Évêque d'Hippone, Père et Docteur de l'Église
Saint Augustin est l'un des plus grands génies qui aient paru sur la terre et l'un des plus grands Saints dont Dieu ait orné Son Église. Moine, pontife, orateur, écrivain, philosophe, théologien, interprète de la Sainte Écriture, homme de prière et homme de zèle, il est une des figures les plus complètes que l'on puisse imaginer. Ce qu'il y a de plus admirable, c'est que Dieu tira cet homme extraordinaire de la boue profonde du vice pour l'élever presque aussi haut qu'un homme puisse atteindre; c'est bien à son sujet qu'on peut dire: "Dieu est admirable dans Ses Saints!"
Augustin naquit à Tagaste, en Afrique, l'an 354, et, s'il reçut de la part de sa sainte mère, Monique, les leçons et les exemples de la vertu, il reçut les exemples les plus déplorables de la part d'un malheureux père, qui ne se convertit qu'au moment de la mort. A l'histoire des égarements de coeur du jeune et brillant étudiant se joint l'histoire des égarements étranges de son esprit; mais enfin, grâce à trente années de larmes versées par sa mère, Dieu fit éclater invinciblement aux yeux d'Augustin les splendeurs de la vérité et les beautés seules vraies de la vertu, et le prodigue se donna tout à Dieu: "Le fils de tant de larmes ne saurait périr!" avait dit un prêtre vénérable à la mère désolée. Parole prophétique, qui renferme de grands enseignements pour les nombreuses Moniques des Augustins modernes.
C'est à Milan, sous l'influence d'Ambroise, qu'Augustin était rentré en lui-même. La voix du Ciel le rappela en Afrique où, dans une retraite laborieuse et paisible, avec quelques amis revenus à Dieu avec lui, il se prépara aux grandes destinées qui l'attendaient.
Augustin n'accepta qu'avec larmes l'évêché d'Hippone, car son péché était toujours sous ses yeux, et l'humilité fut la grande vertu de sa vie nouvelle. Il fut le marteau de toutes les hérésies de son temps; ses innombrables ouvrages sont un des plus splendides monuments de l'intelligence humaine éclairée par la foi, et ils demeurent comme la source obligée de toutes les études théologiques et philosophiques.
Si les écrits d'Augustin sont admirables par leur science, ils ne le sont pas moins par le souffle de la charité qui les anime; nul coeur ne fut plus tendre que le sien, nul plus compatissant au malheur des autres, nul plus sensible aux désastres de la patrie, nul plus touché des intérêts de Dieu, de l'Église et des âmes. Il passa les dix derniers jours de sa vie seul avec Dieu, dans le silence le plus absolu, goûtant à l'avance les délices de l'éternité bienheureuse.
Abbé L. Jaud, Vie des Saints pour tous les jours de l'année, Tours, Mame, 1950
SOURCE : http://magnificat.ca/cal/fr/saints/saint_augustin.html
Mercredi 9 janvier 2008
Sainte Augustin (1)
Chers frères et sœurs,
Après les grandes festivités de Noël, je voudrais revenir aux méditations sur les Pères de l'Eglise et parler aujourd'hui du plus grand Père de l'Eglise latine, saint Augustin: homme de passion et de foi, d'une très grande intelligence et d'une sollicitude pastorale inlassable, ce grand saint et docteur de l'Eglise est souvent connu, tout au moins de réputation, par ceux qui ignorent le christianisme ou qui ne le connaissent pas bien, car il a laissé une empreinte très profonde dans la vie culturelle de l'Occident et du monde entier. En raison de son importance particulière, saint Augustin a eu une influence considérable et l'on pourrait affirmer, d'une part, que toutes les routes de la littérature chrétienne latine mènent à Hippone (aujourd'hui Annaba, sur la côte algérienne), le lieu où il était Evêque et, de l'autre, que de cette ville de l'Afrique romaine, dont Augustin fut l'Evêque de 395 jusqu'à sa mort en 430, partent de nombreuses autres routes du christianisme successif et de la culture occidentale elle-même.
Rarement une civilisation ne rencontra un aussi grand esprit, qui sache en accueillir les valeurs et en exalter la richesse intrinsèque, en inventant des idées et des formes dont la postérité se nourrirait, comme le souligna également Paul VI: "On peut dire que toute la pensée de l'Antiquité conflue dans son œuvre et que de celle-ci dérivent des courants de pensée qui parcourent toute la tradition doctrinale des siècles suivants" (AAS, 62, 1970, p. 426). Augustin est également le Père de l'Eglise qui a laissé le plus grand nombre d'œuvres. Son biographe Possidius dit qu'il semblait impossible qu'un homme puisse écrire autant de choses dans sa vie. Nous parlerons de ces diverses œuvres lors d'une prochaine rencontre. Aujourd'hui, nous réserverons notre attention à sa vie, que l'on reconstruit bien à partir de ses écrits, et en particulier des Confessiones, son extraordinaire autobiographie spirituelle, écrite en louange à Dieu, qui est son œuvre la plus célèbre. Et à juste titre, car ce sont précisément les Confessiones d'Augustin, avec leur attention à la vie intérieure et à la psychologie, qui constituent un modèle unique dans la littérature occidentale, et pas seulement occidentale, même non religieuse, jusqu'à la modernité. Cette attention à la vie spirituelle, au mystère du "moi", au mystère de Dieu qui se cache derrière le "moi", est une chose extraordinaire sans précédent et restera pour toujours, pour ainsi dire, un "sommet" spirituel.
Mais pour en venir à sa vie, Augustin naquit à Taghaste - dans la province de Numidie de l'Afrique romaine - le 13 novembre 354, de Patrice, un païen qui devint ensuite catéchumène, et de Monique, fervente chrétienne. Cette femme passionnée, vénérée comme une sainte, exerça sur son fils une très grande influence et l'éduqua dans la foi chrétienne. Augustin avait également reçu le sel, comme signe de l'accueil dans le catéchuménat. Et il est resté fasciné pour toujours par la figure de Jésus Christ; il dit même avoir toujours aimé Jésus, mais s'être éloigné toujours plus de la foi ecclésiale, de la pratique ecclésiale, comme cela arrive pour de nombreux jeunes aujourd'hui aussi.
Augustin avait aussi un frère, Navigius, et une sœur, dont nous ignorons le nom et qui, devenue veuve, fut ensuite à la tête d'un monastère féminin. Le jeune garçon, d'une très vive intelligence, reçut une bonne éducation, même s'il ne fut pas un étudiant exemplaire. Il étudia cependant bien la grammaire, tout d'abord dans sa ville natale, puis à Madaure et, à partir de 370, la rhétorique à Carthage, capitale de l'Afrique romaine: maîtrisant parfaitement la langue latine, il n'arriva cependant pas à la même maîtrise du grec et n'apprit pas le punique, parlé par ses compatriotes. Ce fut précisément à Carthage qu'Augustin lut pour la première fois l'Hortensius, une œuvre de Cicéron qui fut ensuite perdue et qui marqua le début de son chemin vers la conversion. En effet, le texte cicéronien éveilla en lui l'amour pour la sagesse, comme il l'écrira, devenu Evêque, dans les Confessiones: "Ce livre changea véritablement ma façon de voir", si bien qu'"à l'improviste toute espérance vaine perdit de sa valeur et que je désirai avec une incroyable ardeur du cœur l'immortalité de la sagesse" (III, 4, 7).
Mais comme il était convaincu que sans Jésus on ne peut pas dire avoir effectivement trouvé la vérité, et comme dans ce livre passionné ce nom lui manquait, immédiatement après l'avoir lu, il commença à lire l'Ecriture, la Bible. Mais il en fut déçu. Non seulement parce que le style latin de la traduction de l'Ecriture Sainte était insuffisant, mais également parce que le contenu lui-même ne lui parut pas satisfaisant. Dans les récits de l'Ecriture sur les guerres et les autres événements humains, il ne trouva pas l'élévation de la philosophie, la splendeur de la recherche de la vérité qui lui est propre. Toutefois, il ne voulait pas vivre sans Dieu et il cherchait ainsi une religion correspondant à son désir de vérité et également à son désir de se rapprocher de Jésus. Il tomba ainsi dans les filets des manichéens, qui se présentaient comme des chrétiens et promettaient une religion totalement rationnelle. Ils affirmaient que le monde est divisé en deux principes: le bien et le mal. Et ainsi s'expliquerait toute la complexité de l'histoire humaine. La morale dualiste plaisait aussi à saint Augustin, car elle comportait une morale très élevée pour les élus: et pour celui qui y adhérait, comme lui, il était possible de vivre une vie beaucoup plus adaptée à la situation de l'époque, en particulier pour un homme jeune. Il devint donc manichéen, convaincu à ce moment-là d'avoir trouvé la synthèse entre rationalité, recherche de la vérité et amour de Jésus Christ. Il en tira également un avantage concret pour sa vie: l'adhésion aux manichéens ouvrait en effet des perspectives faciles de carrière. Adhérer à cette religion qui comptait tant de personnalités influentes lui permettait également de poursuivre une relation tissée avec une femme et d'aller de l'avant dans sa carrière. Il eut un fils de cette femme, Adéodat, qui lui était très cher, très intelligent, et qui sera ensuite très présent lors de sa préparation au baptême près du lac de Côme, participant à ces "Dialogues" que saint Augustin nous a légués. Malheureusement, l'enfant mourut prématurément. Professeur de grammaire vers l'âge de vingt ans dans sa ville natale, il revint bien vite à Carthage, où il devint un maître de rhétorique brillant et célèbre. Avec le temps, toutefois, Augustin commença à s'éloigner de la foi des manichéens, qui le déçurent précisément du point de vue intellectuel car ils étaient incapables de résoudre ses doutes, et il se transféra à Rome, puis à Milan, où résidait alors la cour impériale et où il avait obtenu un poste de prestige grâce à l'intervention et aux recommandations du préfet de Rome, le païen Simmaque, hostile à l'Evêque de Milan saint Ambroise.
A Milan, Augustin prit l'habitude d'écouter - tout d'abord dans le but d'enrichir son bagage rhétorique - les très belles prédications de l'Evêque Ambroise, qui avait été le représentant de l'empereur pour l'Italie du Nord, et le rhéteur africain fut fasciné par la parole du grand prélat milanais et pas seulement par sa rhétorique; c'est surtout son contenu qui toucha toujours plus son cœur. Le grand problème de l'Ancien Testament, du manque de beauté rhétorique, d'élévation philosophique se résolvait, dans les prédications de saint Ambroise, grâce à l'interprétation typologique de l'Ancien Testament: Augustin comprit que tout l'Ancien Testament est un chemin vers Jésus Christ. Il trouva ainsi la clef pour comprendre la beauté, la profondeur également philosophique de l'Ancien Testament et il comprit toute l'unité du mystère du Christ dans l'histoire et également la synthèse entre philosophie, rationalité et foi dans le Logos, dans le Christ Verbe éternel qui s'est fait chair.
Augustin se rendit rapidement compte que la lecture allégorique des Ecritures et la philosophie néoplatonicienne pratiquées par l'Evêque de Milan lui permettaient de résoudre les difficultés intellectuelles qui, lorsqu'il était plus jeune, lors de sa première approche des textes bibliques, lui avaient paru insurmontables.
A la lecture des écrits des philosophes, Augustin fit ainsi suivre à nouveau celle de l'Ecriture et surtout des lettres pauliniennes. Sa conversion au christianisme, le 15 août 386, se situa donc au sommet d'un itinéraire intérieur long et tourmenté dont nous parlerons dans une autre catéchèse, et l'Africain s'installa à la campagne au nord de Milan, près du lac de Côme - avec sa mère Monique, son fils Adéodat et un petit groupe d'amis - pour se préparer au baptême. Ainsi, à trente-deux ans, Augustin fut baptisé par Ambroise, le 24 avril 387, au cours de la veillée pascale, dans la cathédrale de Milan.
Après son baptême, Augustin décida de revenir en Afrique avec ses amis, avec l'idée de pratiquer une vie commune, de type monastique, au service de Dieu. Mais à Ostie, dans l'attente du départ, sa mère tomba brusquement malade et mourut un peu plus tard, déchirant le cœur de son fils. Finalement de retour dans sa patrie, le converti s'établit à Hippone pour y fonder précisément un monastère. Dans cette ville de la côte africaine, malgré la présence d'hérésies, il fut ordonné prêtre en 391 et commença avec plusieurs compagnons la vie monastique à laquelle il pensait depuis longtemps, partageant son temps entre la prière, l'étude et la prédication. Il voulait uniquement être au service de la vérité, il ne se sentait pas appelé à la vie pastorale, mais il comprit ensuite que l'appel de Dieu était celui d'être un pasteur parmi les autres, en offrant ainsi le don de la vérité aux autres. C'est à Hippone, quatre ans plus tard, en 395, qu'il fut consacré Evêque. Continuant à approfondir l'étude des Ecritures et des textes de la tradition chrétienne, Augustin fut un Evêque exemplaire dans son engagement pastoral inlassable: il prêchait plusieurs fois par semaine à ses fidèles, il assistait les pauvres et les orphelins, il soignait la formation du clergé et l'organisation de monastères féminins et masculins. En peu de mots, ce rhéteur de l'antiquité s'affirma comme l'un des représentants les plus importants du christianisme de cette époque: très actif dans le gouvernement de son diocèse - avec également d'importantes conséquences au niveau civil - pendant ses plus de trente-cinq années d'épiscopat, l'Evêque d'Hippone exerça en effet une grande influence dans la conduite de l'Eglise catholique de l'Afrique romaine et de manière plus générale sur le christianisme de son temps, faisant face à des tendances religieuses et des hérésies tenaces et sources de division telles que le manichéisme, le donatisme et le pélagianisme, qui mettaient en danger la foi chrétienne dans le Dieu unique et riche en miséricorde.
Et c'est à Dieu qu'Augustin se confia chaque jour, jusqu'à la fin de sa vie: frappé par la fièvre, alors que depuis presque trois mois sa ville d'Hippone était assiégée par les envahisseurs vandales, l'Evêque - raconte son ami Possidius dans la Vita Augustini - demanda que l'on transcrive en gros caractères les psaumes pénitentiels "et il fit afficher les feuilles sur le mur, de sorte que se trouvant au lit pendant sa maladie il pouvait les voir et les lire, et il pleurait sans cesse à chaudes larmes" (31, 2). C'est ainsi que s'écoulèrent les derniers jours de la vie d'Augustin, qui mourut le 28 août 430, alors qu'il n'avait pas encore 76 ans. Nous consacrerons les prochaines rencontres à ses œuvres, à son message et à son parcours intérieur.
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Je suis heureux de vous accueillir, chers pèlerins francophones. Je salue en particulier les jeunes du lycée d’enseignement agricole privé, de Saint-Maximin. Que saint Augustin soit pour vous tous un modèle dans votre recherche de Dieu et qu’il vous aide à approfondir votre foi! Avec ma Bénédiction apostolique.
© Copyright 2008 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana
SOURCE : http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/audiences/2008/documents/hf_ben-xvi_aud_20080109_fr.html
Mercredi 16 janvier 2008
Sainte Augustin (2)
Chers frères et sœurs!
Aujourd'hui, comme mercredi dernier, je voudrais parler du grand Evêque d'Hippone, saint Augustin. Quatre ans avant de mourir, il voulut nommer son successeur. C'est pourquoi, le 26 septembre 426, il rassembla le peuple dans la Basilique de la Paix, à Hippone, pour présenter aux fidèles celui qu'il avait désigné pour cette tâche. Il dit: "Dans cette vie nous sommes tous mortels, mais le dernier jour de cette vie est toujours incertain pour chaque personne. Toutefois, dans l'enfance on espère parvenir à l'adolescence; dans l'adolescence à la jeunesse; dans la jeunesse à l'âge adulte; dans l'âge adulte à l'âge mûr, dans l'âge mûr à la vieillesse. On n'est pas sûr d'y parvenir, mais on l'espère. La vieillesse, au contraire, n'a devant elle aucun temps dans lequel espérer; sa durée même est incertaine... Par la volonté de Dieu, je parvins dans cette ville dans la force de l'âge; mais à présent ma jeunesse est passée et désormais je suis vieux" (Ep 213, 1). A ce point, Augustin cita le nom du successeur désigné, le prêtre Eraclius. L'assemblée applaudit en signe d'approbation en répétant vingt-trois fois: "Dieu soit remercié! loué soit Jésus Christ!". En outre, les fidèles approuvèrent par d'autres acclamations ce qu'Augustin dit ensuite à propos de ses intentions pour l'avenir: il voulait consacrer les années qui lui restaient à une étude plus intense des Ecritures Saintes (cf. Ep 213, 6).
De fait, les quatre années qui suivirent furent des années d'une extraordinaire activité intellectuelle: il mena à bien des œuvres importantes, il en commença d'autres tout aussi prenantes, il mena des débats publics avec les hérétiques - il cherchait toujours le dialogue -, il intervint pour promouvoir la paix dans les provinces africaines assiégées par les tribus barbares du sud. C'est à ce propos qu'il écrivit au comte Darius, venu en Afrique pour résoudre le différend entre le comte Boniface et la cour impériale, dont profitaient les tribus des Maures pour effectuer leurs incursions. "Le plus grand titre de gloire - affirmait-il dans sa lettre - est précisément de tuer la guerre grâce à la parole, au lieu de tuer les hommes par l'épée, et de rétablir ou de conserver la paix par la paix et non par la guerre. Bien sûr, ceux qui combattent, s'ils sont bons, cherchent eux aussi sans aucun doute la paix, mais au prix du sang versé. Toi, au contraire, tu as été envoyé précisément pour empêcher que l'on cherche à verser le sang de quiconque" (Ep 229, 2). Malheureusement, les espérances d'une pacification des territoires africains furent déçues: en mai 429, les Vandales, invités en Afrique par Boniface lui-même qui voulait se venger, franchirent le détroit de Gibraltar et envahirent la Mauritanie. L'invasion atteint rapidement les autres riches provinces africaines. En mai ou en juin 430, les "destructeurs de l'empire romain", comme Possidius qualifie ces barbares (Vie, 30, 1), encerclaient Hippone, qu'ils assiégèrent.
Boniface avait lui aussi cherché refuge en ville et, s'étant réconcilié trop tard avec la cour, il tentait à présent en vain de barrer la route aux envahisseurs. Le biographe Possidius décrit la douleur d'Augustin: "Les larmes étaient, plus que d'habitude, son pain quotidien nuit et jour et, désormais parvenu à la fin de sa vie, il traînait plus que les autres sa vieillesse dans l'amertume et dans le deuil" (Vie, 28, 6). Et il explique: "Cet homme de Dieu voyait en effet les massacres et les destructions des villes; les maisons dans les campagnes détruites et leurs habitants tués par les ennemis ou mis en fuite et dispersés; les églises privées de prêtres et de ministres, les vierges sacrées et les religieuses dispersées de toute part; parmi eux, des personnes mortes sous les tortures, d'autres tuées par l'épée, d'autres encore faites prisonnières, ayant perdu l'intégrité de l'âme et du corps et également la foi, réduites en un esclavage long et douloureux par leurs ennemis" (ibid., 28, 8).
Bien que vieux et fatigué, Augustin resta cependant sur la brèche, se réconfortant et réconfortant les autres par la prière et par la méditation sur les mystérieux desseins de la Providence. Il parlait, à cet égard, de la "vieillesse du monde", - et véritablement ce monde romain était vieux -, il parlait de cette vieillesse comme il l'avait déjà fait des années auparavant, pour réconforter les réfugiés provenant de l'Italie, lorsqu'en 410 les Goths d'Alaric avaient envahi la ville de Rome. Pendant la vieillesse, disait-il, les maux abondent: toux, rhumes, yeux chassieux, anxiété, épuisement. Mais si le monde vieillit, le Christ est éternellement jeune. D'où l'invitation: "Ne refuse pas de rajeunir uni au Christ, qui te dit: Ne crains rien, ta jeunesse se renouvellera comme celle de l'aigle" (Serm. 81, 8). Le chrétien ne doit donc pas se laisser abattre, mais se prodiguer pour aider celui qui est dans le besoin. C'est ce que le grand Docteur suggère en répondant à l'Evêque de Tiabe, Honoré, qui lui avait demandé si, sous la pression des invasions barbares, un Evêque, un prêtre ou tout autre homme d'Eglise pouvait fuir pour sauver sa vie: "Lorsque le danger est commun pour tous, c'est-à-dire pour les Evêques, les clercs et les laïcs, que ceux qui ont besoin des autres ne soient pas abandonnés par ceux dont ils ont besoin. Dans ce cas, qu'ils se réfugient même tous ensemble dans des lieux sûrs; mais si certains ont besoin de rester, qu'ils ne soient pas abandonnés par ceux qui ont le devoir de les assister par le saint ministère, de manière à ce qu'ils se sauvent ensemble ou qu'ils suportent ensemble les catastrophes que le Père de famille voudra qu'ils patissent" (Ep 228, 2). Et il concluait: "Telle est la preuve suprême de la charité" (ibid., 3). Comment ne pas reconnaître dans ces mots, le message héroïque que tant de prêtres, au cours des siècles, ont accueilli et adopté?
