries of his time in his assiduity to prayer to which he devoted whole days and nights without any weariness or fatigue. His ardor for prayer seemed to increase, rather than slacken with time. Zebinus gave advice to those who sought it in as few words as possible in order to spend more time in heavenly contemplation.

Maro imitated Zebinus's constancy in prayer, yet he not only received all visitors with great tenderness but also encourage them to stay with him. Few, however, were willing to pass the night standing in prayer. God rewarded Maro's charity and constancy with abundant graces including the gift of healing. He prescribed admirable remedies against all vices, which drew crowds to him.

So great were the number of people drawn to God by Maro's words and prayers.

Upon Maro's death, a pious contest ensued among the neighboring provinces about his burial. A spacious church was built over his tomb adjoining the monastery of Saint Maro in the diocese of Apamea between Apamea and Emesa (Homs). The people in Lebanon and Syria called Maronites (a rite united to the Universal Church) are said to derive their name from this monastery, Bait-Marun, and look on Saint Maro as their patriarch and patron saint (Attwater, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth). 


SOURCE : http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0214.shtml

San Marone Eremita


m. Siria, 410 circa

«Ora ricorderò Marone, perché pure lui ha abbellito il coro dei santi. Mentre i medici prescrivono per ogni malattia un farmaco diverso, la sua medicina era sempre la stessa, comune a tutti i santi: la preghiera. Non curava solo le malattie del corpo, ma anche quelle dell’anima: guariva uno dall’avarizia, un altro dall’ira, istruiva questo nella temperanza, quello nella giustizia» (Teodoreto di Ciro).

Sappiamo poco della vita di Marone, un monaco eremita vissuto in Siria tra il IV e il V secolo. Pur possedendo una capanna coperta di pelli di capra, ne faceva poco uso, vivendo per lo più a cielo aperto. Trascorreva la maggior parte del suo tempo assorto in preghiera. La sua solitudine, tuttavia, non durò a lungo. Presto accorsero a lui discepoli e semplici fedeli per ricevere consigli.

Tutti egli esortava alla preghiera, invitandoli a trascorrere con lui l’intera notte nella lode di Dio. I suoi consigli erano spesso accompagnati da guarigioni fisiche e psichiche. Non meno apprezzata era la sua guida spirituale al punto che Teodoreto afferma che tutti i monaci di Ciro furono da lui istruiti. Morì verso il 410 e il suo corpo venne sepolto nel celebre monastero di Beth-Maron, nella regione di Apamea. Un secolo più tardi, a causa delle invasioni arabe della Siria, molti cristiani si stabilirono in quella zona montuosa. Fu l’origine di quella Chiesa che dal nome del santo prese il nome di maronita. Nel Medio Evo, un buon numero di maroniti aderì all’unione con la Chiesa cattolica. Per questo nel XVI secolo venne aperto a Roma un importante collegio per lo studio della lingua e della tradizione maronita.
Ancora oggi san Marone è venerato nelle regioni montuose della Siria e del Libano.

Martirologio Romano: Su un monte presso Apamea in Siria, san Marone, eremita, totalmente dedito all’aspra penitenza e alla contemplazione, presso il cui sepolcro fu eretto un celebre monastero, da cui ebbe poi origine una comunità cristiana che da lui prese il nome.

Assai ammirato dal celeberrimo Giovanni Crisostomo, San Marone visse a cavallo tra il IV ed il V secolo, eremita nei pressi della città di Ciro in Siria. Pur possedendo una capanna coperta di pelli di capra, si narra che ne abbia poco usufruito, vivendo principalmente all’aperto. Fu fedele discepolo di San Zebino, il quale era solito dispensare consigli estremamente succinti per poter trascorrere il maggior tempo possibile conversando con Dio. Scovate le rovine di un tempio pagano, Marone volle dedicarlo all’unico vero Dio, trasformandolo così nel suo luogo privilegiato di preghiera. Coloro che vi si recavano per consultarsi con il santo e per chiedergli consiglio non solo erano accolti con cortesia, ma venivano inoltre invitati ad unirsi a lui nell’orazione, cosa che spesso consisteva nel vegliare per l’intera notte. Si guadagnò la fama di taumaturgo, compiendo prodigiose guarigioni sia fisiche che psichiche, ma anche la sua reputazione quale direttore spirituale non fu da meno. Molti dei suoi ammiratori maturarono poi la decisione di farsi monaci o eremiti ed il vescovo Teodoreto di Ciro giunse a testimoniare che tutti i monaci della sua diocesi fossero stati istruiti da Marone.

Il santo eremita morì dopo una breve malattia, logorato dai rigori della sua vita, ma non è ben definita la data esatta della sua morte, da collocarsi comunque nella prima metà del V secolo. Purtroppo non si hanno notizie più approfondite e storicamente attendibili su questo santo, nonostante la sua popolarità. Alcune province confinanti si contesero il possesso dei suoi resti, che infine furono tumulati nel celebre monastero di Beth-Maron, nella regione siriana di Apamea, nei pressi della fonte del fiume Oronte. La Chiesa definita “maronita” afferma di aver avuto origine proprio in quel luogo e venera il santo eremita come proprio fondatore, facendone memoria anche nel canone della loro Divina Liturgia. Per alcuni storici è tuttavia difficile che le origini dei cristiani maroniti risalgano oltre il VII secolo, quando cioè si separarono dalla Chiesa adottando il monoteismo, eresia condannata dal concilio di Calcedonia nel 680. Il loro nome sarebbe collegato con maggiore probabilità al leggendario Giovanni Marone, da essi venerato anch’egli come santo, che fu monaco a Beth-Maron e nel 676 divenne vescovo di Botira su insistenza del patriarca monotelita Macario e primo patriarca maronita.

Distrutto dagli invasori arabi nel X secolo, il monastero fu ricostruito a Kefr-Nay nel distretto di Botira e qui venne traslata la testa di San Marone. Nel 1182, durante le crociate, ben quarantamila maroniti si convertirono al cattolicesimo e da allora la loro Chiesa rimase sempre unita a Roma, pur mantenendo una propria liturgia ed un proprio calendario. Sotto la protezione della Chiesa Cattolica i maroniti conobbero un periodo di prosperità e nel 1584 papa Gregorio fondò a Roma un collegio maronita che attirò le attenzioni di molti studiosi. Il XIX fu però il Venerdì Santo della Chiesa maronita: nel 1860 molti furono massacrati e patirono terribilmente per mano dei turchi, l’abate di Deir el-Khamar fu orribilmente torturato e circa sedicimila fedeli vennero espulsi dalle loro abitazioni. Nel 1926 il pontefice Pio XI beatificò un gruppo di undici vittime di tale persecuzione, capeggiato dal francescano Emanuele Ruiz Lopez, del quale facevano parte anche tre fratelli laici maroniti: trattasi dei beati Francesco, Abdel-Mooti e Raffaele Massabki. Ulteriori sanguinosi massacri colpirono i maroniti nel XX secolo, durante la prima guerra mondiale ed in Libano anche negli anni ’80.

Il Martyrologium Romanum commemora San Marone, presunto fondatore di questa grande Chiesa orientale, in data 9 febbraio, mentre i sinassari bizantini lo ricordano al 14 febbraio.

Autore:
Fabio Arduino


SOURCE : http://www.santiebeati.it/dettaglio/92497

Voir aussi : Voir aussi : http://www.olmbelgique.org/Pages/EgliseMaronite.aspx

http://www.itmonline.org/bodytheology/stmaron.htm