En attendant la ville d'Hippone résistait. La maison-monastère d'Augustin avait ouvert ses portes pour accueillir ses collègues dans l'épiscopat qui demandaient l'hospitalité. Parmi eux se trouvait également Possidius, autrefois son disciple, qui put ainsi nous laisser le témoignage direct de ces derniers jours dramatiques. "Au troisième mois de ce siège - raconte-t-il - il se mit au lit avec la fièvre: c'était sa dernière maladie" (Vie, 29, 3). Le saint Vieillard profita de ce temps désormais libre pour se consacrer avec plus d'intensité à la prière. Il avait l'habitude d'affirmer que personne, Evêque, religieux ou laïcs, aussi irrépréhensible que puisse sembler sa conduite, ne peut affronter la mort sans une pénitence adaptée. C'est pourquoi il continuait sans cesse à répéter, en pleurant, les psaumes pénitentiels qu'il avait si souvent récités avec le peuple (cf. ibid., 31, 2).
Plus le mal s'aggravait, plus l'Evêque mourant ressentait le besoin de solitude et de prière: "Pour n'être dérangé par personne dans son recueillement, environ dix jours avant de sortir de son corps, il nous pria, nous tous présents, de ne laisser entrer personne dans sa chambre, en dehors des heures où les médecins venaient l'examiner ou lorsqu'on lui apportait les repas. Sa volonté fut exactement accomplie et, pendant tout ce temps, il se consacra à la prière" (ibid., 31, 3). Il cessa de vivre le 28 août 430: son grand cœur s'était finalement apaisé en Dieu.
"Pour la déposition de son corps - nous informe Possidius - le sacrifice, auquel nous assistâmes, fut offert à Dieu, puis il fut enseveli" (Vie, 31, 5). Son corps, à une date incertaine, fut transféré en Sardaigne, puis, vers 725, à Pavie, dans la Basilique "San Pietro in Ciel d'oro", où il repose encore aujourd'hui. Son premier biographe a exprimé ce jugement conclusif sur lui: "Il laissa à l'Eglise un clergé très nombreux, ainsi que des monastères d'hommes et de femmes pleins de personnes consacrées à la chasteté sous l'obéissance de leurs supérieurs, ainsi que des bibliothèques contenant ses livres et ses discours et ceux d'autres saints, grâce auxquels on sait quels ont été, par la grâce de Dieu, son mérite et sa grandeur dans l'Eglise, où les fidèles le retrouvent toujours vivant" (Possidius, Vie, 31, 8). C'est un jugement auquel nous pouvons nous associer: dans ses écrits nous aussi nous le "retrouvons vivant". Lorsque je lis les écrits de saint Augustin, je n'ai pas l'impression qu'il s'agisse d'un homme mort il y a plus ou moins 1600 ans, mais je le perçois comme un homme d'aujourd'hui: un ami, un contemporain qui me parle, qui nous parle avec sa foi fraîche et actuelle. Chez saint Augustin qui nous parle, qui me parle dans ses écrits, nous voyons l'actualité permanente de sa foi; de la foi qui vient du Christ, Verbe éternel incarné, Fils de Dieu et Fils de l'homme. Et nous pouvons voir que cette foi n'est pas d'hier, même si elle a été prêchée hier; elle est toujours d'aujourd'hui, car le Christ est réellement hier, aujourd'hui et à jamais. Il est le chemin, la Vérité et la Vie. Ainsi, saint Augustin nous encourage à nous confier à ce Christ toujours vivant et à trouver de cette manière le chemin de la vie.
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Je suis heureux de vous accueillir, chers pèlerins francophones, particulièrement le groupe de la paroisse du Pradet. Que l’exemple de saint Augustin vous aide à tenir bon dans les épreuves et à rester fermes dans la foi tout au long de votre vie. Avec ma Bénédiction apostolique.
Semaine de prière pour l'unité des chrétiens
Après-demain, vendredi 18 janvier, commence la traditionnelle Semaine de prière pour l'unité des chrétiens, qui cette année revêt une valeur singulière car cent ans se sont écoulés depuis son institution. Le thème est l'invitation de saint Paul aux Thessaloniciens: "Priez sans relâche" (1 Th 5, 17); une invitation que je fais mienne et que j'adresse bien volontiers à toute l'Eglise. Oui, il est nécessaire de prier sans relâche en demandant avec insistance à Dieu le grand don de l'unité entre tous les disciples du Seigneur. Que la force inépuisable de l'Esprit Saint nous pousse à un engagement sincère de recherche de l'unité, afin que nous puissions professer tous ensemble que Jésus est l'unique Sauveur du monde.
© Copyright 2008 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana
SOURCE : http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/audiences/2008/documents/hf_ben-xvi_aud_20080116_fr.html
Mercredi 30 janvier 2008
Saint Augustin nous rappelle que Dieu n'est pas loin de notre raison et de notre vie
Après la Semaine de prière pour l'unité des chrétiens, nous revenons aujourd'hui sur la grande figure de saint Augustin. Mon bien-aimé prédécesseur Jean-Paul II lui a consacré en 1986, c'est-à-dire pour le seizième centenaire de sa conversion, un long document très dense, la Lettre apostolique Augustinum Hipponensem. Le Pape lui-même souhaita qualifier ce texte d'"action de grâce à Dieu pour le don fait à l'Eglise, et pour elle à l'humanité tout entière, avec cette admirable conversion". Je voudrais revenir sur le thème de la conversion lors d'une prochaine Audience. C'est un thème fondamental non seulement pour sa vie personnelle, mais aussi pour la nôtre. Dans l'Evangile de dimanche dernier, le Seigneur a résumé sa prédication par la parole: "Convertissez-vous". En suivant le chemin de saint Augustin, nous pourrions méditer sur ce qu'est cette conversion: c'est une chose définitive, décisive, mais la décision fondamentale doit se développer, doit se réaliser dans toute notre vie.
La catéchèse d'aujourd'hui est en revanche consacrée au thème foi et raison, qui est un thème déterminant, ou mieux, le thème déterminant dans la biographie de saint Augustin. Enfant, il avait appris de sa mère Monique la foi catholique. Mais adolescent il avait abandonné cette foi parce qu'il ne parvenait plus à en voir la caractère raisonnable et il ne voulait pas d'une religion qui ne fût pas aussi pour lui expression de la raison, c'est-à-dire de la vérité. Sa soif de vérité était radicale et elle l'a conduit à s'éloigner de la foi catholique. Mais sa radicalité était telle qu'il ne pouvait pas se contenter de philosophies qui ne seraient pas parvenues à la vérité elle-même, qui ne seraient pas arrivées jusqu'à Dieu. Et à un Dieu qui ne soit pas uniquement une ultime hypothèse cosmologique, mais qui soit le vrai Dieu, le Dieu qui donne la vie et qui entre dans notre vie personnelle. Ainsi, tout l'itinéraire spirituel de saint Augustin constitue un modèle valable encore aujourd'hui dans le rapport entre foi et raison, thème non seulement pour les hommes croyants mais pour tout homme qui recherche la vérité, thème central pour l'équilibre et le destin de tout être humain. Ces deux dimensions, foi et raison, ne doivent pas être séparées ni opposées, mais doivent plutôt toujours aller de pair. Comme l'a écrit Augustin lui-même peu après sa conversion, foi et raison sont "les deux forces qui nous conduisent à la connaissance" (Contra Academicos, III, 20, 43). A cet égard demeurent célèbres à juste titre les deux formules augustiniennes (Sermones, 43, 9) qui expriment cette synthèse cohérente entre foi et raison: crede ut intelligas ("crois pour comprendre") - croire ouvre la route pour franchir la porte de la vérité - mais aussi, et de manière inséparable, intellige ut credas ("comprends pour croire"), scrute la vérité pour pouvoir trouver Dieu et croire.
Les deux affirmations d'Augustin expriment de manière immédiate et concrète ainsi qu'avec une grande profondeur, la synthèse de ce problème, dans lequel l'Eglise catholique voit exprimé son propre chemin. D'un point de vue historique, cette synthèse se forme avant même la venue du Christ, dans la rencontre entre la foi juive et la pensée grecque dans le judaïsme hellénistique. Ensuite au cours de l'histoire, cette synthèse a été reprise et développée par un grand nombre de penseurs chrétiens. L'harmonie entre foi et raison signifie surtout que Dieu n'est pas éloigné: il n'est pas éloigné de notre raison et de notre vie; il est proche de tout être humain, proche de notre cœur et proche de notre raison, si nous nous mettons réellement en chemin.
C'est précisément cette proximité de Dieu avec l'homme qui fut perçue avec une extraordinaire intensité par Augustin. La présence de Dieu en l'homme est profonde et dans le même temps mystérieuse, mais elle peut être reconnue et découverte dans notre propre intimité: ne sors pas - affirme le converti - mais "rentre en toi-même; c'est dans l'homme intérieur qu'habite la vérité; et si tu trouves que la nature est muable, transcende-toi toi-même. Mais rappelle-toi, lorsque tu te transcendes toi-même, que tu transcendes une âme qui raisonne. Tends donc là où s'allume la lumière de la raison" (De vera religione, 39, 72). Précisément comme il le souligne, dans une affirmation très célèbre, au début des Confessiones, son autobiographie spirituelle écrite en louange à Dieu: "Tu nous as faits pour toi et notre cœur est sans repos, tant qu'il ne repose pas en toi" (I, 1, 1).
Etre éloigné de Dieu équivaut alors à être éloigné de soi-même: "En effet - reconnaît Augustin (Confessiones, III, 6, 11) en s'adressant directement à Dieu - tu étais à l'intérieur de moi dans ce que j'ai de plus intime et plus au-dessus de ce que j'ai de plus haut", interior intimo meo et superior summo meo; si bien que - ajoute-t-il dans un autre passage lorsqu'il rappelle l'époque antérieure à sa conversion - "tu étais devant moi; et quant à moi en revanche, je m'étais éloigné de moi-même, et je ne me retrouvais plus; et moins encore te retrouvais-je" (Confessiones, V, 2, 2). C'est précisément parce qu'Augustin a vécu personnellement cet itinéraire intellectuel et spirituel, qu'il a su le rendre dans ses œuvres de manière immédiate et avec tant de profondeur et de sagesse, reconnaissant dans deux autres passages célèbres des Confessiones (IV, 4, 9 et 14, 22) que l'homme est "une grande énigme" (magna quaestio) et "un grand abîme" (grande profundum), une énigme et un abîme que seul le Christ illumine et sauve. Voilà ce qui est important: un homme qui est éloigné de Dieu est aussi éloigné de lui-même, et il ne peut se retrouver lui-même qu'en rencontrant Dieu. Ainsi il arrive également à lui-même, à son vrai moi, à sa vraie identité.
L'être humain - souligne ensuite Augustin dans De civitate Dei (XII, 27) - est social par nature mais antisocial par vice, et il est sauvé par le Christ, unique médiateur entre Dieu et l'humanité et "voie universelle de la liberté et du salut", comme l'a répété mon prédécesseur Jean-Paul II (Augustinum Hipponensem, 21): hors de cette voie, qui n'a jamais fait défaut au genre humain - affirme encore Augustin dans cette même œuvre - "personne n'a jamais trouvé la liberté, personne ne la trouve, personne ne la trouvera" (De civitate Dei, X, 32, 2). En tant qu'unique médiateur du salut, le Christ est la tête de l'Eglise et il est uni à elle de façon mystique au point qu'Augustin peut affirmer: "Nous sommes devenus le Christ. En effet, s'il est la tête et nous les membres, l'homme total est lui et nous" (In Iohannis evangelium tractatus, 21, 8).
Peuple de Dieu et maison de Dieu, l'Eglise, dans la vision augustinienne est donc liée étroitement au concept de Corps du Christ, fondée sur la relecture christologique de l'Ancien Testament et sur la vie sacramentelle centrée sur l'Eucharistie, dans laquelle le Seigneur nous donne son Corps et nous transforme en son Corps. Il est alors fondamental que l'Eglise, Peuple de Dieu au sens christologique et non au sens sociologique, soit véritablement inscrite dans le Christ, qui - affirme Augustin dans une très belle page - "prie pour nous, prie en nous, est prié par nous; prie pour nous comme notre prêtre, prie en nous comme notre chef, est prié par nous comme notre Dieu: nous reconnaissons donc en lui notre voix et en nous la sienne" (Enarrationes in Psalmos, 85, 1).
Dans la conclusion de la Lettre apostolique Agustinum Hipponensem Jean-Paul II a voulu demander au saint lui-même ce qu'il avait à dire aux hommes d'aujourd'hui et il répond tout d'abord avec les paroles qu'Augustin confia dans une lettre dictée peu après sa conversion: "Il me semble que l'on doive reconduire les hommes à l'espérance de trouver la vérité" (Epistulae, 1, 1); cette vérité qui est le Christ lui-même, le Dieu véritable, auquel est adressée l'une des plus belles et des plus célèbres prières des Confessiones (X, 27, 38): "Je t'ai aimée tard, beauté si ancienne, beauté si nouvelle, je t'ai aimée tard. Mais quoi! Tu étais au dedans, moi au dehors de moi-même; et c'est au dehors que je te cherchais; et je poursuivais de ma laideur la beauté de tes créatures. Tu étais avec moi, et je n'étais pas avec toi; retenu loin de toi par tout ce qui, sans toi, ne serait que néant. Tu m'appelles, et voilà que ton cri force la surdité de mon oreille; ta splendeur rayonne, elle chasse mon aveuglement; ton parfum, je le respire, et voilà que je soupire pour toi; je t'ai goûté, et me voilà dévoré de faim et de soif; tu m'as touché, et je brûle du désir de ta paix".
Voilà, Augustin a rencontré Dieu et tout au long de sa vie, il en a fait l'expérience au point que cette réalité - qui est avant tout la rencontre avec une Personne, Jésus - a changé sa vie, comme elle change celle de tous ceux, femmes et hommes, qui de tous temps ont la grâce de le rencontrer. Prions afin que le Seigneur nous donne cette grâce et nous permette de trouver sa paix.
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Je souhaite la bienvenue aux pèlerins de langue française, et je salue particulièrement les membres de la Congrégation de Saint-Victor et les jeunes. À la suite de saint Augustin, je vous encourage à aimer et à servir toujours davantage l’Église, pour trouver des réponses aux questions des hommes de notre temps. Avec ma Bénédiction apostolique.
© Copyright 2008 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana
SOURCE : http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/audiences/2008/documents/hf_ben-xvi_aud_20080130_fr.html
Mercredi 20 février 2008
La leçon de saint Augustin sur la véritable laïcité
Chers frères et sœurs,
Après la pause des exercices spirituels de la semaine dernière nous revenons aujourd'hui à la grande figure de saint Augustin, duquel j'ai déjà parlé à plusieurs reprises dans les catéchèses du mercredi. C'est le Père de l'Eglise qui a laissé le plus grand nombre d'œuvres, et c'est de celles-ci que j'entends aujourd'hui brièvement parler. Certains des écrits d'Augustin sont d'une importance capitale, et pas seulement pour l'histoire du christianisme, mais pour la formation de toute la culture occidentale: l'exemple le plus clair sont les Confessiones, sans aucun doute l'un des livres de l'antiquité chrétienne le plus lu aujourd'hui encore. Comme différents Pères de l'Eglise des premiers siècles, mais dans une mesure incomparablement plus vaste, l'Evêque d'Hippone a en effet lui aussi exercé une influence étendue et persistante, comme il ressort déjà de la surabondante traduction manuscrite de ses œuvres, qui sont vraiment très nombreuses.
Il les passa lui-même en revue quelques années avant de mourir dans les Retractationes et, peu après sa mort, celles-ci furent soigneusement enregistrées dans l'Indiculus ("liste") ajouté par son fidèle ami Possidius à la biographie de saint Augustin Vita Augustini. La liste des œuvres d'Augustin fut réalisée avec l'intention explicite d'en conserver la mémoire alors que l'invasion vandale se répandait dans toute l'Afrique romaine et elle compte plus de mille trois cents écrits, numérotés par leur auteur, ainsi que d'autres "que l'on ne peut pas numéroter, car il n'y a placé aucun numéro". Evêque d'une ville voisine, Possidius dictait ces paroles précisément à Hippone - où il s'était réfugié et où il avait assisté à la mort de son ami - et il se basait presque certainement sur le catalogue de la bibliothèque personnelle d'Augustin. Aujourd'hui, plus de trois cents lettres ont survécu à l'Evêque d'Hippone et presque six cents homélies, mais à l'origine ces dernières étaient beaucoup plus nombreuses, peut-être même entre trois mille et quatre mille, fruit de quarante années de prédication de l'antique rhéteur qui avait décidé de suivre Jésus et de parler non plus aux grandes cours impériales, mais à la simple population d'Hippone.
Et encore ces dernières années, la découverte d'un groupe de lettres et de plusieurs homélies a enrichi notre connaissance de ce grand Père de l'Eglise. "De nombreux livres - écrit Possidius - furent composés par lui et publiés, de nombreuses prédications furent tenues à l'église, transcrites et corrigées, aussi bien pour réfuter les divers hérétiques que pour interpréter les Saintes Ecritures, en vue de l'édification de saints fils de l'Eglise. Ces œuvres - souligne son ami Evêque - sont si nombreuses que difficilement un érudit a la possibilité de les lire et d'apprendre à les connaître" (Vita Augustini, 18, 9).
Parmi la production d'Augustin - plus de mille publications subdivisées en écrits philosophiques, apologétiques, doctrinaux, moraux, monastiques, exégétiques, anti-hérétiques, en plus des lettres et des homélies - ressortent plusieurs oeuvres exceptionnelles de grande envergure théologique et philosophique. Il faut tout d'abord rappeler les Confessiones susmentionnées, écrites en treize livres entre 397 et 400 pour louer Dieu. Elles sont une sorte d'autobiographie sous forme d'un dialogue avec Dieu. Ce genre littéraire reflète précisément la vie de saint Augustin, qui était une vie qui n'était pas refermée sur elle, dispersée en tant de choses, mais vécue substantiellement comme un dialogue avec Dieu, et ainsi une vie avec les autres. Le titre Confessiones indique déjà la spécificité de cette autobiographie. Ce mot confessiones, dans le latin chrétien développé par la tradition des Psaumes, possède deux significations, qui toutefois se recoupent. Confessiones indique, en premier lieu, la confession des propres faiblesses, de la misère des péchés; mais, dans le même temps, confessiones signifie louange de Dieu, reconnaissance à Dieu. Voir sa propre misère à la lumière de Dieu devient louange à Dieu et action de grâce, car Dieu nous aime et nous accepte, nous transforme et nous élève vers lui-même. Sur ces Confessiones qui eurent un grand succès déjà pendant la vie de saint Augustin, il a lui-même écrit: "Elles ont exercé sur moi une profonde action alors que je les écrivais et elles l'exercent encore quand je les relis. Il y a de nombreux frères à qui ces œuvres plaisent" (Retractationes, II, 6): et je dois dire que je suis moi aussi l'un de ces "frères". Et grâce aux Confessiones nous pouvons suivre pas à pas le chemin intérieur de cet homme extraordinaire et passionné de Dieu. Moins connues, mais tout aussi importantes et originales sont les Retractationes, composées en deux livres autour de 427, dans lesquelles saint Augustin, désormais âgé, accomplit une œuvre de "révision" (retractatio) de toute son œuvre écrite, laissant ainsi un document littéraire original et précieux, mais également un enseignement de sincérité et d'humilité intellectuelle.
Le De civitate Dei - une œuvre imposante et décisive pour le développement de la pensée politique occidentale et pour la théologie chrétienne de l'histoire - fut écrit entre 413 et 426 en vingt-deux livres. L'occasion était le sac de Rome accompli par les Goths en 410. De nombreux païens encore vivants, mais également de nombreux chrétiens, avaient dit: Rome est tombée, à présent le Dieu chrétien et les apôtres ne peuvent pas protéger la ville. Pendant la présence des divinités païennes, Rome était caput mundi, la grande capitale, et personne ne pouvait penser qu'elle serait tombée entre les mains des ennemis. A présent, avec le Dieu chrétien, cette grande ville n'apparaissait plus sûre. Le Dieu des chrétiens ne protégeait donc pas, il ne pouvait pas être le Dieu auquel se confier. A cette objection, qui touchait aussi profondément le cœur des chrétiens, saint Augustin répond par cette œuvre grandiose, le De civitate Dei, en clarifiant ce que nous devons attendre ou pas de Dieu, quelle est la relation entre le domaine politique et le domaine de la foi, de l'Eglise. Aujourd'hui aussi, ce livre est une source pour bien définir la véritable laïcité et la compétence de l'Eglise, la grande véritable espérance que nous donne la foi.
Ce grand livre est une présentation de l'histoire de l'humanité gouvernée par la Providence divine, mais actuellement divisée par deux amours. Et cela est le dessein fondamental, son interprétation de l'histoire, qui est la lutte entre deux amours: amour de soi "jusqu'à l'indifférence pour Dieu", et amour de Dieu "jusqu'à l'indifférence pour soi" (De civitate Dei, XIV, 28), à la pleine liberté de soi pour les autres dans la lumière de Dieu. Cela, donc, est peut-être le plus grand livre de saint Augustin, d'une importance qui dure jusqu'à aujourd'hui. Tout aussi important est le De Trinitate, une œuvre en quinze livres sur le noyau principal de la foi chrétienne, écrite en deux temps: entre 399 et 412 pour les douze premiers livres, publiés à l'insu d'Augustin, qui vers 420 les compléta et revit l'œuvre tout entière. Il réfléchit ici sur le visage de Dieu et cherche à comprendre ce mystère du Dieu qui est unique, l'unique créateur du monde, de nous tous, et toutefois, précisément ce Dieu unique est trinitaire, un cercle d'amour. Il cherche à comprendre le mystère insondable: précisément l'être trinitaire, en trois Personnes, est la plus réelle et la plus profonde unité de l'unique Dieu. Le De doctrina Christiana est, en revanche, une véritable introduction culturelle à l'interprétation de la Bible et en définitive au christianisme lui-même, qui a eu une importance décisive dans la formation de la culture occidentale.
Malgré toute son humilité, Augustin fut certainement conscient de son envergure intellectuelle. Mais pour lui, il était plus important d'apporter le message chrétien aux simples, plutôt que de faire des œuvres de grande envergure théologique. Cette profonde intention, qui a guidé toute sa vie, ressort d'une lettre écrite à son collège Evodius, où il communique la décision de suspendre pour le moment la dictée des livres du De Trinitate, "car ils sont trop difficiles et je pense qu'ils ne pourront être compris que par un petit nombre; c'est pourquoi il est plus urgent d'avoir des textes qui, nous l'espérons, seront utiles à un grand nombre" (Epistulae, 169, 1, 1). Il était donc plus utile pour lui de communiquer la foi de manière compréhensible à tous, plutôt que d'écrire de grandes œuvres théologiques. La responsabilité perçue avec acuité à l'égard de la divulgation du message chrétien est ensuite à l'origine d'écrits tels que le De catechizandis rudibus, une théorie et également une pratique de la catéchèse, ou le Psalmus contra partem Donati. Les donatistes étaient le grand problème de l'Afrique de saint Augustin, un schisme volontairement africain. Ils affirmaient: la véritable chrétienté est africaine. Ils s'opposaient à l'unité de l'Eglise. Le grand Evêque a lutté contre ce schisme pendant toute sa vie, cherchant à convaincre les donatistes que ce n'est que dans l'unité que l'africanité peut également être vraie. Et pour se faire comprendre des gens simples, qui ne pouvaient pas comprendre le grand latin du rhéteur, il a dit: je dois aussi écrire avec des fautes de grammaire, dans un latin très simplifié. Et il l'a fait surtout dans ce Psalmus, une sorte de poésie simple contre les donatistes, pour aider tous les gens à comprendre que ce n'est que dans l'unité de l'Eglise que se réalise réellement pour tous notre relation avec Dieu et que grandit la paix dans le monde.
Dans cette production, destinée à un plus vaste public, revêt une importance particulière le grand nombre des homélies souvent prononcées de manière improvisée, transcrites par les tachygraphes au cours de la prédication et immédiatement mises en circulation. Parmi celles-ci, ressortent les très belles Enarrationes in Psalmos, fréquemment lues au moyen-âge. C'est précisément la pratique de la publication des milliers d'homélies d'Augustin - souvent sans le contrôle de l'auteur - qui explique leur diffusion et leur dispersion successive, mais également leur vitalité. En effet, en raison de la renommée de leur auteur, les prédications de l'Evêque d'Hippone devinrent immédiatement des textes très recherchés et servirent de modèles, adaptés à des contextes toujours nouveaux.
La tradition iconographique, déjà visible dans une fresque du Latran remontant au VI siècle, représente saint Augustin avec un livre à la main, certainement pour exprimer sa production littéraire, qui influença tant la mentalité et la pensée des chrétiens, mais aussi pour exprimer également son grand amour pour les livres, pour la lecture et la connaissance de la grande culture précédente. A sa mort il ne laissa rien, raconte Possidius, mais "il recommandait toujours de conserver diligemment pour la postérité la bibliothèque de l'église avec tous les codex", en particulier ceux de ses œuvres. Dans celles-ci, souligne Possidius, Augustin est "toujours vivant" et ses écrits sont bénéfiques à ceux qui les lisent, même si, conclut-il, "je crois que ceux qui purent le voir et l'écouter quand il parlait en personne à l'église, ont pu davantage tirer profit de son contact, et surtout ceux qui parmi les fidèles partagèrent sa vie quotidienne" (Vita Augustini, 31). Oui, il aurait été beau pour nous aussi de pouvoir l'entendre vivant. Mais il est réellement vivant dans ses écrits, il est présent en nous et ainsi nous voyons aussi la vitalité permanente de la foi pour laquelle il a donné toute sa vie.
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Je salue les pèlerins francophones, en particulier les nombreux jeunes des écoles, collèges et lycées de France, notamment ceux de Fénelon Sainte-Marie et de Gerson. Je vous encourage à fréquenter saint Augustin, afin qu'il vous ouvre à l'intelligence des Ecritures et qu'il fortifie votre attachement au Christ. Avec ma Bénédiction apostolique.
© Copyright 2008 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana
SOURCE : http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/audiences/2008/documents/hf_ben-xvi_aud_20080220_fr.html
Mercredi 27 février 2008
Les trois étapes de la conversion de saint Augustin, un modèle pour chaque être humain
Chers frères et sœurs,
Avec la rencontre d'aujourd'hui je voudrais conclure la présentation de la figure de saint Augustin. Après nous être arrêtés sur sa vie, sur ses œuvres et plusieurs aspects de sa pensée, je voudrais revenir aujourd'hui sur son itinéraire intérieur, qui en a fait l'un des plus grands convertis de l'histoire chrétienne. J'ai consacré une réflexion à cette expérience particulière au cours du pèlerinage que j'ai accompli à Pavie l'année dernière pour vénérer la dépouille mortelle de ce Père de l'Eglise. De cette façon, j'ai voulu lui exprimer l'hommage de toute l'Eglise catholique, mais également rendre visible ma dévotion personnelle et ma reconnaissance à l'égard d'une figure à laquelle je me sens profondément lié, en raison du rôle qu'elle a joué dans ma vie de théologien, de prêtre et de pasteur.
Aujourd'hui encore, il est possible de reparcourir la vie de saint Augustin en particulier grâce aux Confessiones, écrites en louange à Dieu, et qui sont à l'origine de l'une des formes littéraires les plus spécifiques de l'Occident, l'autobiographie, c'est-à-dire l'expression personnelle de la conscience de soi. Eh bien, quiconque approche ce livre extraordinaire et fascinant, beaucoup lu aujourd'hui encore, s'aperçoit facilement que la conversion d'Augustin n'a pas eu lieu à l'improviste et n'a pas été pleinement réalisée dès le début, mais que l'on peut plutôt la définir comme un véritable et propre chemin, qui reste un modèle pour chacun de nous. Cet itinéraire atteint bien sûr son sommet avec la conversion et ensuite avec le baptême, mais il ne se conclut pas lors de cette veillée pascale de l'année 387, lorsqu'à Milan le rhéteur africain fut baptisé par l'Evêque Ambroise. Le chemin de conversion d'Augustin continua en effet humblement jusqu'à la fin de sa vie, si bien que l'on peut vraiment dire que ses différentes étapes - on peut facilement en distinguer trois - sont une unique grande conversion.
Saint Augustin a été un chercheur passionné de la vérité: il l'a été dès le début et ensuite pendant toute sa vie. La première étape de son chemin de conversion s'est précisément réalisée dans l'approche progressive du christianisme. En réalité, il avait reçu de sa mère Monique, à laquelle il resta toujours très lié, une éducation chrétienne et, bien qu'il ait vécu pendant ses années de jeunesse une vie dissipée, il ressentit toujours une profonde attraction pour le Christ, ayant bu l'amour pour le nom du Seigneur avec le lait maternel, comme il le souligne lui-même (cf. Confessiones, III, 4, 8). Mais la philosophie également, en particulier d'inspiration platonicienne, avait également contribué à le rapprocher ultérieurement du Christ en lui manifestant l'existence du Logos, la raison créatrice. Les livres des philosophes lui indiquaient qu'il y d'abord la raison, dont vient ensuite tout le monde, mais ils ne lui disaient pas comment rejoindre ce Logos, qui semblait si loin. Seule la lecture des lettres de saint Paul, dans la foi de l'Eglise catholique, lui révéla pleinement la vérité. Cette expérience fut synthétisée par Augustin dans l'une des pages les plus célèbres de ses Confessiones: il raconte que, dans le tourment de ses réflexions, s'étant retiré dans un jardin, il entendit à l'improviste une voix d'enfant qui répétait une cantilène, jamais entendue auparavant: tolle, lege, tolle, lege, "prends, lis, prends, lis" (VII, 12, 29). Il se rappela alors de la conversion d'Antoine, père du monachisme, et avec attention il revint au codex de Paul qu'il tenait quelques instants auparavant entre les mains, il l'ouvrit et son regard tomba sur la lettre aux Romains, où l'Apôtre exhorte à abandonner les œuvres de la chair et à se revêtir du Christ (13, 13-14). Il avait compris que cette parole, à ce moment, lui était personnellement adressée, provenait de Dieu à travers l'Apôtre et lui indiquait ce qu'il fallait faire à ce moment. Il sentit ainsi se dissiper les ténèbres du doute et il se retrouva finalement libre de se donner entièrement au Christ: "Tu avais converti mon être à toi", commente-t-il (Confessiones, VIII, 12, 30). Ce fut la première conversion décisive.
Le rhéteur africain arriva à cette étape fondamentale de son long chemin grâce à sa passion pour l'homme et pour la vérité, passion qui le mena à chercher Dieu, grand et inaccessible. La foi en Christ lui fit comprendre que le Dieu, apparemment si lointain, en réalité ne l'était pas. En effet, il s'était fait proche de nous, devenant l'un de nous. C'est dans ce sens que la foi en Christ a porté à son accomplissement la longue recherche d'Augustin sur le chemin de la vérité. Seul un Dieu qui s'est fait "tangible", l'un de nous, était finalement un Dieu que l'on pouvait prier, pour lequel et avec lequel on pouvait vivre. Il s'agit d'une voie à parcourir avec courage et en même temps avec humilité, en étant ouvert à une purification permanente dont chacun de nous a toujours besoin. Mais avec cette Veillée pascale de 387, comme nous l'avons dit, le chemin d'Augustin n'était pas conclu. De retour en Afrique et ayant fondé un petit monastère, il s'y retira avec quelques amis pour se consacrer à la vie contemplative et à l'étude. C'était le rêve de sa vie. A présent, il était appelé à vivre totalement pour la vérité, avec la vérité, dans l'amitié du Christ qui est la vérité. Un beau rêve qui dura trois ans, jusqu'à ce qu'il soit, malgré lui, consacré prêtre à Hippone et destiné à servir les fidèles, en continuant certes à vivre avec le Christ et pour le Christ, mais au service de tous. Cela lui était très difficile, mais il comprit dès le début que ce n'est qu'en vivant pour les autres, et pas seulement pour sa contemplation privée, qu'il pouvait réellement vivre avec le Christ et pour le Christ. Ainsi, renonçant à une vie uniquement de méditation, Augustin apprit, souvent avec difficulté, à mettre à disposition le fruit de son intelligence au bénéfice des autres. Il apprit à communiquer sa foi aux personnes simples et à vivre ainsi pour elles, dans ce qui devint sa ville, accomplissant sans se lasser une activité généreuse et difficile, qu'il décrit ainsi dans l'un de ses très beaux sermons: "Sans cesse prêcher, discuter, reprendre, édifier, être à la disposition de tous - c'est une lourde charge, un grand poids, une immense fatigue" (Serm. 339, 4). Mais il prit ce poids sur lui, comprenant que précisément ainsi il pouvait être plus proche du Christ. Comprendre que l'on arrive aux autres avec simplicité et humilité, telle fut sa véritable deuxième conversion.
Mais il y a une dernière étape du chemin d'Augustin, une troisième conversion: celle qui le mena chaque jour de sa vie à demander pardon à Dieu. Il avait tout d'abord pensé qu'une fois baptisé, dans la vie de communion avec le Christ, dans les Sacrements, dans la célébration de l'Eucharistie, il serait arrivé à la vie proposée par le Discours sur la montagne: à la perfection donnée dans le baptême et reconfirmée dans l'Eucharistie. Dans la dernière partie de sa vie, il comprit que ce qu'il avait dit dans ses premières prédications sur le Discours de la montagne - c'est-à-dire ce que nous à présent, en tant que chrétiens, nous vivons constamment cet idéal - était erroné. Seul le Christ lui-même réalise vraiment et complètement le Discours de la montagne. Nous avons toujours besoin d'être lavés par le Christ, qu'il nous lave les pieds et qu'il nous renouvelle. Nous avons besoin d'une conversion permanente. Jusqu'à la fin nous avons besoin de cette humilité qui reconnaît que nous sommes des pécheurs en chemin, jusqu'à ce que le Seigneur nous donne la main définitivement et nous introduise dans la vie éternelle. Augustin est mort dans cette dernière attitude d'humilité, vécue jour après jour.
Cette attitude de profonde humilité devant l'unique Seigneur Jésus le conduisit à l'expérience de l'humilité également intellectuelle. En effet, au cours des dernières années de sa vie, Augustin, qui est l'une des plus grandes figures de l'histoire de la pensée, voulut soumettre à un examen critique clairvoyant toutes ses très nombreuses œuvres. C'est ainsi que sont nées les Retractationes ("révisions"), qui insèrent de cette façon sa pensée théologique, vraiment grande, dans la foi humble et sainte de celle qu'il appelle simplement par le nom de Catholica, c'est-à-dire l'Eglise. "J'ai compris - écrit-il précisément dans ce livre très original (I, 19, 1-3) - qu'une seule personne est véritablement parfaite et que les paroles du Discours de la montagne ne se sont totalement réalisées que dans une seule personne: en Jésus Christ lui-même. En revanche, toute l'Eglise - nous tous, y compris les apôtres - doit prier chaque jour: pardonne nous nos offenses, comme nous pardonnons aussi à ceux qui nous ont offensés".
Converti au Christ, qui est vérité et amour, Augustin l'a suivi pendant toute sa vie et il est devenu un modèle pour chaque être humain, pour nous tous, à la recherche de Dieu. C'est pourquoi j'ai voulu conclure mon pèlerinage à Pavie en remettant idéalement à l'Eglise et au monde, devant la tombe de ce grand amoureux de Dieu, ma première Encyclique, intitulée Deus caritas est. Celle-ci doit en effet beaucoup à la pensée de saint Augustin, en particulier dans sa première partie. Aujourd'hui aussi, comme à son époque, l'humanité a besoin de connaître et surtout de vivre cette réalité fondamentale: Dieu est amour et la rencontre avec lui est la seule réponse aux inquiétudes du cœur humain. Un cœur qui est habité par l'espérance, peut-être encore obscure et inconsciente chez beaucoup de nos contemporains, mais qui, pour nous chrétiens, nous ouvre déjà à l'avenir, à tel point que saint Paul a écrit que: "Nous avons été sauvés, mais c'est en espérance" (Rm 8, 24). J'ai voulu consacrer ma deuxième Encyclique, Spe salvi, à l'espérance; elle doit elle aussi beaucoup à Augustin et à sa rencontre avec Dieu.
Dans un très beau texte, saint Augustin définit la prière comme l'expression du désir et il affirme que Dieu répond en élargissant notre cœur vers Lui. Quant à nous, nous devons purifier nos désirs et nos espérances pour accueillir la douceur de Dieu (cf. In Ioannis, 4, 6). En effet, celle-ci est la seule qui nous sauve, en nous ouvrant également aux autres. Prions donc pour que dans notre vie il nous soit donné chaque jour de suivre l'exemple de ce grand converti, en rencontrant comme lui à chaque moment de notre vie le Seigneur Jésus, l'unique qui nous sauve, qui nous purifie et nous donne la vraie joie, la vraie vie.
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Salle Paul VI
Je suis heureux d'accueillir ce matin les pèlerins francophones. Je salue particulièrement les prêtres et les séminaristes de Chambéry, accompagnés de l'Archevêque, Mgr Laurent Ulrich, ainsi que les novices de la Congrégation Saint-Jean et les jeunes. Suivant l'exemple de saint Augustin, soyez toujours des chercheurs de la vérité, en allant avec confiance à la rencontre du Seigneur Jésus, l'unique sauveur. Que Dieu vous bénisse!
Je salue cordialement les pèlerins de langue française présents dans cette basilique. Que votre pèlerinage au tombeau de l'Apôtre Pierre soit pour vous l'occasion de mieux découvrir que Dieu est amour et que sa rencontre constitue la seule réponse aux inquiétudes du coeur humain. Par l'intercession de la Vierge Marie, que Dieu vous bénisse ainsi que vos familles et toutes les personnes qui vous sont proches!
© Copyright 2008 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana
SOURCE : http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/audiences/2008/documents/hf_ben-xvi_aud_20080227_fr.html
St. Augustine, bishop and Doctor of the Church, is best known for his Confessions (401), his autobiographical account of his conversion. The term “Augustinianism”evolved from his writings that had a profound influence on the church.
Augustine was born at Tagaste (now Algeria) in North Africa on 13 November, 354. His father, Patricius, while holding an official position in the city remained a pagan until converting on his deathbed. His mother, Saint Monica, was a devout Christian. She had had Augustine signed with the cross and enrolled among the catechumens but unable to secure his baptism. Her grief was great when young Augustine fell gravely ill and agreed to be baptised only to withdraw his consent upon recovery, denouncing the Christian faith.
At the encouragement of Monica, his extensive religious education started in the schools of Tagaste (an important part of the Roman Empire) and Madaura until he was sixteen. He was off to Carthage next in 370, but soon fell to the pleasures and excesses of the half pagan city’s theatres, licentiousness and decadent socialising with fellow students. After a time he confessed to Monica that he had been living in sin with a woman with whom he had a son in 372, Adeodatus, (which means Gift of God).
Still a student, and with a newfound desire to focus yet again on exploration of his faith, in 373 Augustine became a confirmed Manichaean, much against his mother’s wishes. He was enticed by its promise of free philosophy which attracted his intellectual interest in the natural sciences. It did not however erase his moral turmoil of finding his faith. His intellect having attained full maturity, he returned to Tagaste then Carthage to teach rhetoric, being very popular among his students. Now in his thirties, his spiritual journey led him away from Manichaeism after nine years because of disagreement with its cosmology and a disenchanting meeting with the celebrated Manichaean bishop, Faustus of Mileve.
Passing through yet another period of spiritual struggle, Augustine went to Italy in 383, studying Neo-platonic philosophy. Enthralled by his kindness and generous spirit, he became a pupil of Ambrose. At the age of thirty-three, the epiphany and clarity of purpose which Augustine had sought for so long finally came to him in Milan in 386 through a vast stream of tears as he lay prostrate under a fig tree. He was baptised by Ambrose in 387 much to the eternal delight of his mother, “..nothing is far from God.” The next event in his life leads to some of the most profound and exquisite writings on love and grief; the death of his mother Monica.
Surrounded by friends, Augustine now returned to his native Tagaste where he devoted himself to the rule in a quasi-monastic life to prayer and studying sacred letters and to finding harmony between the philosophical questions that plagued his mind and his faith in Christianity. He was ordained as priest in 391.
For the next five years Augustine’s priestly life was fruitful, consisting of administration of church business, tending to the poor, preaching and writing and acting as judge for civil and ecclesiastical cases, always the defender of truth and a compassionate shepherd of souls. At the age of forty-two he then became coadjutor-bishop of Hippo. From 396 till his death in 439, he ruled the diocese alone. At that point the Roman Empire was in disintegration, and at the time of his death the Vandals where at the gates of Hippo. 28 August, 430, in the seventy-sixth year of his age Augustine succumbed to a fatal illness. His relics were translated from Sardinia to Pavia by Luitprand, King of the Lombards. Saint Augustine is often depicted as one of the Four Latin Doctors in many paintings, frescoes and stained glass throughout the world. The cult of Augustine formed swiftly and was widespread. His feast is celebrated on 28 August.
Saint Augustine’s books, essays and letters of Christian Revelation are probably more influential in the history of thought than any other Christian writer since St. Paul, namely his Confessions, sermons on the Gospel and the Epistle of John, the The Trinity (400-416) and what he finished late in life, the The City of God (426), writings that deal with the opposition between Christianity and the `world’ and represents the first Christian philosophy of history. He also wrote of the controversies with Manicheans, Pelagians, and Donatists which helped lead to his ideas on Creation, Grace, the Sacraments and the Church. There is a massive collection of his writings and they also include: Soliloquies (386-387), On Grace and Free Will. (426) Retractions (426-427) and Letters (386-430).
August 28th: Memorial of St. Augustine, Bishop and Doctor of the Church
"I NEED say no more about right conduct. For if God is man's chief good, which you cannot deny, it clearly follows, since to seek the chief good is to live well, that to live well is nothing else but to love God with all the heart, with all the soul, with all the mind; and, as arising from this, that this love must be preserved entire and incorrupt, which is the part of temperance; that it give way before no troubles, which is the part of fortitude; that it serve no other, which is the part of justice; that it be watchful in its inspection of things lest craft or fraud steal in, which is the part of prudence. This is the one perfection of man, by which alone he can succeed in attaining to the purity of truth. This both Testaments enjoin in concert; this is commended on both sides alike. Why do you continue to cast reproaches on Scriptures of which you are ignorant? Do you not see the folly of your attack upon books which only those who do not understand them find fault with, and which only those who find fault fail in understanding? For neither can an enemy know them, nor can one who knows them be other than a friend to them."
~St. Augustine of Hippo: Of the Morals of the Catholic Church (A.D. 388), Ch. 25, par. 46.
• Teaching of St. Augustine of Hippo
SOURCE : https://www.facebook.com/notes/fathers-of-the-church/august-28th-memorial-of-st-augustine-bishop-and-doctor-of-the-church/597884760254652
August 28th: Memorial of St. Augustine, Bishop, Confessor and Doctor of the Church.
From Jerome to Augustine (A.D. 418):
"To His Holy Lord and Most Blessed Father, Augustine, Jerome Sends Greeting.
"At all times I have esteemed your Blessedness with becoming reverence and honour, and have loved the Lord and Saviour dwelling in you. But now we add, if possible, something to that which has alrea...
SOURCE : https://www.facebook.com/#!/churchfathers?fref=ts
Tombe de saint-Augustin, basilique San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro, Pavie.
St. Augustine of Hippo
The great St. Augustine's life is unfolded to us in documents of unrivaled richness, and of no great character of ancient times have we information comparable to that contained in the "Confessions", which relate the touching story of his soul, the "Retractations," which give the history of his mind, and the "Life of Augustine," written by his friend Possidius, telling of the saint's apostolate.
We will confine ourselves to sketching the three periods of this great life: (1) the young wanderer's gradual return to the Faith; (2) the doctrinal development of the Christian philosopher to the time of his episcopate; and (3) the full development of his activities upon the Episcopal throne of Hippo.
From his birth to his conversion (354-386)
From his birth to his conversion (354-386)
Augustine was born at Tagaste on 13 November, 354. Tagaste, now Souk-Ahras, about 60 miles from Bona (ancient Hippo-Regius), was at that time a small free city of proconsular Numidia which had recently been converted from Donatism. Although eminently respectable, his family was not rich, and his father, Patricius, one of the curiales of the city, was still a pagan. However, the admirable virtues that made Monica the ideal of Christian mothers at length brought her husband the grace of baptism and of a holy death, about the year 371.
Augustine received a Christian education. His mother had him signed with the cross and enrolled among the catechumens. Once, when very ill, he asked for baptism, but, all danger being soon passed, he deferred receiving the sacrament, thus yielding to a deplorable custom of the times. His association with "men of prayer" left three great ideas deeply engraven upon his soul: a Divine Providence, the future life with terrible sanctions, and, above all, Christ the Saviour. "From my tenderest infancy, I had in a manner sucked with my mother's milk that name of my Saviour, Thy Son; I kept it in the recesses of my heart; and all that presented itself to me without that Divine Name, though it might be elegant, well written, and even replete with truth, did not altogether carry me away" (Confessions I.4).
But a great intellectual and moral crisis stifled for a time all these Christian sentiments. The heart was the first point of attack. Patricius, proud of his son's success in the schools of Tagaste and Madaura determined to send him to Carthage to prepare for a forensic career. But, unfortunately, it required several months to collect the necessary means, and Augustine had to spend his sixteenth year at Tagaste in an idleness which was fatal to his virtue; he gave himself up to pleasure with all the vehemence of an ardent nature. At first he prayed, but without the sincere desire of being heard, and when he reached Carthage, towards the end of the year 370, every circumstance tended to draw him from his true course: the many seductions of the great city that was still half pagan, the licentiousness of other students, the theatres, the intoxication of his literary success, and a proud desire always to be first, even in evil. Before long he was obliged to confess to Monica that he had formed a sinful liaison with the person who bore him a son (372), "the son of his sin" — an entanglement from which he only delivered himself at Milan after fifteen years of its thralldom.
Two extremes are to be avoided in the appreciation of this crisis. Some, like Mommsen, misled perhaps by the tone of grief in the "Confessions", have exaggerated it: in the "Realencyklopädie" (3d ed., II, 268) Loofs reproves Mommsen on this score, and yet he himself is too lenient towards Augustine, when he claims that in those days, the Church permitted concubinage. The "Confessions" alone prove that Loofs did not understand the 17th canon of Toledo. However, it may be said that, even in his fall, Augustine maintained a certain dignity and felt a compunction which does him honour, and that, from the age of nineteen, he had a genuine desire to break the chain. In fact, in 373, an entirely new inclination manifested itself in his life, brought about by the reading Cicero's "Hortensius" whence he imbibed a love of the wisdom which Cicero so eloquently praises. Thenceforward Augustine looked upon rhetoric merely as a profession; his heart was in philosophy.
Unfortunately, his faith, as well as his morals, was to pass though a terrible crisis. In this same year, 373, Augustine and his friend Honoratus fell into the snares of the Manichæans. It seems strange that so great a mind should have been victimized by Oriental vapourings, synthesized by the Persian Mani (215-276) into coarse, material dualism, and introduced into Africa scarcely fifty years previously. Augustine himself tells us that he was enticed by the promises of a free philosophy unbridled by faith; by the boasts of the Manichæans, who claimed to have discovered contradictions in Holy Writ; and, above all, by the hope of finding in their doctrine a scientific explanation of nature and its most mysterious phenomena. Augustine's inquiring mind was enthusiastic for the natural sciences, and the Manichæans declared that nature withheld no secrets from Faustus, their doctor. Moreover, being tortured by the problem of the origin of evil, Augustine, in default of solving it, acknowledged a conflict of two principles. And then, again, there was a very powerful charm in the moral irresponsibility resulting from a doctrine which denied liberty and attributed the commission of crime to a foreign principle.
Once won over to this sect, Augustine devoted himself to it with all the ardour of his character; he read all its books, adopted and defended all its opinions. His furious proselytism drew into error his friend Alypius and Romanianus, his Mæcenas of Tagaste, the friend of his father who was defraying the expenses of Augustine's studies. It was during this Manichæan period that Augustine's literary faculties reached their full development, and he was still a student at Carthage when he embraced error.
His studies ended, he should in due course have entered the forum litigiosum, but he preferred the career of letters, and Possidius tells us that he returned to Tagaste to "teach grammar." The young professor captivated his pupils, one of whom, Alypius, hardly younger than his master, loath to leave him after following him into error, was afterwards baptized with him at Milan, eventually becoming Bishop of Tagaste, his native city. But Monica deeply deplored Augustine's heresy and would not have received him into her home or at her table but for the advice of a saintly bishop, who declared that "the son of so many tears could not perish." Soon afterwards Augustine went to Carthage, where he continued to teach rhetoric. His talents shone to even better advantage on this wider stage, and by an indefatigable pursuit of the liberal arts his intellect attained its full maturity. Having taken part in a poetic tournament, he carried off the prize, and the Proconsul Vindicianus publicly conferred upon him the corona agonistica.
It was at this moment of literary intoxication, when he had just completed his first work on æsthetics (now lost) that he began to repudiate Manichæism. Even when Augustine was in his first fervour, the teachings of Mani had been far from quieting his restlessness, and although he has been accused of becoming a priest of the sect, he was never initiated or numbered among the "elect," but remained an "auditor" the lowest degree in the hierarchy. He himself gives the reason for his disenchantment. First of all there was the fearful depravity of Manichæan philosophy — "They destroy everything and build up nothing"; then, the dreadful immorality in contrast with their affectation of virtue; the feebleness of their arguments in controversy with the Catholics, to whose Scriptural arguments their only reply was: "The Scriptures have been falsified." But, worse than all, he did not find science among them — science in the modern sense of the word — that knowledge of nature and its laws which they had promised him. When he questioned them concerning the movements of the stars, none of them could answer him. "Wait for Faustus," they said, "he will explain everything to you." Faustus of Mileve, the celebrated Manichæan bishop, at last came to Carthage; Augustine visited and questioned him, and discovered in his responses the vulgar rhetorician, the utter stranger to all scientific culture. The spell was broken, and, although Augustine did not immediately abandon the sect, his mind rejected Manichæan doctrines. The illusion had lasted nine years.
But the religious crisis of this great soul was only to be resolved in Italy, under the influence of Ambrose. In 383 Augustine, at the age of twenty-nine, yielded to the irresistible attraction which Italy had for him, but his mother suspected his departure and was so reluctant to be separated from him that he resorted to a subterfuge and embarked under cover of the night. He had only just arrived in Rome when he was taken seriously ill; upon recovering he opened a school of rhetoric, but, disgusted by the tricks of his pupils, who shamelessly defrauded him of their tuition fees, he applied for a vacant professorship at Milan, obtained it, and was accepted by the prefect, Symmachus. Having visited Bishop Ambrose, the fascination of that saint's kindness induced him to become a regular attendant at his preachings.
However, before embracing the Faith, Augustine underwent a three years' struggle during which his mind passed through several distinct phases. At first he turned towards the philosophy of the Academics, with its pessimistic scepticism; then neo-Platonic philosophy inspired him with genuine enthusiasm. At Milan he had scarcely read certain works of Plato and, more especially, of Plotinus, before the hope of finding the truth dawned upon him. Once more he began to dream that he and his friends might lead a life dedicated to the search for it, a life purged of all vulgar aspirations after honours, wealth, or pleasure, and with celibacy for its rule (Confessions VI). But it was only a dream; his passions still enslaved him.
Monica, who had joined her son at Milan, prevailed upon him to become betrothed, but his affianced bride was too young, and although Augustine dismissed the mother of Adeodatus, her place was soon filled by another. Thus did he pass through one last period of struggle and anguish. Finally, through the reading of the Holy Scripture light penetrated his mind. Soon he possessed the certainty that Jesus Christ is the only way to truth and salvation. After that resistance came only from the heart. An interview with Simplicianus, the future successor of St. Ambrose, who told Augustine the story of the conversion of the celebrated neo-Platonic rhetorician, Victorinus (Confessions VIII.1, VIII.2), prepared the way for the grand stroke of grace which, at the age of thirty-three, smote him to the ground in the garden at Milan (September, 386). A few days later Augustine, being ill, took advantage of the autumn holidays and, resigning his professorship, went with Monica, Adeodatus, and his friends to Cassisiacum, the country estate of Verecundus, there to devote himself to the pursuit of true philosophy which, for him, was now inseparable from Christianity.
From his conversion to his episcopate (386-395)
From his conversion to his episcopate (386-395)
Augustine gradually became acquainted with Christian doctrine, and in his mind the fusion of Platonic philosophy with revealed dogmas was taking place. The law that governed this change of thought has of late years been frequently misconstrued; it is sufficiently important to be precisely defined. The solitude of Cassisiacum realized a long-cherished dream. In his books "Against the Academics," Augustine has described the ideal serenity of this existence, enlivened only by the passion for truth. He completed the education of his young friends, now by literary readings in common, now by philosophical conferences to which he sometimes invited Monica, and the accounts of which, compiled by a secretary, have supplied the foundation of the "Dialogues." Licentius, in his "Letters," would later on recall these delightful philosophical mornings and evenings, at which Augustine was wont to evolve the most elevating discussions from the most commonplace incidents. The favourite topics at their conferences were truth, certainty (Against the Academics), true happiness in philosophy (On a Happy Life), the Providential order of the world and the problem of evil (On Order) and finally God and the soul (Soliloquies, On the Immortality of the Soul).
Here arises the curious question propounded modern critics: Was Augustine a Christian when wrote these "Dialogues" at Cassisiacum? Until now no one had doubted it; historians, relying upon the "Confessions", had all believed that Augustine's retirement to the villa had for its twofold object the improvement of his health and his preparation for baptism. But certain critics nowadays claim to have discovered a radical opposition between the philosophical "Dialogues" composed in this retirement and the state of soul described in the "Confessions". According to Harnack, in writing the "Confessions" Augustine must have projected upon the recluse of 386 the sentiments of the bishop of 400. Others go farther and maintain that the recluse of the Milanese villa could not have been at heart a Christian, but a Platonist; and that the scene in the garden was a conversion not to Christianity, but to philosophy, the genuinely Christian phase beginning only in 390.
But this interpretation of the "Dialogues" cannot withstand the test of facts and texts. It is admitted that Augustine received baptism at Easter, 387; and who could suppose that it was for him a meaningless ceremony? So too, how can it be admitted that the scene in the garden, the example of the recluses, the reading of St. Paul, the conversion of Victorinus, Augustine's ecstasies in reading the Psalms with Monica were all invented after the fact? Again, as it was in 388 that Augustine wrote his beautiful apology "On the Holiness of the Catholic Church," how is it conceivable that he was not yet a Christian at that date? To settle the argument, however, it is only necessary to read the "Dialogues" themselves. They are certainly a purely philosophical work — a work of youth, too, not without some pretension, as Augustine ingenuously acknowledges (Confessions IX.4); nevertheless, they contain the entire history of his Christian formation. As early as 386, the first work written at Cassisiacum reveals to us the great underlying motive of his researches. The object of his philosophy is to give authority the support of reason, and "for him the great authority, that which dominates all others and from which he never wished to deviate, is the authority of Christ"; and if he loves the Platonists it is because he counts on finding among them interpretations always in harmony with his faith (Against the Academics, III, c. x). To be sure such confidence was excessive, but it remains evident that in these "Dialogues" it is a Christian, and not a Platonist, that speaks. He reveals to us the intimate details of his conversion, the argument that convinced him (the life and conquests of the Apostles), his progress in the Faith at the school of St. Paul (ibid., II, ii), his delightful conferences with his friends on the Divinity of Jesus Christ, the wonderful transformations worked in his soul by faith, even to that victory of his over the intellectual pride which his Platonic studies had aroused in him (On The Happy Life, I, ii), and at last the gradual calming of his passions and the great resolution to choose wisdom for his only spouse (Soliloquies, I, x).
It is now easy to appreciate at its true value the influence of neo-Platonism upon the mind of the great African Doctor. It would be impossible for anyone who has read the works of St. Augustine to deny the existence of this influence. However, it would be a great exaggeration of this influence to pretend that it at any time sacrificed the Gospel to Plato. The same learned critic thus wisely concludes his study: "So long, therefore, as his philosophy agrees with his religious doctrines, St. Augustine is frankly neo-Platonist; as soon as a contradiction arises, he never hesitates to subordinate his philosophy to religion, reason to faith. He was, first of all, a Christian; the philosophical questions that occupied his mind constantly found themselves more and more relegated to the background" (op. cit., 155). But the method was a dangerous one; in thus seeking harmony between the two doctrines he thought too easily to find Christianity in Plato, or Platonism in the Gospel. More than once, in his "Retractations" and elsewhere, he acknowledges that he has not always shunned this danger. Thus he had imagined that in Platonism he discovered the entire doctrine of the Word and the whole prologue of St. John. He likewise disavowed a good number of neo-Platonic theories which had at first misled him — the cosmological thesis of the universal soul, which makes the world one immense animal — the Platonic doubts upon that grave question: Is there a single soul for all or a distinct soul for each? But on the other hand, he had always reproached the Platonists, as Schaff very properly remarks (Saint Augustine, New York, 1886, p. 51), with being ignorant of, or rejecting, the fundamental points of Christianity: "first, the great mystery, the Word made flesh; and then love, resting on the basis of humility." They also ignore grace, he says, giving sublime precepts of morality without any help towards realizing them.
It was this Divine grace that Augustine sought in Christian baptism. Towards the beginning of Lent, 387, he went to Milan and, with Adeodatus and Alypius, took his place among the competentes, being baptized by Ambrose on Easter Day, or at least during Eastertide. The tradition maintaining that the Te Deum was sung on that occasion by the bishop and the neophyte alternately is groundless. Nevertheless this legend is certainly expressive of the joy of the Church upon receiving as her son him who was to be her most illustrious doctor. It was at this time that Augustine, Alypius, and Evodius resolved to retire into solitude in Africa. Augustine undoubtedly remained at Milan until towards autumn, continuing his works: "On the Immortality of the Soul" and "On Music." In the autumn of 387, he was about to embark at Ostia, when Monica was summoned from this life. In all literature there are no pages of more exquisite sentiment than the story of her saintly death and Augustine's grief (Confessions IX). Augustine remained several months in Rome, chiefly engaged in refuting Manichæism. He sailed for Africa after the death of the tyrant Maximus (August 388) and after a short sojourn in Carthage, returned to his native Tagaste. Immediately upon arriving there, he wished to carry out his idea of a perfect life, and began by selling all his goods and giving the proceeds to the poor. Then he and his friends withdrew to his estate, which had already been alienated, there to lead a common life in poverty, prayer, and the study of sacred letters. Book of the "LXXXIII Questions" is the fruit of conferences held in this retirement, in which he also wrote "De Genesi contra Manichæos," "De Magistro," and, "De Vera Religione."
Augustine did not think of entering the priesthood, and, through fear of the episcopacy, he even fled from cities in which an election was necessary. One day, having been summoned to Hippo by a friend whose soul's salvation was at stake, he was praying in a church when the people suddenly gathered about him, cheered him, and begged Valerius, the bishop, to raise him to the priesthood. In spite of his tears Augustine was obliged to yield to their entreaties, and was ordained in 391. The new priest looked upon his ordination as an additional reason for resuming religious life at Tagaste, and so fully did Valerius approve that he put some church property at Augustine's disposal, thus enabling him to establish a monastery the second that he had founded. His priestly ministry of five years was admirably fruitful; Valerius had bidden him preach, in spite of the deplorable custom which in Africa reserved that ministry to bishops. Augustine combated heresy, especially Manichæism, and his success was prodigious. Fortunatus, one of their great doctors, whom Augustine had challenged in public conference, was so humiliated by his defeat that he fled from Hippo. Augustine also abolished the abuse of holding banquets in the chapels of the martyrs. He took part, 8 October, 393, in the Plenary Council of Africa, presided over by Aurelius, Bishop of Carthage, and, at the request of the bishops, was obliged to deliver a discourse which, in its completed form, afterwards became the treatise "De Fide et symbolo".
As bishop of Hippo (396-430)
As bishop of Hippo (396-430)
Enfeebled by old age, Valerius, Bishop of Hippo, obtained the authorization of Aurelius, Primate of Africa, to associate Augustine with himself as coadjutor. Augustine had to resign himself to consecration at the hands of Megalius, Primate of Numidia. He was then forty two, and was to occupy the See of Hippo for thirty-four years. The new bishop understood well how to combine the exercise of his pastoral duties with the austerities of the religious life, and although he left his convent, his episcopal residence became a monastery where he lived a community life with his clergy, who bound themselves to observe religious poverty. Was it an order of regular clerics or of monks that he thus founded? This is a question often asked, but we feel that Augustine gave but little thought to such distinctions. Be that as it may, the episcopal house of Hippo became a veritable nursery which supplied the founders of the monasteries that were soon spread all over Africa and the bishops who occupied the neighbouring sees. Possidius (Vita S. August., xxii) enumerates ten of the saint's friends and disciples who were promoted to the episcopacy. Thus it was that Augustine earned the title of patriarch of the religious, and renovator of the clerical, life in Africa.
But he was above all the defender of truth and the shepherd of souls. His doctrinal activities, the influence of which was destined to last as long as the Church itself, were manifold: he preached frequently, sometimes for five days consecutively, his sermons breathing a spirit of charity that won all hearts; he wrote letters which scattered broadcast through the then known world his solutions of the problems of that day; he impressed his spirit upon divers African councils at which he assisted, for instance, those of Carthage in 398, 401, 407, 419 and of Mileve in 416 and 418; and lastly struggled indefatigably against all errors. To relate these struggles were endless; we shall, therefore, select only the chief controversies and indicate in each the doctrinal attitude of the great Bishop of Hippo.
The Manichæan controversy and the problem of evil
After Augustine became bishop the zeal which, from the time of his baptism, he had manifested in bringing his former co-religionists into the true Church, took on a more paternal form without losing its pristine ardour — "let those rage against us who know not at what a bitter cost truth is attained. . . . As for me, I should show you the same forbearance that my brethren had for me when I blind, was wandering in your doctrines" (Contra Epistolam Fundamenti 3). Among the most memorable events that occurred during this controversy was the great victory won in 404 over Felix, one of the "elect" of the Manichæans and the great doctor of the sect. He was propagating his errors in Hippo, and Augustine invited him to a public conference the issue of which would necessarily cause a great stir; Felix declared himself vanquished, embraced the Faith, and, together with Augustine, subscribed the acts of the conference. In his writings Augustine successively refuted Mani (397), the famous Faustus (400), Secundinus (405), and (about 415) the fatalistic Priscillianists whom Paulus Orosius had denounced to him. These writings contain the saint's clear, unquestionable views on the eternal problem of evil, views based on an optimism proclaiming, like the Platonists, that every work of God is good and that the only source of moral evil is the liberty of creatures (City of God XIX.13.2). Augustine takes up the defence of free will, even in man as he is, with such ardour that his works against the Manichæan are an inexhaustible storehouse of arguments in this still living controversy.
In vain have the Jansenists maintained that Augustine was unconsciously a Pelagian and that he afterwards acknowledged the loss of liberty through the sin of Adam. Modern critics, doubtless unfamiliar with Augustine's complicated system and his peculiar terminology, have gone much farther. In the "Revue d'histoire et de littérature religieuses" (1899, p. 447), M. Margival exhibits St. Augustine as the victim of metaphysical pessimism unconsciously imbibed from Manichæan doctrines. "Never," says he, "will the Oriental idea of the necessity and the eternity of evil have a more zealous defender than this bishop." Nothing is more opposed to the facts. Augustine acknowledges that he had not yet understood how the first good inclination of the will is a gift of God (Retractions, I, xxiii, n, 3); but it should be remembered that he never retracted his leading theories on liberty, never modified his opinion upon what constitutes its essential condition, that is to say, the full power of choosing or of deciding. Who will dare to say that in revising his own writings on so important a point he lacked either clearness of perception or sincerity?
The Donatist controversy and the theory of the Church
The Donatist controversy and the theory of the Church
The Donatist schism was the last episode in the Montanist and Novatian controversies which had agitated the Church from the second century. While the East was discussing under varying aspects the Divine and Christological problem of the Word, the West, doubtless because of its more practical genius, took up the moral question of sin in all its forms. The general problem was the holiness of the Church; could the sinner be pardoned, and remain in her bosom? In Africa the question especially concerned the holiness of the hierarchy. The bishops of Numidia, who, in 312, had refused to accept as valid the consecration of Cæcilian, Bishop of Carthage, by a traditor, had inaugurated the schism and at the same time proposed these grave questions: Do the hierarchical powers depend upon the moral worthiness of the priest? How can the holiness of the Church be compatible with the unworthiness of its ministers?
At the time of Augustine's arrival in Hippo, the schism had attained immense proportions, having become identified with political tendencies — perhaps with a national movement against Roman domination. In any event, it is easy to discover in it an undercurrent of anti-social revenge which the emperors had to combat by strict laws. The strange sect known as "Soldiers of Christ," and called by Catholics Circumcelliones (brigands, vagrants), resembled the revolutionary sects of the Middle Ages in point of fanatic destructiveness — a fact that must not be lost sight of, if the severe legislation of the emperors is to be properly appreciated.
The history of Augustine's struggles with the Donatists is also that of his change of opinion on the employment of rigorous measures against the heretics; and the Church in Africa, of whose councils he had been the very soul, followed him in the change. This change of views is solemnly attested by the Bishop of Hippo himself, especially in his Letters, 93 (in the year 408). In the beginning, it was by conferences and a friendly controversy that he sought to re-establish unity. He inspired various conciliatory measures of the African councils, and sent ambassadors to the Donatists to invite them to re-enter the Church, or at least to urge them to send deputies to a conference (403). The Donatists met these advances at first with silence, then with insults, and lastly with such violence that Possidius Bishop of Calamet, Augustine's friend, escaped death only by flight, the Bishop of Bagaïa was left covered with horrible wounds, and the life of the Bishop of Hippo himself was several times attempted (Letter 88, to Januarius, the Donatist bishop). This madness of the Circumcelliones required harsh repression, and Augustine, witnessing the many conversions that resulted therefrom, thenceforth approved rigid laws. However, this important restriction must be pointed out: that St. Augustine never wished heresy to be punishable by death — Vos rogamus ne occidatis (Letter 100, to the Proconsul Donatus). But the bishops still favoured a conference with the schismatics, and in 410 an edict issued by Honorius put an end to the refusal of the Donatists. A solemn conference took place at Carthage, in June, 411, in presence of 286 Catholic, and 279 Donatist bishops. The Donatist spokesmen were Petilian of Constantine, Primian of Carthage, and Emeritus of Cæsarea; the Catholic orators, Aurelius and Augustine. On the historic question then at issue, the Bishop of Hippo proved the innocence of Cæcilian and his consecrator Felix, and in the dogmatic debate he established the Catholic thesis that the Church, as long as it is upon earth, can, without losing its holiness, tolerate sinners within its pale for the sake of converting them. In the name of the emperor the Proconsul Marcellinus sanctioned the victory of the Catholics on all points. Little by little Donatism died out, to disappear with the coming of the Vandals.
So amply and magnificently did Augustine develop his theory on the Church that, according to Specht "he deserves to be named the Doctor of the Church as well as the Doctor of Grace"; and Möhler (Dogmatik, 351) is not afraid to write: "For depth of feeling and power of conception nothing written on the Church since St. Paul's time, is comparable to the works of St. Augustine." He has corrected, perfected, and even excelled the beautiful pages of St. Cyprian on the Divine institution of the Church, its authority, its essential marks, and its mission in the economy of grace and the administration of the sacraments. The Protestant critics, Dorner, Bindemann, Böhringer and especially Reuter, loudly proclaim, and sometimes even exaggerate, this rôle of the Doctor of Hippo; and while Harnack does not quite agree with them in every respect he does not hesitate to say (History of Dogma, II, c. iii): "It is one of the points upon which Augustine specially affirms and strengthens the Catholic idea.... He was the first [!] to transform the authority of the Church into a religious power, and to confer upon practical religion the gift of a doctrine of the Church." He was not the first, for Dorner acknowledges (Augustinus, 88) that Optatus of Mileve had expressed the basis of the same doctrines. Augustine, however, deepened, systematized, and completed the views of St. Cyprian and Optatus. But it is impossible here to go into detail. (See Specht, Die Lehre von der Kirche nach dem hl. Augustinus, Paderborn, 1892.)
The Pelagian controversy and the Doctor of Grace
The Pelagian controversy and the Doctor of Grace
The close of the struggle against the Donatists almost coincided with the beginnings of a very grave theological dispute which not only was to demand Augustine's unremitting attention up to the time of his death, but was to become an eternal problem for individuals and for the Church. Farther on we shall enlarge upon Augustine's system; here we need only indicate the phases of the controversy. Africa, where Pelagius and his disciple Celestius had sought refuge after the taking of Rome by Alaric, was the principal centre of the first Pelagian disturbances; as early as 412 a council held at Carthage condemned Pelagians for their attacks upon the doctrine of original sin. Among other books directed against them by Augustine was his famous "De naturâ et gratiâ". Thanks to his activity the condemnation of these innovators, who had succeeded in deceiving a synod convened at Diospolis in Palestine, was reiterated by councils held later at Carthage and Mileve and confirmed by Pope Innocent I (417). A second period of Pelagian intrigues developed at Rome, but Pope Zosimus, whom the stratagems of Celestius had for a moment deluded, being enlightened by Augustine, pronounced the solemn condemnation of these heretics in 418. Thenceforth the combat was conducted in writing against Julian of Eclanum, who assumed the leadership of the party and violently attacked Augustine.
Towards 426 there entered the lists a school which afterwards acquired the name of Semipelagian, the first members being monks of Hadrumetum in Africa, who were followed by others from Marseilles, led by Cassian, the celebrated abbot of Saint-Victor. Unable to admit the absolute gratuitousness of predestination, they sought a middle course between Augustine and Pelagius, and maintained that grace must be given to those who merit it and denied to others; hence goodwill has the precedence, it desires, it asks, and God rewards. Informed of their views by Prosper of Aquitaine, the holy Doctor once more expounded, in "De Prædestinatione Sanctorum", how even these first desires for salvation are due to the grace of God, which therefore absolutely controls our predestination.
Struggles against Arianism and closing years
Struggles against Arianism and closing years
In 426 the holy Bishop of Hippo, at the age of seventy-two, wishing to spare his episcopal city the turmoil of an election after his death, caused both clergy and people to acclaim the choice of the deacon Heraclius as his auxiliary and successor, and transferred to him the administration of externals. Augustine might then have enjoyed some rest had Africa not been agitated by the undeserved disgrace and the revolt of Count Boniface (427). The Goths, sent by the Empress Placidia to oppose Boniface, and the Vandals, whom the latter summoned to his assistance, were all Arians. Maximinus, an Arian bishop, entered Hippo with the imperial troops. The holy Doctor defended the Faith at a public conference (428) and in various writings. Being deeply grieved at the devastation of Africa, he laboured to effect a reconciliation between Count Boniface and the empress. Peace was indeed reestablished, but not with Genseric, the Vandal king. Boniface, vanquished, sought refuge in Hippo, whither many bishops had already fled for protection and this well fortified city was to suffer the horrors of an eighteen months' siege. Endeavouring to control his anguish, Augustine continued to refute Julian of Eclanum; but early in the siege he was stricken with what he realized to be a fatal illness, and, after three months of admirable patience and fervent prayer, departed from this land of exile on 28 August, 430, in the seventy-sixth year of his age.
Portalié, Eugène. "Life of St. Augustine of Hippo." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company,1907. 28 Aug. 2015 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02084a.htm>.
SOURCE : http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02084a.htm
Works of St. Augustine of Hippo
St. Augustine of Hippo (354-430) was one of the most prolific geniuses that humanity has ever known, and is admired not only for the number of his works, but also for the variety of subjects, which traverse the whole realm of thought. The form in which he casts his work exercises a very powerful attraction on the reader. Bardenhewer praises his extraordinary suppleness of expression and his marvellous gift of describing interior things, of painting the various states of the soul and the facts of the spiritual world. His latinity bears the stamp of his age. In general, his style is noble and chaste; but, says the same author, "in his sermons and other popular writings he purposely drops to the language of the people." A detailed analysis is impossible here. We shall merely indicate his principal writings and the date (often approximate) of their composition.
Autobiography and correspondence
Autobiography and correspondence
The Confessions are the history of his heart; the Retractations, of his mind; while the Letters show his activity in the Church.
The Confessions (towards A.D. 400) are, in the Biblical sense of the word confiteri, not an avowal or an account, but the praise of a soul that admires the action of God within itself. Of all the works of the holy Doctor none has been more universally read and admired, none has caused more salutary tears to flow. Neither in respect of penetrating analysis of the most complex impressions of the soul, nor communicative feeling, nor elevation of sentiment, nor depth of philosophic views, is there any book like it in all literature.
The Retractations (towards the end of his life, 426-428) are a revision of the works of the saint in chronological order, explaining the occasion and dominant idea of each. They are a guide of inestimable price for seizing the progress of Augustine's thought.
The Letters, amounting in the Benedictine collection to 270 (53 of them from Augustine's correspondents), are a treasure of the greatest value, for the knowledge of his life, influence and even his doctrine.
These writings, for the most part composed in the villa of Cassisiacum, from his conversion to his baptism (388-387), continue the autobiography of the saint by initiating us into the researches and Platonic hesitations of his mind. There is less freedom in them than in the Confessions. They are literary essays, writings whose simplicity is the acme of art and elegance. Nowhere is the style of Augustine so chastened, nowhere is his language so pure. Their dialogue form shows that they were inspired by Plate and Cicero. The chief ones are:
- Contra Academicos (the most important of all);
- De Beatâ Vitâ;
- De Ordine;
- the two books of Soliloquies, which must be distinguished from the "Soliloquies" and "Meditations" which are certainly not authentic;
- De Immortalitate animæ;
- De Magistro (a dialogue between Augustine and his son Adeodatus); and
- six curious books (the sixth especially) on Music.
In The City of God (begun in 413, but Books 20-22 were written in 426) Augustine answers the pagans, who attributed the fall of Rome (410) to the abolition of pagan worship. Considering this problem of Divine Providence with regard to the Roman Empire, he widens the horizon still more and in a burst of genius he creates the philosophy of history, embracing as he does with a glance the destinies of the world grouped around the Christian religion, the only one which goes back to the beginning and leads humanity to its final term. The City of God is considered as the most important work of the great bishop. The other works chiefly interest theologians; but it, like the Confessions, belongs to general literature and appeals to every soul. The Confessions are theology which has been lived in the soul, and the history of God's action on individuals, while The City of God is theology framed in the history of humanity, and explaining the action of God in the world.
Other apologetic writings, like the "De Verâ Religione" (a little masterpiece composed at Tagaste, 389-391), "De Utilitate Credendi" (391), "Liber de fide rerum quæ non videntur" (400), and the "Letter 120 to Consentius," constitute Augustine the great theorist of the Faith, and of its relations to reason. "He is the first of the Fathers," says Harnack (Dogmengeschichte, III, 97) "who felt the need of forcing his faith to reason." And indeed he, who so repeatedly affirms that faith precedes the intelligent apprehension of the truths of revelation — he it is who marks out with greater clearness of definition and more precisely than anyone else the function of the reason in preceding and verifying the witness's claim to credence, and in accompanying the mind's act of adhesion. (Letter to Consentius, n. 3, 8, etc.) What would not have been the stupefaction of Augustine if anyone had told him that faith must close its eyes to the proofs of the divine testimony, under the penalty of its becoming science! Or if one had spoken to him of faith in authority giving its assent, without examining any motive which might prove the value of the testimony! It surely cannot be possible for the human mind to accept testimony without known motives for such acceptance, or, again, for any testimony, even when learnedly sifted out, to give the science — the inward view — of the object.
Controversies with heretics
Controversies with heretics
Against the Manichæans:
- "De Moribus Ecclesiæ Catholicæ et de Moribus Manichæorum" (at Rome, 368);
- "De Duabus Animabus" (before 392);
- "Acts of the Dispute with Fortunatus the Manichæan" (392);
- "Acts of the Conference with Felix" (404);
- "De Libero Arbitrio" — very important on the origin of evil;
- various writings "Contra Adimantum";
- against the Epistle of Mani (the foundation);
- Reply to Faustus (about 400);
- against Secundinus (405), etc.
Against the Donatists:
- "Psalmus contra partem Donati" (about 395), a purely rhythmic song for popular use (the oldest example of its kind);
- "Contra epistolam Parmeniani" (400);
- "De Baptismo contra Donatistas" (about 400), one of the most important pieces in this controversy;
- "Contra litteras Parmeniani,"
- "Contra Cresconium,"
- a good number of letters, also, relating to this debate.
Against the Pelagians, in chronological order, we have:
- 412, "De peccatorum meritis et remissione" (On merit and forgiveness);
- same year, "De spiritu et litterâ" (On the spirit and the letter);
- 415, "De Perfectione justitiæ hominis" — important for understanding Pelagian impeccability;
- 417, "De Gestis Pelagii" — a history of the Council of Diospolis, whose acts it reproduces;
- 418, "De Gratiâ Christi et de peccato originali";
- 419, "De nuptiis et concupiscentiâ" and other writings (420-428);
- "Against Julian of Eclanum" — the last of this series, interrupted by the death of the saint.
Against the Semipelagians:
- "De correptione et gratiâ" (427);
- "De prædestinatione Sanctorum" (428);
- "De Done Perseverantiæ" (429).
- "Contra sermonem Arianorum" (418) and
- "Collattio cum Maximino Arianorum episcopo" (the celebrated conference of Hippo in 428).
Augustine in the "De Doctrinâ Christianâ" (begun in 397 and ended in 426) gives us a genuine treatise of exegesis, historically the first (for St. Jerome wrote rather as a controversialist). Several times he attempted a commentary on Genesis. The great work "De Genesi ad litteram" was composed from 401 to 415. The "Enarrationes in Psalmos" are a masterpiece of popular eloquence, with a swing and a warmth to them which are inimitable. On the New Testament: the "De Sermone Dei in Monte" (during his priestly ministry) is especially noteworthy; "De Consensu Evangelistarum" (Harmony of the Gospels — 400); Homilies on St. John (416), generally classed among the chief works of Augustine; the Exposition of the Epistle to the Galatians" (324), etc. The most remarkable of his Biblical works illustrate either a theory of exegesis (one generally approved) which delights in finding mystical or allegorical interpretations, or the style of preaching which is founded on that view. His strictly exegetical work is far from equalling in scientific value that of St. Jerome. His knowledge of the Biblical languages was insufficient: he read Greek with difficulty; as for Hebrew, all that we can gather from the studies of Schanz and Rottmanner is that he was familiar with Punic, a language allied to Hebrew. Moreover, the two grand qualities of his genius — ardent feeling and prodigious subtlety — carried him sway into interpretations that were violent or more ingenious than solid.
But the hermeneutics of Augustine merit great praise, especially for their insistence upon the stern law of extreme prudence in determining the meaning of Scripture: We must be on our guard against giving interpretations which are hazardous or opposed to science, and so exposing the word of God to the ridicule of unbelievers (De Genesi ad litteram, I, 19, 21, especially n. 39). An admirable application of this well-ordered liberty appears in his thesis on the simultaneous creation of the universe, and the gradual development of the world under the action of the natural forces which were placed in it. Certainly the instantaneous act of the Creator did not produce an organized universe as we see it now. But, in the beginning, God created all the elements of the world in a confused and nebulous mass (the word is Augustine's Nebulosa species apparet; "De Genesi ad litt., " I, n. 27), and in this mass were the mysterious germs (rationes seminales) of the future beings which were to develop themselves, when favourable circumstances should permit. Is Augustine, therefore, an Evolutionist?
If we mean that he had a deeper and wider mental grasp than other thinkers had of the forces of nature and the plasticity of beings, it is an incontestable fact; and from this point of view Father Zahm (Bible, Science, and Faith, pp. 58-66, French tr.) properly felicitates him on having been the precursor of modern thought. But if we mean that he admitted in matter a power of differentiation and of gradual transformation, passing from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous, the most formal texts force us to recognize that Augustine proclaimed the fixity of species, and did not admit that "from one identical primitive principle or from one germ, different realities can issue." This judgment of the Abbé Martin in his very searching study on this subject (S. Augustin, p. 314) must correct the conclusion of Father Zahm. "The elements of this corporeal world have also their well defined force, and their proper quality, from which depends what each one of them can or cannot do, and what reality ought or ought not to issue from each one of them. Hence it is that from a grain of wheat a bean cannot issue, nor wheat from a bean, nor a, man from a beast, nor a beast from a man" (De Genesi ad litt., IX, n. 32).
Dogmatic and moral exposition
Dogmatic and moral exposition
The fifteen books De Trinitate, on which he worked for fifteen years, from 400 to 416, are the most elaborate and profound work of St. Augustine. The last books on the analogies which the mystery of the Trinity have with our soul are much discussed. The saintly author himself declares that they are only analogous and are far-fetched and very obscure.
The Enchiridion, or handbook, on Faith, Hope, and Love, composed, in 421, at the request of a pious Roman, Laurentius, is an admirable synthesis of Augustine's theology, reduced to the three theological virtues. Father Faure has given us a learned commentary of it, and Harnack a detailed analysis (Hist. of dogmas, III, 205, 221).
Several volumes of miscellaneous questions, among which "Ad Simplicianum" (397) has been especially noted.
Numberless writings of his have a practical aim: two on "Lying" (374 and 420), five on "Continence," "Marriage," and "Holy Widowhood," one on "Patience," another on "Prayer for the Dead" (421).
Pastorals and preaching
Pastorals and preaching
The theory of preaching and religious instruction of the people is given in the "De Catechizandis Rudibus" (400) and in the fourth book "De Doctrinâ. Christianâ." The oratorical work alone is of vast extent. Besides the Scriptural homilies, the Benedictines have collected 363 sermons which are certainly authentic; the brevity of these suggests that they are stenographic, often revised by Augustine himself. If the Doctor in him predominates over the orator, if he possesses less of colour, of opulence, of actuality, and of Oriental charm than St. John Chrysostom, we find, on the other hand, a more nervous logic, bolder comparisons, greater elevation and greater profundity of thought, and sometimes, in his bursts of emotion and his daring lapses into dialogue-form, he attains the irresistible power of the Greek orator.
Editions of St. Augustine's works
Editions of St. Augustine's works
The best edition of his complete works is that of the Benedictines, eleven tomes in eight folio volumes (Paris, 1679-1700). It has been often reprinted, e.g. by Gaume (Paris, 1836-39), in eleven octavo volumes, and by Migne, PL 32-47. The last volume of the Migne reprint contains a number of important earlier studies on St. Augustine — Vivés, Noris, Merlin, particularly the literary history of the editions of Augustine from Schönemann's "Bibl. hist. lit. patrum Lat." (Leipzig, 1794).
Portalié, Eugène. "Works of St. Augustine of Hippo." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 28 Aug. 2015 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02089a.htm>.
Teaching of St. Augustine of Hippo
St. Augustine of Hippo (354-430) is "a philosophical and theological genius of the first order, dominating, like a pyramid, antiquity and the succeeding ages. Compared with the great philosophers of past centuries and modern times, he is the equal of them all; among theologians he is undeniably the first, and such has been his influence that none of the Fathers, Scholastics, or Reformers has surpassed it." (Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church) Elsewhere, we have discussed his life and his writings; here, we shall treat of his teaching and influence in three sections:
His function as a doctor of the Church
When the critics endeavour to determine Augustine's place in the history of the Church and of civilization, there can be no question of exterior or political influence, such as was exercised by St. Leo, St. Gregory, or St. Bernard. As Reuter* justly observes, Augustine was bishop of a third-rate city and had scarcely any direct control over politics, and Harnack adds that perhaps he had not the qualifications of a statesman. If Augustine occupies a place apart in the history of humanity, it is as a thinker, his influence being felt even outside the realm of theology, and playing a most potent part in the orientation of Western thought. It is now universally conceded that, in the intellectual field, this influence is unrivalled even by that of Thomas Aquinas, and Augustine's teaching marks a distinct epoch in the history of Christian thought. The better to emphasize this important fact we shall try to determine: (1) the rank and degree of influence that must be ascribed to Augustine; (2) the nature, or the elements, of his doctrinal influence; (3) the general qualities of his doctrine; and (4) the character of his genius.
The greatest of the doctors
The greatest of the doctors
It is first of all a remarkable fact that the great critics, Protestant as well as Catholic, are almost unanimous in placing St. Augustine in the foremost rank of Doctors and proclaiming him to be the greatest of the Fathers. Such, indeed, was also the opinion of his contemporaries, judging from their expressions of enthusiasm gathered by the Bollandists. The popes attributed such exceptional authority to the Doctor of Hippo that, even of late years, it has given rise to lively theological controversies. Peter the Venerable accurately summarized the general sentiment of the Middle Ages when he ranked Augustine immediately after the Apostles; and in modern times Bossuet, whose genius was most like that of Augustine, assigns him the first place among the Doctors, nor does he simply call him the incomparable Augustine," but "the Eagle of Doctors," "the Doctor of Doctors." If the Jansenistic abuse of his works and perhaps the exaggerations of certain Catholics, as well as the attack of Richard Simon, seem to have alarmed some minds, the general opinion has not varied. In the nineteenth century Stöckl expressed the thought of all when he said, "Augustine has justly been called the greatest Doctor of the Catholic world."
And the admiration of Protestant critics is not less enthusiastic. More than this, it would seem as if they had in these latter days been quite specially fascinated by the great figure of Augustine, so deeply and so assiduously have they studied him (Bindemann, Schaff, Dorner, Reuter, A. Harnack, Eucken, Scheel, and so on) and all of them agree more or less with Harnack when he says: "Where, in the history of the West, is there to be found a man who, in point of influence, can be compared with him?" Luther and Calvin were content to treat Augustine with a little less irreverence than they did the other Fathers, but their descendants do him full justice, although recognizing him as the Father of Roman Catholicism. According to Bindemann, "Augustine is a star of extraordinary brilliancy in the firmament of the Church. Since the apostles he has been unsurpassed." In his "History of the Church" Dr. Kurtz calls Augustine "the greatest, the most powerful of all the Fathers, him from whom proceeds all the doctrinal and ecclesiastical development of the West, and to whom each recurring crisis, each new orientation of thought brings it back." Schaff himself (Saint Augustine, Melanchthon and Neander, p. 98) is of the same opinion: "While most of the great men in the history of the Church are claimed either by the Catholic or by the Protestant confession, and their influence is therefore confined to one or the other, he enjoys from both a respect equally profound and enduring." Rudolf Eucken is bolder still, when he says: "On the ground of Christianity proper a single philosopher has appeared and that is Augustine." The English Miter, W. Cunningham, is no less appreciative of the extent and perpetuity of this extraordinary influence: "The whole life of the medieval Church was framed on lines which he has suggested: its religious orders claimed him as their patron; its mystics found a sympathetic tone in his teaching; its polity was to some extent the actualization of his picture of the Christian Church; it was in its various parts a carrying out of ideas which he cherished and diffused. Nor does his influence end with the decline of medievalism: we shall see presently how closely his language was akin to that of Descartes, who gave the first impulse to and defined the special character of modern philosophy." And after having established that the doctrine of St. Augustine was at the bottom of all the struggles between Jansenists and Catholics in the Church of France, between Arminians and Calvinists on the side of the Reformers, he adds: "And once more in our own land when a reaction arose against rationalism and Erastinianism it was to the African Doctor that men turned with enthusiasm: Dr. Pusey's edition of the Confessions was among the first-fruits of the Oxford Movement."
But Adolf Harnack is the one who has oftenest emphasized the unique rôle of the Doctor of Hippo. He has studied Augustine's place in the history of the world as reformer of Christian piety and his influence as Doctor of the Church. In his study of the "Confessions" he comes back to it: "No man since Paul is comparable to him" — with the exception of Luther, he adds. — "Even today we live by Augustine, by his thought and his spirit; it is said that we are the sons of the Renaissance and the Reformation, but both one and the other depend upon him."
Nature and different aspects of his doctrinal influence
Nature and different aspects of his doctrinal influence
This influence is so varied and so complex that it is difficult to consider under all its different aspects. First of all, in his writings the great bishop collects and condenses the intellectual treasures of the old world and transmits them to the new. Harnack goes so far as to say: "It would seem that the miserable existence of the Roman empire in the West was prolonged until then, only to permit Augustine's influence to be exercised on universal history." It was in order to fulfil this enormous task that Providence brought him into contact with the three worlds whose thought he was to transmit: with the Roman and Latin world in the midst of which he lived, with the Oriental world partially revealed to him through the study of Manichæism, and with the Greek world shown to him by the Platonists. In philosophy he was initiated into the whole content and all the subtilties of the various schools, without, however, giving his allegiance to any one of them. In theology it was he who acquainted the Latin Church with the great dogmatic work accomplished in the East during the fourth century and at the beginning of the fifth; he popularized the results of it by giving them the more exact and precise form of the Latin genius.
To synthesis of the past, Augustine adds the incomparable wealth of his own thought, and he may be said to have been the most powerful instrument of Providence in development and advance of dogma. Here the danger has been not in denying, but in exaggerating, this advance. Augustine's dogmatic mission (in a lower sphere and apart from inspiration) recalls that of Paul in the preaching of the Gospel. It has also been subject to the same attacks and occasioned the same vagaries of criticism. Just as it was sought to make of Paulinism the real source of Christianity as we know it — a system that had smothered the primitive germ of the Gospel of Jesus — so it was imagined that, under the name of Augustinianism, Augustine had installed in the Church some sort of syncretism of the ideas of Paul and of neo-Platonism which was a deviation from ancient Christianity, fortunate according to some, but according to others utterly deplorable. These fantasies do not survive the reading of the texts, and Harnack himself shows in Augustine the heir to the tradition that preceded him. Still, on the other hand, his share of invention and originality in the development of dogma must not be ignored, although here and there, on special questions, human weaknesses crop out. He realized, better than any of the Fathers, the progress so well expressed by Vincent of Lérins, his contemporary, in a page that some have turned against him.
In general, all Christian dogmatics are indebted to him for new theories that better justify and explain revelation, new views, and greater clearness and precision. The many struggles with which he was identified, together with the speculative turn of his mind, brought almost every question within the scope of his research. Even his way of stating problems so left his impress upon them that there Is no problem, one might almost say, in considering which the theologian does not feel the study of Augustine's thought to be an imperative obligation. Certain dogmas in particular he so amply developed, so skilfully unsheathing the fruitful germ of the truths from their envelope of tradition, that many of these dogmas (wrongly, in our opinion) have been set down as "Augustinism." Augustine was not their inventor, he was only the first to put them in a strong light. They are chiefly the dogmas of the Fall, the Atonement, Grace, and Predestination. Schaff (op. cit. 97) has very properly said: "His appearance in the history of dogma forms a distinct epoch, especially as regards anthropological and soteriological doctrines, which he advanced considerably further, and brought to a greater clearness and precision, than they had ever had before in the consciousness of the Church." But he is not only the Doctor of Grace, he is also the Doctor of the Church: his twenty years' conflict with Donatism led to a complete exposition of the dogmas of the Church, the great work and mystical Body of Christ, and true Kingdom of God, of its part in salvation and of the intimate efficacy of its sacraments. It is on this point, as the very centre of Augustinian theology, that Reuter* has concentrated those "Augustinische Studien" which, according to Harnack, are the most learned of recent studies on St. Augustine. Manichæan controversies also led him to state clearly the great questions of the Divine Being and of the nature of evil, and he might also be called the Doctor of Good, or of good principles of all things. Lastly, the very idiosyncrasy of his genius and the practical, supernatural, and Divine imprint left upon all his intellectual speculations have made him the Doctor of Charity.
Another step forward due to the works of Augustine is in the language of theology, for, if he did not create it, he at least contributed towards its definite settlement. It is indebted to him for a great number of epigrammatic formulæ, as significant as they are terse, afterwards singled out and adopted by Scholasticism. Besides, as Latin was more concise and less fluid in its forms than Greek, it was wonderfully well suited to the work. Augustine made it the dogmatic language par excellence, and Anselm, Thomas Aquinas, and others followed his lead. At times he has even been credited with the pseudo-Athanasian creed which is undoubtedly of later date, but those critics were not mistaken who traced its inspiration to the formulæ in "De Trinitate." Whoever its author may have been, he was certainly familiar with Augustine and drew upon his works. It is unquestionably this gift of concise expression, as well as his charity, that has so often caused the celebrated saying to be attributed to him: "In essentials unity, in non-essentials liberty, in all things charity."
Augustine stands forth, too, as the great inspirer of religious thought in subsequent ages. A whole volume would not be sufficient to contain the full account of his influence on posterity; here we shall merely call attention to its principal manifestations. It is, in the first place, a fact of paramount importance that, with St. Augustine, the centre of dogmatic and theological development changed from East to West. Hence, from this view-point again, he makes an epoch in the history of dogma. The critics maintain that up to his time the most powerful influence was exerted by the Greek Church, the East having been the classic land of theology, the great workshop for the elaboration of dogma. From the time of Augustine, the predominating influence seems to emanate from the West, and the practical, realistic spirit of the Latin race supplants the speculative and idealistic spirit of Greece and the East. Another fact, no less salient, is that it was the Doctor of Hippo who, in the bosom of the Church, inspired the two seemingly antagonistic movements, Scholasticism and Mysticism. From Gregory the Great to the Fathers of Trent, Augustine's theological authority, indisputably the highest, dominates all thinkers and is appealed to alike by the Scholastics Anselm, Peter Lombard, and Thomas Aquinas, and by Bernard, Hugh of St. Victor, and Tauler, exponents of Mysticism, all of whom were nourished upon his writings and penetrated with his spirit. There is not one of even the most modern tendencies of thought but derives from him whatever it may have of truth or of profound religious sentiment. Learned critics, such as Harnack, have called Augustine "the first modern man," and in truth, he so moulded the Latin world that it is really he who has shaped the education of modern minds. But, without going so far, we may quote the German philosopher, Eucken: "It is perhaps not paradoxical to say that if our age wishes to take up and treat in an independent way the problem of religion, it is not so much to Schleiermacher or Kant, or even Luther or St. Thomas, that it must refer, as to Augustine.... And outside of religion, there are points upon which Augustine is more modern than Hegel or Schopenhauer."
The dominating qualities of his doctrine
The dominating qualities of his doctrine
The better to understand St. Augustine's influence, we must point out in his doctrine certain general characteristics which must not be lost sight of, if, in reading his works, one would avoid troublesome misapprehensions.
First, the full development of the great Doctor's mind was progressive. It was by stages, often aided by the circumstances and necessities of controversy, that he arrived at the exact knowledge of each truth and a clean-cut perception of its place in the synthesis of revelation. He also requires that his readers should know how to "advance with him." It is necessary to study St. Augustine's works in historical order and, as we shall see, this applies particularly to the doctrine of grace.
Augustinian doctrine is, again, essentially theological, and has God for its centre. To be sure Augustine is a great philosopher, and Fénelon said of him: "If an enlightened man were to gather from the books of St. Augustine the sublime truths which this great man has scattered at random therein, such a compendium [extrait], made with discrimination, would be far superior to Descartes' Meditations." And indeed just such a collection was made by the Oratorian ontologist, André Martin. There is then a philosophy of St. Augustine, but in him philosophy is so Intimately coupled with theology as to be inseparable from it. Protestant historians have remarked this characteristic of his writings. "The world," says Eucken, "interests him less than" the action of God in the world and especially in ourselves. God and the soul are the only subjects the knowledge Of which ought to fire us with enthusiasm. All knowledge becomes moral, religious knowledge, or rather a moral, religious conviction, an act of faith on the part of man, who gives himself up unreservedly." And with still greater energy Böhringer has said: "The axis on which the heart, life and theology of Augustine move is God." Oriental discussions on the Word had forced Athanasius and the Greek Fathers to set faith in the Word and in Christ, the Saviour, at the very summit of theology; Augustine, too, in his theology, places the Incarnation at the centre of the Divine plan, but he looks upon it as the great historic manifestation of God to humanity — the idea of God dominates all: of God considered in His essence (On the Trinity), in His government (The City of God) or as the last end of all Christian life (Enchiridion and On the Christian Combat).
Lastly, Augustine's doctrine bears an eminently Catholic stamp and is radically opposed to Protestantism. It is important to establish this fact, principally because of the change in the attitude of Protestant critics towards St. Augustine. Indeed, nothing is more deserving of attention than this development so highly creditable to the impartiality of modern writers. The thesis of the Protestants of olden times is well known. Attempts to monopolize Augustine and to make him an ante-Reformation reformer, were certainly not wanting. Of course Luther had to admit that he did not find in Augustine justification by faith alone, that generating principle of all Protestantism; and Schaff tells us that he consoled himself with exclaiming (op. sit., p. 100): "Augustine has often erred, he is not to be trusted. Although good and holy, he was yet lacking in true faith as well as the other Fathers." But in general, the Reformation did not so easily fall into line, and for a long time it was customary to oppose the great name of Augustine to Catholicism. Article 20 of the Confession of Augsburg dares to ascribe to him justification without works, and Melanchthon invokes his authority in his "Apologia Confessionis." In the last thirty or forty years all has been changed, and the best Protestant critics now vie with one another in proclaiming the essentially Catholic character of Augustinian doctrine. In fact they go to extremes when they claim him to be the founder of Catholicism. It is thus that H. Reuter* concludes his very important studies on the Doctor of Hippo: "I consider Augustine the founder of Roman Catholicism in the West....This is no new discovery, as Kattenbusch seems to believe, but a truth long since recognized by Neander, Julius Köstlin, Dorner, Schmidt, ...etc.." Then, as to whether Evangelicalism is to be found in Augustine, he says: "Formerly this point was reasoned out very differently from what it is nowadays. The phrases so much in use from 1830 to 1870: Augustine is the Father of evangelical Protestantism and Pelagius is the Father of Catholicism, are now rarely met with. They have since been acknowledged to be untenable, although they contain a particula veri." Philip Schaff reaches the same conclusion; and Dorner says, "It is erroneous to ascribe to Augustine the ideas that inspired the Reformation." No one, however, has put this idea in a stronger light than Harnack. Quite recently, in his 14th lesson on "The Essence of Christianity," he characterized the Roman Church by three elements, the third of which is Augustinism, the thought and the piety of .htm-->St. Augustine. "In fact Augustine has exerted over the whole inner life of the Church, religious life and religious thought, an absolutely decisive influence." And again he says, "In the fifth century, at the hour when the Church inherited the Roman Empire, she had within her a man of extraordinarily deep and powerful genius: from him she took her ideas, and to this present hour she has been unable to break away from them." In his "History of Dogma" (English tr., V, 234, 235) the same critic dwells at length upon the features of what he calls the "popular Catholicism" to which Augustine belongs. These features are (a) the Church as a hierarchical institution with doctrinal authority; (b) eternal life by merits, and disregard of the Protestant thesis of "salvation by faith" — that is, salvation by that firm confidence in God which the certainty of pardon produces (c) the forgiveness of sins — in the Church and the Church; (d) the distinction between commands and counsel — between grievous sine and venial sins — the scale of wicked men and good men — the various degrees of happiness in heaven according to one's deserts; (e) Augustine is accused of "outdoing the superstitious ideas" of this popular Catholicism — the infinite value of Christ's satisfaction, salvation considered as enjoyment of God in heaven — the mysterious efficacy of the sacraments (ex opere operato) — Mary's virginity even in childbirth — the idea of her purity and her conception, unique in their kind." Harnack does not assert that Augustine taught the Immaculate Conception, but Schaff (op. cit., p. 98) says unhesitatingly: "He is responsible also for many grievous errors of the Roman Church...he anticipated the dogma of the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary, and his ominous word, Roma locuta est, causa finite est, might almost be quoted in favour of the Vatican decree of papal infallibility."
Nevertheless, it were a mistake to suppose that modern Protestants relinquish all claim upon Augustine; they will have it that, despite his essential Catholicism, it was he who inspired Luther and Calvin. The new thesis, therefore, is that each of the two Churches may claim him in turn. Burke's expression quoted by Schaff (ibid., p. 102) is characteristic: "In Augustine ancient and modern ideas are melted and to his authority the papal Church has as much right to appeal as the Churches of the Reformation." No one notes this contradiction more clearly than Loofs. After stating that Augustine has accentuated the characteristic elements of Western (Catholic) Christianity, that in succeeding ages he became its Father, and that "the Ecclesiasticism of Roman Catholicism, Scholasticism, Mysticism, and even the claims of the papacy to temporal rule, are founded upon a tendency initiated by him," Loofs also affirms that he is the teacher of all the reformers and their bond of union, and concludes with this strange paradox: "The history of Catholicism is the history of the progressive elimination of Augustinism." The singular aptitude of these critics for supposing the existence of flagrant contradictions in a genius like Augustine is not so astonishing when we remember that, with Reuter, they justify this theory by the reflection: "In whom are to be found more frequent contradictions than in Luther?" But their theories are based upon a false interpretation of Augustine's opinion, which is frequently misconstrued by those who are not sufficiently familiar with his language and terminology.
The character of his genius
The character of his genius
We have now to ascertain what is the dominating quality which accounts for his fascinating influence upon posterity. One after another the critics have considered the various aspects of this great genius. Some have been particularly impressed by the depth and originality of his conceptions, and for these Augustine is the great sower of the ideas by which future minds are to live. Others, like Jungmann and Stöckl, have praised in him the marvellous harmony of all the mind's higher qualities, or, again, the universality and the compass of his doctrine. "In the great African Doctor," says the Rev. J. A. Zahm (Bible, Science and Faith, Fr. tr., 56), "we seem to have found united and combined the powerful and penetrating logic of Plato, the deep scientific conceptions of Aristotle, the knowledge and intellectual suppleness of Origen, the grace and eloquence of Basil and Chrysostom. Whether we consider him as philosopher, as theologian, or as exegetist...he still appears admirable the unquestioned Master of all the centuries." Philip Schaff (op. cit., p. 97) admires above all "such a rare union of the speculative talent of the Greek and of the practical spirit of the Latin Church as he alone possessed." In all these opinions there is a great measure of truth; nevertheless we believe that the dominating characteristic of Augustine's genius and the true secret of his influence are to be found in his heart — a heart that penetrates the most exalted speculations of a profound mind and animates them with the most ardent feeling. It is at bottom only the traditional and general estimate of the saint that we express; for he has always been represented with a heart for his emblem, just as Thomas Aquinas with a sun. Mgr. Bougaud thus interpreted this symbol: "Never did man unite in one and the same soul such stern rigour of logic with such tenderness of heart." This is also the opinion of Harnack, Böhringer, Nourisson, Storz, and others. Great intellectuality admirably fused with an enlightened mysticism is Augustine's distinguishing characteristic. Truth is not for him only an object of contemplation; it is a good that must be possessed, that must be loved and lived by. What constitutes Augustine's genius is his marvellous gift of embracing truth with all the fibres of his soul; not with the heart alone, for the heart does not think; not with the mind alone, for the mind grasps only the abstract or, as it were, lifeless truth. Augustine seeks the living truth, and even when he is combating certain Platonic ideas he is of the family of Plato, not of Aristotle. He belongs indisputably to all ages because he is in touch with all souls, but he is preeminently modern because his doctrine is not the cold light of the School; he is living and penetrated with personal sentiment. Religion is not a simple theory, Christianity is not a series of dogmas; It Is also a life, as they say nowadays, or, more accurately, a source of life. However, let us not be deceived. Augustine is not a sentimentalist, a pure mystic, and heart alone does not account for his power. If in him the hard, cold intellectuality of the metaphysician gives place to an impassioned vision of truth, that truth is the basis of it all. He never knew the vaporous mysticism of our day, that allows itself to be lulled by a vague, aimless sentimentalism. His emotion is deep, true, engrossing, precisely because it is born of a strong, secure, accurate dogmatism that wishes to know what it loves and why it loves. Christianity is life, but life in the eternal, unchangeable truth. And if none of the Fathers has put so much of his heart into his writings, neither has any turned upon truth the searchlight of a stronger, clearer intellect.
Augustine's passion is characterized not by violence, but by a communicative tenderness; and his exquisite delicacy experiences first one and then another of the most intimate emotions and tests them; hence the irresistible effect of the "Confessions." Feuerlein, a Protestant thinker, has brought out in relief (exaggeratedly, to be sure, and leaving the marvellous powers of his intellect in the shade) Augustine's exquisite sensibility — what he calls the "feminine elements" of his genius. He says: "It was not merely a chance or accidental part that his mother, Monica, played in his intellectual development, and therein lies what essentially distinguishes him from Luther, of whom it was said: "Everything about him bespeaks the man". And Schlösser, whom Feuerlein quotes, is not afraid to say that Augustine's works contain more genuine poetry than all the writings of the Greek Fathers. At least it cannot be denied that no thinker ever caused so many and such salutary tears to flow. This characteristic of Augustine's genius explains his doctrinal work. Christian dogmas are considered in relation to the soul and the great duties of Christian life, rather than to themselves and in a speculative fashion. This alone explains his division of theology in the "Enchiridion," which at first sight seems so strange. He assembles all Christian doctrine in the three theological virtues, considering in the mysteries the different activities of the soul that must live by them. Thus, in the Incarnation, he assigns the greatest part to the moral side, to the triumph of humility. For this reason, also, Augustine's work bears an imprint, until then unknown, of living personality peeping out everywhere. He inaugurates that literature in which the author's individuality reveals itself in the most abstract matters, the "Confessions" being an inimitable example of it. It is in this connection that Harnack admires the African Doctor's gift of psychological observation and a captivating facility for portraying his penetrating observations. This talent, he says, is the secret of Augustine's originality and greatness. Again, it is this same characteristic that distinguishes him from the other Doctors and gives him his own special temperament. The practical side of a question appealed to the Roman mind of Ambrose, too, but he never rises to the same heights, nor moves the heart as deeply as does his disciple of Milan. Jerome is a, more learned exegetist, better equipped in respect of Scriptural erudition; he is even purer in his style; but, despite his impetuous ardour, he is less animated, less striking, than his correspondent of Hippo. Athanasius, too, is subtile in the metaphysical analysis of dogma, but he does not appeal to the heart and take hold of the soul like the African Doctor. Origen played the part of initiator in the Eastern Church, just as Augustine did in the Western, but his influence, unfortunate in more ways than one, was exercised rather in the sphere of speculative intelligence, while that of Augustine, owing to the qualities of his heart, extended far beyond the realm of theology. Bossuet, who of all geniuses most closely resembles Augustine by his elevation and his universality, is his superior in the skilfulness and artistic finish of his works, but he has not the alluring tenderness of soul; and if Augustine fulminates less, he attracts more powerfully, subjugating the mind with gentleness.
Thus may Augustine's universal influence in all succeeding ages be explained: it is due to combined gifts of heart and mind. Speculative genius alone does not sway the multitude; the Christian world, apart from professional theologians, does not read Thomas Aquinas. On the other hand, without the clear, definite idea of dogma, mysticism founders as soon as reason awakes and discovers the emptiness of metaphors: this is always the fate of vague pietism, whether it recognize Christ or not, whether It be extolled by Schleiermacher, Sabatier, or their disciples. But to Augustine's genius, at once enlightened and ardent, the whole soul is accessible, and the whole Church, both teachers and taught, is permeated by his sentiments and ideas. A. Harnack, more than any other critic, admires and describes Augustine's influence over all the life of Christian people. If Thomas Aquinas is the Doctor of the Schools, Augustine is, according to Harnack, the inspirer and restorer of Christian piety. If Thomas inspires the canons of Trent, Augustine, besides having formed Thomas himself, inspires the inner life of the Church and is the soul of all the great reforms effected within its pale. In his "Essence of Christianity" (14th lesson, 1900, p. 161) Harnack shows how Catholics and Protestants live upon the piety of Augustine. "His living has been incessantly relived in the course of the fifteen hundred years that have followed. Even to our days interior and living piety among Catholics, as well as the mode of its expression, has been essentially Augustinian: the soul is permeated by his sentiment, it feels as he felt and rethinks his thoughts. It is the same with many Protestants also, and they are by no means among the worst. And even those to whom dogma is but a relic of the past proclaim that Augustine's influence will live forever."
This genuine emotion is also the veil that hides certain faults from the reader or else makes him oblivious of them. Says Eucken: "Never could Augustine have exercised all the influence he has exercised if it had not been that, in spite of the rhetorical artifice of his utterance, absolute sincerity reigned in the inmost recesses of his soul." His frequent repetitions are excused because they are the expression of his deep feeling. Schaff says: "His books, with all the faults and repetitions of isolated parts, are a spontaneous outflow from the marvellous treasures of his highly-gifted mind and his truly pious heart." (St. Augustine, p. 96.) But we must also acknowledge that his passion is the source of exaggerations and at times of errors that are fraught with real danger for the inattentive or badly disposed reader. Out of sheer love for Augustine certain theologians have endeavoured to justify all he wrote, to admire all, and to proclaim him infallible, but nothing could be more detrimental to his glory than such excess of praise. The reaction already referred to arises partly from this. We must recognize that the passion for truth sometimes fixes its attention too much upon one side of a complex question; his too absolute formulæ, lacking qualification, false in appearance now in one sense now in another. "The oratorical temperament that was his in such a high degree," says Becker, very truly (Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique, 15 April, 1902, p. 379), "the kind of exaltation that befitted his rich imagination and his loving soul, are not the most reliable in philosophical speculations." Such is the origin of the contradictions alleged against him and of the errors ascribed to him by the predestinarians of all ages. Here we see the rôle of the more frigid minds of Scholasticism. Thomas Aquinas was a necessary corrective to Augustine. He is less great, less original, and, above all, less animated; but the calm didactics of his intellectualism enable him to castigate Augustine's exaggerations with rigorous criticism, to impart exactitude and precision to his terms — in one word, to prepare a dictionary with which the African Doctor may be read without danger.
His system of grace
His system of grace
It is unquestionably in the great Doctor's solution of the eternal problem of freedom and grace — of the part taken by God and by man, in the affair of salvation — that his thought stands forth as most personal, most powerful, and most disputed. Most personal, for he was the first of all to synthesize the great theories of the Fall, grace, and free will; and moreover it is he who, to reconcile them all, has furnished us with a profound explanation which is in very truth his, and of which we can find no trace in his predecessors. Hence, the term Augustinism is often exclusively used to designate his system of grace. Most powerful, for, as all admit, it was he above all others who won the triumph of liberty against the Manichæans, and of grace against the Pelagians. His doctrine has, in the main, been solemnly accepted by the Church, and we know that the canons of the Council of Orange are borrowed from his works. Most disputed, also.—Like St. Paul, whose teachings he develops, he has often been quoted, often not understood. Friends and enemies have exploited his teaching in the most diverse senses. It has not been grasped, not only by the opponents of liberty, and hence by the Reformers of the sixteenth century, but even today, by Protestant critics the most opposed to the cruel predestinationism of Calvin and Luther who father that doctrine on St. Augustine. A technical study would be out of place here; it will be sufficient to enunciate the most salient thoughts, to enable the reader to find his bearings.
(1) It is regarded as incontestable today that the system of Augustine was complete in his mind from the year 397 — that is, from the beginning of his episcopate, when he wrote his answers to the "quæstiones Diversæ" of Simplician. It is to this book that Augustine, in his last years, refers the Semipelagians for the explanation of his real thought. This important fact, to which for a long time no attention was paid, has been recognized by Neander and established by Gangaut, and also by recent critics, such as Loofs, Reuter, Turmel, Jules Martin (see also Cunningham, St. Austin, 1886, pp. 80 and 175). It will not, therefore, be possible to deny the authority of these texts on the pretext that Augustine in his old age adopted a system more antagonistic to liberty.
(2) The system of Pelagius can today be better understood than heretofore. Pelagius doubtless denied original sin, and the immortality and integrity of Adam; in a word, the whole supernatural order. But the parent idea of his system, which was of stoic origin, was nothing else than the complete "emancipation" of human liberty with regard to God, and its limitless power for good and for evil. It depended on man to attain by himself, without the grace of God, a stoic impeccability and even insensibility, or the absolute control of his passions. It was scarcely suspected, even up to our time, what frightful rigorism resulted from this exaggeration of the powers of liberty. Since perfection was possible, it was of obligation. There was no longer any distinction between precepts and counsels. Whatever was good was a duty. There was no longer any distinction between mortal and venial sin. Every useless word merited hell, and even excluded from the Church the children of God. All this has been established by hitherto unedited documents which Caspari has published (Briefe, Abhandlungen, und Predigten, Christiania, 1890).
(3) The system of St. Augustine in opposition to this rests on three fundamental principles:
- God is absolute Master, by His grace, of all the determinations of the will;
- man remains free, even under the action of grace;
- the reconciliation of these two truths rests on the manner of the Divine government.
Absolute sovereignty of God over the will
This principle, in opposition to the emancipation of Pelagius, has not always been understood in its entire significance. We think that numberless texts of the holy Doctor signify that not only does every meritorious act require supernatural grace, but also that every act of virtue, even of infidels, should be ascribed to a Gift of God, not indeed to a supernatural grace (as Baius and the Jansenists pretend), but to a specially efficacious providence which has prepared this good movement of the will (Retractations, I, ix, n. 6). It is not, as theologians very wisely remark, that the will cannot accomplish that act of natural virtue, but it is a fact that without this providential benefit it would not. Many misunderstandings have arisen because this principle has not been comprehended, and in particular the great medieval theology, which adopted it and made it the basis of its system of liberty, has not been justly appreciated. But many have been afraid of these affirmations which are so sweeping, because they have not grasped the nature of God's gift, which leaves freedom intact. The fact has been too much lost sight of that Augustine distinguishes very explicitly two orders of grace: the grace of natural virtues (the simple gift of Providence, which prepares efficacious motives for the will); and grace for salutary and supernatural acts, given with the first preludes of faith. The latter is the grace of the sons, gratia fliorum; the former is the grace of all men, a grace which even strangers and infidels (filii concubinarum, as St. Augustine says) can receive (De Patientiâ, xxvii, n. 28).
Man remains free, even under the action of grace
Man remains free, even under the action of grace
The second principle, the affirmation of liberty even under the action of efficacious grace, has always been safeguarded, and there is not one of his anti-Pelagian works even of the latest, which does not positively proclaim a complete power of choice in man; "not but what it does not depend on the free choice of the will to embrace the faith or reject it, but in the elect this will is prepared by God" (De Prædest. SS., n. 10). The great Doctor did not reproach the Pelagians with requiring a power to choose between good and evil; in fact he proclaims with them that without that power there is no responsibility, no merit, no demerit; but he reproaches them with exaggerating this power. Julian of Eclanum, denying the sway of concupiscence, conceives free will as a balance in perfect equilibrium. Augustine protests: this absolute equilibrium existed in Adam; it was destroyed after original sin; the will has to struggle and react against an inclination to evil, but it remains mistress of its choice (Opus imperfectum contra Julianum, III, cxvii). Thus, when he says that we have lost freedom in consequence of the sin of Adam, he is careful to explain that this lost freedom is not the liberty of choosing between good and evil, because without it we could not help sinning, but the perfect liberty which was calm and without struggle, and which was enjoyed by Adam in virtue of his original integrity.
The reconciliation of these two truths
The reconciliation of these two truths
But is there not between these two principles an irremediable antinomy? On the one hand, there is affirmed an absolute and unreserved power in God of directing the choice of our will, of converting every hardened sinner, or of letting every created will harden itself; and on the other hand, it is affirmed that the rejection or acceptance of grace or of temptation depends on our free will. Is not this a contradiction? Very many modern critics, among whom are Loofs and Harnack, have considered these two affirmations as irreconcilable. But it is because, according to them, Augustinian grace is an irresistible impulse given by God, just as in the absence of it every temptation inevitably overcomes the will. But in reality all antinomy disappears if we have the key of the system; and this key is found in the third principle: the Augustinian explanation of the Divine government of wills, a theory so original, so profound, and yet absolutely unknown to the most perspicacious critics, Harnack, Loofs, and the rest.
Here are the main lines of this theory: The will never decides without a motive, without the attraction of some good which it perceives in the object. Now, although the will may be free in presence of every motive, still, as a matter of fact it takes different resolutions according to the different motives presented to it. In that is the whole secret of the influence exercised, for instance, by eloquence (the orator can do no more than present motives), by meditation, or by good reading. What a power over the will would not a man possess who could, at his own pleasure, at any moment, and in the most striking manner, present this or the other motive of action? — But such is God's privilege. St. Augustine has remarked that man is not the master of his first thoughts; he can exert an influence on the course of his reflections, but he himself cannot determine the objects, the images, and, consequently, the motives which present themselves to his mind. Now, as chance is only a word, it is God who determines at His pleasure these first perceptions of men, either by the prepared providential action of exterior causes, or interiorly by a Divine illumination given to the soul. — let us take one last step with Augustine: Not only does God send at His pleasure those attractive motives which inspire the will with its determinations, but, before choosing between these illuminations of the natural and the supernatural order, God knows the response which the soul, with all freedom, will make to each of them. Thus, in the Divine knowledge, there is for each created will an indefinite series of motives which de facto (but very freely) win the consent to what is good. God, therefore, can, at His pleasure, obtain the salvation of Judas, if He wishes, or let Peter go down to perdition. No freedom, as a matter of fact, will resist what He has planned, although it always keeps the power of going to perdition. Consequently, it is God alone, in His perfect independence, who determines, by the choice of such a motive or such an inspiration (of which he knows the future influence), whether the will is going to decide for good or for evil. Hence, the man who has acted well must thank God for having sent him an inspiration which was foreseen to be efficacious, while that favour has been denied to another. A fortiori, every one of the elect owes it to the Divine goodness alone that he has received a series of graces which God saw to be infallibly, though freely, bound up with final perseverance.
Assuredly we may reject this theory, for the Church, which always maintains the two principles of the absolute dependence of the will and of freedom, has not yet adopted as its own this reconciliation of the two extremes. We may ask where and how God knows the effect of these graces. Augustine has always affirmed the fact; he has never inquired about the mode; and it is here that Molinism has added to and developed his thoughts, in attempting to answer this question. But can the thinker, who created and until his dying day maintained this system which is so logically concatenated, be accused of fatalism and Manichæism?
It remains to be shown that our interpretation exactly reproduces the thought of the great Doctor. The texts are too numerous and too long to be reproduced here. But there is one work of Augustine, dating from the year 397, in which he clearly explains his thought — a work which he not only did not disavow later on, but to which in particular he referred, at the end of his career, those of his readers who were troubled by his constant affirmation of grace. For example, to the monks of Adrumetum who thought that liberty was irreconcilable with this affirmation, he addressed a copy of this book "De Diversis quæstionibus ad Simplicianum," feeling sure that their doubts would be dissipated. There, in fact, he formulates his thoughts with great clearness. Simplician had asked how he should understand the Epistle to the Romans 9, on the predestination of Jacob and Esau. Augustine first lays down the fundamental principle of St. Paul, that every good will comes from grace, so that no man can take glory to himself for his merits, and this grace is so sure of its results that human liberty will never in reality resist it, although it has the power to do so. Then he affirms that this efficacious grace is not necessary for us to be able to act well, but because, in fact, without it we would not wish to act well. From that arises the great difficulty: How does the power of resisting grace fit in with the certainty of the result? And it is here that Augustine replies: There are many ways of inviting faith. Souls being differently disposed, God knows what invitation will be accepted, what other will not be accepted. Only those are the elect for whom God chooses the invitation which is foreseen to be efficacious, but God could convert them all: "Cujus autem miseretur, sic cum vocat, quomodo scit ei congruere ut vocantem non respuat" (op. cit., I, q. ii, n. 2, 12, 13).
Is there in this a vestige of an irresistible grace or of that impulse against which it is impossible to fight, forcing some to good, and others to sin and hell? It cannot be too often repeated that this is not an idea flung off in passing, but a fundamental explanation which if not understood leaves us in the impossibility of grasping anything of his doctrine; but if it is seized Augustine entertains no feelings of uneasiness on the score of freedom. In fact he supposes freedom everywhere, and reverts incessantly to that knowledge on God's part which precedes predestination, directs it, and assures its infallible result. In the "De Done perseverantiæ" (xvii, n. 42), written at the end of his life, he explains the whole of predestination by the choice of the vocation which is foreseen as efficacious. Thus is explained the chief part attributed to that external providence which prepares, by ill health, by warnings, etc., the good thoughts which it knows will bring about good resolutions. Finally, this explanation alone harmonizes with the moral action which he attributes to victorious grace. Nowhere does Augustine represent it as an irresistible impulse impressed by the stronger on the weaker. It is always an appeal, an invitation which attracts and seeks to persuade. He describes this attraction, which is without violence, under the graceful image of dainties offered to a child, green leaves offered to a sheep (In Joannem, tract. xxvi, n. 5). And always the infallibility of the result is assured by the Divine knowledge which directs the choice of the invitation.
(4) The Augustinian predestination presents no new difficulty if one has understood the function of this Divine knowledge in the choice of graces. The problem is reduced to this: Does God in his creative decree and, before any act of human liberty, determine by an immutable choice the elect and the reprobate? — Must the elect during eternity thank God only for having rewarded their merits, or must they also thank Him for having, prior to any merit on their part, chosen them to the meriting of this reward? One system, that of the Semipelagians, decides in favour of man: God predestines to salvation all alike, and gives to all an equal measure of grace; human liberty alone decides whether one is lost or saved; from which we must logically conclude (and they really insinuated it) that the number of the elect is not fixed or certain. The opposite system, that of the Predestinationists (the Semipelagians falsely ascribed this view to the Doctor of Hippo), affirms not only a privileged choice of the elect by God, but at the same time (a) the predestination of the reprobate to hell and (b) the absolute powerlessness of one or the other to escape from the irresistible impulse which drags them either to good or to evil. This is the system of Calvin.
Between these two extreme opinions Augustine formulated (not invented) the Catholic dogma, which affirms these two truths at the same time:
- the eternal choice of the elect by God is very real, very gratuitous, and constitutes the grace of graces;
- but this decree does not destroy the Divine will to save all men, which, moreover, is not realized except by the human liberty that leaves to the elect full power to fall and to the non-elect full power to rise.
Here is how the theory of St. Augustine, already explained, forces us to conceive of the Divine decree: Before all decision to create the world, the infinite knowledge of God presents to Him all the graces, and different series of graces, which He can prepare for each soul, along with the consent or refusal which would follow in each circumstance, and that in millions and millions of possible combinations. Thus He sees that if Peter had received such another grace, he would not have been converted; and if on the contrary such another Divine appeal had been heard in the heart of Judas, he would have done penance and been saved. Thus, for each man in particular there are in the thought of God, limitless possible histories, some histories of virtue and salvation, others of crime and damnation; and God will be free in choosing such a world, such a series of graces, and in determining the future history and final destiny of each soul. And this is precisely what He does when, among all possible worlds, by an absolutely free act, He decides to realize the actual world with all the circumstances of its historic evolutions, with all the graces which in fact have been and will be distributed until the end of the world, and consequently with all the elect and all the reprobate who God foresaw would be in it if de facto He created it.
Now in the Divine decree, according to Augustine, and according to the Catholic Faith on this point, which has been formulated by him, the two elements pointed out above appear:
- The certain and gratuitous choice of the elect — God decreeing, indeed, to create the world and to give it such a series of graces with such a concatenation of circumstances as should bring about freely, but infallibly, such and such results (for example, the despair of Judas and the repentance of Peter), decides, at the same time, the name, the place, the number of the citizens of the future heavenly Jerusalem. The choice is immutable; the list closed. It is evident, indeed, that only those of whom God knows beforehand that they will wish to co-operate with the grace decreed by Him will be saved. It is a gratuitous choice, the gift of gifts, in virtue of which even our merits are a gratuitous benefit, a gift which precedes all our merits. No one, in fact, is able to merit this election. God could, among other possible worlds, have chosen one in which other series of graces would have brought about other results. He saw combinations in which Peter would have been impenitent and Judas converted. It is therefore prior to any merit of Peter, or any fault of Judas, that God decided to give them the graces which saved Peter and not Judas. God does not wish to give paradise gratuitously to any one; but He gives very gratuitously to Peter the graces with which He knows Peter will be saved. — Mysterious choice! Not that it interferes with liberty, but because to this question: Why did not God, seeing that another grace would have saved Judas, give it to him? Faith can only answer, with Augustine: O Mystery! O Altitudo! (De Spiritu et litterâ, xxxiv, n. 60).
- But this decree includes also the second element of the Catholic dogma: the very sincere will of God to give to all men the power of saving themselves and the power of damning themselves. According to Augustine, God, in his creative decree, has expressly excluded every order of things in which grace would deprive man of his liberty, every situation in which man would not have the power to resist sin, and thus Augustine brushes aside that predestinationism which has been attributed to him. Listen to him speaking to the Manichæans: "All can be saved if they wish"; and in his "Retractations" (I, x), far from correcting this assertion, he confirms it emphatically: "It is true, entirely true, that all men can, if they wish." But he always goes back to the providential preparation. In his sermons he says to all: "It depends on you to be elect" (In Ps. cxx, n. 11, etc.); "Who are the elect? You, if you wish it" (In Ps. lxxiii, n. 5). But, you will say, according to Augustine, the lists of the elect and reprobate are closed. Now if the non-elect can gain heaven, if all the elect can be lost, why should not some pass from one list to the other? You forget the celebrated explanation of Augustine: When God made His plan, He knew infallibly, before His choice, what would be the response of the wills of men to His graces. If, then, the lists are definitive, if no one will pass from one series to the other, it is not because anyone cannot (on the contrary, all can), it is because God knew with infallible knowledge that no one would wish to. Thus I cannot effect that God should destine me to another series of graces than that which He has fixed, but, with this grace, if I do not save myself it will not be because I am not able, but because I do not wish to.
Such are the two essential elements of Augustinian and Catholic predestination. This is the dogma common to all the schools, and formulated by all theologians: predestination in its entirety is absolutely gratuitous (ante merita). We have to insist on this, because many have seen in this immutable and gratuitous choice only a hard thesis peculiar to St. Augustine, whereas it is pure dogma (barring the mode of conciliation, which the Church still leaves free). With that established, the long debates of theologians on special predestination to glory ante or post merita are far from having the importance that some attach to them. (For a fuller treatment of this subtile problem see the "Dict. de théol. cath., I, coll. 2402 sqq.) I do not think St. Augustine entered that debate; in his time, only dogma was in question. But it does not seem historically permissible to maintain, as many writers have, that Augustine first taught the milder system (post merita), up to the year 416 (Tractate 12 on the Gospel of John, no. 12) and that afterwards, towards 418, he shifted his ground and went to the extreme of harsh assertion, amounting even to predestinationism. We repeat, the facts absolutely refute this view. The ancient texts, even of 397, are as affirmative and as categorical as those of his last years, as critics like Loofs and Reuter* have shown. If, therefore, it is shown that at that time he inclined to the milder opinion, there is no reason to think that he did not persevere in that sentiment.
(5) The part which Augustine had in the doctrine of Original Sin has been brought to light and determined only recently.
In the first place, It is no longer possible to maintain seriously, as was formerly the fashion (even among certain Catholics, like Richard Simon), that Augustine invented in the Church the hitherto unknown doctrine of original sin, or at least was the first to introduce the idea of punishment and sin. Dorner himself (Augustinus, p. 146) disposed of this assertion, which lacks verisimilitude. In this doctrine of the primal fall Augustine distinguished, with greater insistency and clearness than his predecessors, the punishment and the sin — the chastisement which strips the children of Adam of all the original privileges — and the fault, which consists in this, that the crime of Adam, the cause of the fall is, without having been committed personally by his children, nevertheless in a certain measure imputed to them, in virtue of the moral union established by God between the head of the human family and his descendants.
To pretend that in this matter Augustine was an innovator, and that before him the Fathers affirmed the punishment of the sin of Adam in his sons, but did not speak of the fault, is a historical error now proved to demonstration. We may discuss the thought of this or that pre Augustinian Father, but, taking them as a whole, there is no room for doubt. The Protestant R. Seeberg (Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte, I, p. 256), after the example of many others, proclaims it by referring to Tertullian, Commodian, St. Cyprian, and St. Ambrose. The expressions, fault, sin, stain (culpa, peccatum, macula) are repeated in a way to dispel all doubt. The truth is that original sin, while being sin, is of a nature essentially different from other faults, and does not exact a personal act of the will of the children of Adam in order to be responsible for the fault of their father, which is morally imputed to them. Consequently, the Fathers — the Greeks especially — have insisted on its penal and afflictive character, which is most in evidence, while Augustine was led by the polemics of the Pelagians (and only by them) to lay emphasis on the moral aspect of the fault of the human race in its first father.
With regard to Adam's state before the fall Augustine not only affirmed, against Pelagius, the gifts of immortality, impassibility, integrity, freedom from error, and, above all, the sanctifying grace of Divine adoption, but he emphasized its absolutely gratuitous and supernatural character. Doubtless, considering the matter historically and de facto, it was only the sin of Adam that inflicted death on us — Augustine repeats it again and again — because God had safeguarded us against the law of our nature. But de jure neither immortality nor the other graces were our due, and Augustine recognized this in affirming that God could have made the condition in which we were actually born the primitive condition of our first parents. That assertion alone is the very reverse of Jansenism. It is, moreover, formally confirmed in the "Retractations" (I, ix, n. 6).
(6) Does this mean that we must praise everything in St. Augustine's explanation of grace? Certainly not. And we shall note the improvements made by the Church, through her doctors, in the original Augustinism. Some exaggerations have been abandoned, as, for instance, the condemnation to hell of children dying without baptism. Obscure and ambiguous formulæ have been eliminated. We must say frankly that Augustine's literary method of emphasizing his thought by exaggerated expressions, issuing in troublesome paradoxes, has often obscured his doctrine, aroused opposition in many minds, or led them into error. Also, it is above all important, in order to comprehend his doctrine, to compile an Augustinian dictionary, not a priori, but after an objective study of his texts. The work would be long and laborious, but how many prejudices it would dispel!
The Protestant historian Ph. Schaff (St. Augustine, p. 102) writes: "The great genius of the African Church, from whom the Middle Ages and the Reformation have received an impulse alike powerful, though in different directions, has not yet fulfilled the work marked out for him in the counsels of Divine Wisdom. He serves as a bond of union between the two antagonistic sections of Western Christendom, and encourages the hope that a time may come when the injustice and bitterness of strife will be forgiven and forgotten, and the discords of the past be drowned forever in the sweet harmonies of perfect knowledge and perfect love." May this dream be realized!
Augustinism in history
Augustinism in history
The influence of the Doctor of Hippo has been so exceptional in the Church, that, after having indicated its general characteristics (see above), it is proper to indicate the principal phases of the historical development of his doctrine. The word Augustinism designates at times the entire group of philosophical doctrines of Augustine, at others, it is restricted to his system of grace. Hence, (1) philosophical Augustinism; (2) theological Augustinism on grace; (3) laws which governed the mitigation of Augustinism.
In the history of philosophical Augustinism we may distinguish three very distinct phases. First, the period of its almost exclusive triumph in the West, up to the thirteenth century. During the long ages which were darkened by the invasion of the barbarians, but which were nevertheless burdened with the responsibility of safeguarding the sciences of the future, we may say that Augustine was the Great Master of the West. He was absolutely without a rival, or if there was one, it was one of his disciples, Gregory the Great, who, after being formed in his school, popularized his theories. The rôle of Origen, who engrafted neo-Platonism on the Christian schools of the East, was that of Augustine in the West, with the difference, however, that the Bishop of Hippo was better able to detach the truths of Platonism from the dreams of Oriental imagination. Hence, a current of Platonic ideas was started which will never cease to act upon Western thought. This influence shows itself in various ways. It is found in the compilers of this period, who are so numerous and so well deserving of recognition — such as Isidore, Bede, Alcuin — who drew abundantly from the works of Augustine, just as did the preachers of the sixth century, and notably St. Cæsarius. In the controversies, especially in the great disputes of the ninth and twelfth centuries on the validity of Simoniacal ordinations, the text of Augustine plays the principal part. Carl Mirbt has published on this point a very interesting study: "Die Stellung Augustins in der Publizistik des gregorianischen Kirchenstreits" (Leipzig, 1888). In the pre-Thomistic period of Scholasticism, then in process of formation, namely, from Anselm to Albert the Great, Augustine is the great inspirer of all the masters, such as Anselm, Abelard, Hugo of St. Victor, who is called by his contemporaries, another Augustine, or even the soul of Augustine. And it is proper to remark, with Cunningham (Saint Austin, p. 178), that from the time of Anselm the cult of Augustinian ideas exercised an enormous influence on English thought in the Middle Ages. As regards Peter Lombard, his Sentences are little else than an effort to synthesize the Augustinian theories.
While they do not form a system as rigidly bound together as Thomism, yet Father Mandonnet (in his learned study of Siger de Brabant) and M. de Wulf (on Gilles de Lessines) have been able to group these theories together. And here let us present a summary sketch of those theses regarded in the thirteenth century as Augustinian, and over which the battle was fought. First, the fusion of theology and philosophy; the preference given to Plato over Aristotle — the latter representing rationalism, which was mistrusted, whilst the idealism of Plate exerted a strong attraction — wisdom regarded rather as the philosophy of the Good than the philosophy of the True. As a consequence, the disciples of Augustine always have a pronounced tinge of mysticism, while the disciples of St. Thomas may be recognized by their very accentuated intellectualism. In psychology the illuminating and immediate action of God is the origin of our intellectual knowledge (at times it is pure ontologism); and the faculties of the soul are made substantially identical with the soul itself. They are its functions, and not distinct entities (a thesis which was to keep its own partisans in the Scholasticism of the future and to be adopted by Descartes); the soul is a substance even without the body, so that after death, it is truly a person. In cosmology, besides the celebrated thesis of rationes seminales, which some have recently attempted to interpret in favour of evolutionism, Augustinism admitted the multiplicity of substantial forms in compound beings, especially in man. But especially in the impossibility of creation ab æterno, or the essentially temporal character of every creature which is subject to change, we have one of the ideas of Augustine which his disciples defended with greater constancy and, it would appear, with greater success.
A second period of very active struggles came in the thirteenth century, and this has only lately been recognized. Renan (Averroes, p. 259) and others believed that the war against Thomism, which was just then beginning, was caused by the infatuation of the Franciscans for Averroism; but if the Franciscan Order showed itself on the whole opposed to St. Thomas, it was simply from a certain horror at philosophical innovations and at the neglect of Augustinism. The doctrinal revolution brought about by Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas in favour of Aristotle startled the old School of Augustinism among the Dominicans as well as among the Franciscans, but especially among the latter, who were the disciples of the eminent Augustinian doctor, St. Bonaventure. This will explain the condemnations, hitherto little understood, of many propositions of St. Thomas Aquinas three years after his death, on the 7th of March, 1277, by the Bishop of Paris, and on the 18th of March, 1277, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Kilwardby, a Dominican. The Augustinian school represented tradition; Thomism, progress. The censure of 1277 was the last victory of a too rigid Augustinism. The happy fusion of the two methods in the two orders of Franciscans and Dominicans little by little brought about an agreement on certain points without excluding differences on others which were yet obscure (as, for instance, the unity or the multiplicity of forms), at the same time that it made for progress in all the schools. We know that the canonization of St. Thomas caused the withdrawal of the condemnations of Paris (14 February, 1325). Moreover, the wisdom or the moderation of the new school contributed powerfully to its triumph. Albert the Great and St. Thomas, far from being adversaries of St. Augustine, as they were reported to be, placed themselves in his school, and while modifying certain theories, took over into their system the doctrine of the African bishop. How many articles in the "Summa" of St. Thomas have no other object than to incorporate in theology this or the other theory which was cherished by St. Augustine (to take only one example, that of exemplar ideas in God). Hence, there was no longer any school strictly Augustinian, because every school was such. They all eliminated certain special points and retained the same veneration for the master.
From the third period of the fifteenth century to our days we see less of the special progress of philosophical Augustinism than certain tendencies of an exaggerated revival of Platonism. In the fifteenth century Bessarion (1472) and Marsilio Ficino (1499) used Augustine's name for the purpose of enthroning Plato in the Church and excluding Aristotle. In the seventeenth century it is impossible to deny certain resemblances between Cartesianism and the philosophy of St. Augustine. Malebranche was wrong in ascribing his own ontologism to the great Doctor, as were also many of his successors in the nineteenth century.
The history of Augustine's system of grace seems to blend almost indistinguishably with the progressive developments of this dogma. Here it must suffice, first, to enumerate the principal phases; secondly, to trace the general laws of development which mitigated Augustinism in the Church.
After the death of Augustine, a whole century of fierce contests (430-529) ended in the triumph of fierce contests (430-529) ended in the triumph of moderate Augustinism. In vain had Pope St. Celestine (431) sanctioned the teachings of the Doctor of Hippo. The Semipelagians of the south of France could not understand the predilection of God for the elect, and in order to attack the works of St. Augustine they made use of the occasionally exaggerated formulæ of St. Fulgentius, or of the real errors of certain isolated predestinationists, as, for example, Lucidus, who was condemned in the Council of Arles (475). Happily, Prosper of Aquitaine, by his moderation, and also the unknown author of "De Vocatione omnium gentium," by his consoling thesis on the appeal addressed to all, opened the way to an agreement. And finally, St. Cæsarius of Arles obtained from Pope Felix IV a series of Capitula which were solemnly promulgated at Orange, and gave their consecration to the triumph of Augustinism (529). In the ninth century, a new victory was gained over the predestinationism of Gottschalk in the assemblies of Savonniéres and Toucy (859-860). The doctrine of the Divine will to save all men and the universality of redemption was thus consecrated by the public teaching of the Church. In the Middle Ages these two truths are developed by the great Doctors of the Church. Faithful to the principles of Augustinism, they place in especial relief his theory on Divine Providence, which prepares at its pleasure the determinations of the will by exterior events and interior inspirations.
In the fourteenth century a strong current of predestinationism is evident. Today it is admitted that the origin of this tendency goes back to Thomas Bradwardin, a celebrated professor of Oxford, who died Archbishop of Canterbury (1349), and whom the best critics, along with Loofs and Harnack, recognize to have been the inspirer of Wyclif himself. His book "De causâ Dei contra Pelagium" gave rise in Paris to disputes on Augustinian "predetermination," a word which, it had been thought, was invented by Banes in the sixteenth century. In spite of the opposition of theologians, the idea of absolute determinism in the name of St. Augustine was adopted by Wyclif (1324-87), who formulated his universal fatalism, the necessity of good for the elect and of evil for the rest. He fancied that he found in the Augustinian doctrine the strange conception which became for him a central doctrine that overthrew all morality and all ecclesiastical, and even civil, government. According as one is predestined or not, everything changes its nature. The same sins are mortal in the non-elect which are venial in the predestined. The same acts of virtue are meritorious predestined, even if he be actually a wicked man which are of no value in the non-elect. The sacraments administered by one who is not predestined are always invalid; more than that, no jurisdiction exists in a prelate, even a pope, if he be not predestined. In the same way, there is no power, even civil or political, in a prince who is not one of the elect, and no right of property in the sinner or the non elect. Such is the basis on which Wyclif established the communism which aroused the socialist mobs in England. It is incontestable that he was fond of quoting Augustine as his authority; and his disciples, as we are assured by Thomas Netter Waldensis (Doctrinale, I, xxxiv, § 5), were continually boasting of the profound knowledge of their great Doctor, whom they called with emphasis "John of Augustine," Shirley, in his introduction to "Zizaniorum Fasciculi," has even pretended that the theories of Wyclif on God, on the Incarnation, and even on property, were the purest Augustinian inspiration, but even a superficial comparison, if this were the place to make it, would show how baseless such an assertion is. In the sixteenth century the heritage of Wyclif and Hus, his disciple, was always accepted in the name of Augustinism by the leaders of the Reformation. Divine predestination from all eternity separating the elect, who were to be snatched out of the mass of perdition, from the reprobate who were destined to hell, as well as the irresistible impulse of God drawing some to salvation and others to sin — such was the fundamental doctrine of the Reformation. Calvinism even adopted a system which was "logically more consistent, but practically more revolting," as Schaff puts it (St. Augustine, p. 104), by which the decree of reprobation of the non-elect would be independent of the fall of Adam and of original sin (Supralapsarianism). It was certain that these harsh doctrines would bring their reaction, and in spite of the severities of the Synod of Dordrecht, which it would be interesting to compare with the Council of Trent in the matter of moderation, Arminianism triumphed over the Calvinistic thesis.
We must note here that even Protestant critics, with a loyalty which does them honour, have in these latter times vindicated Augustine from the false interpretations of Calvin. Dorner, in his "Gesch. der prot. Théologie," had already shown the instinctive repugnance of Anglican theologians to the horrible theories of Calvin. W. Cunningham (Saint Austin, p. 82 sqq.) has very frankly called attention to the complete doctrinal opposition on fundamental points which exists between the Doctor of Hippo and the French Reformers. In the first place, as regards the state of human nature, which is, according to Calvin, totally depraved, for Catholics it is very difficult to grasp the Protestant conception of original sin which, for Calvin and Luther, is not, as for us, the moral degradation and the stain imprinted on the soul of every son of Adam by the fault of the father which is imputable to each member of the family. It is not the deprivation of grace and of all other super-natural gifts; it is not even concupiscence, understood in the ordinary sense of the word, as the struggle of base and selfish instincts against the virtuous tendencies of the soul; it is a profound and complete subversion of human nature' it is the physical alteration of the very substance of our soul. Our faculties, understanding, and will, if not entirely destroyed, are at least mutilated, powerless, and chained to evil. For the Reformers, original sin is not a sin, it is the sin, and the permanent sin, living in us and causing a continual stream of new sins to spring from our nature, which is radically corrupt and evil. For, as our being is evil, every act of ours is equally evil. Thus, the Protestant theologians do not ordinarily speak of the sins of mankind, but only of the sin, which makes us what we are and defiles everything. Hence arose the paradox of Luther: that even in an act of perfect charity a man sins mortally, because he acts with a vitiated nature. Hence that other paradox: that this sin can never be effaced, but remains entire, even after justification, although it will not be any longer imputed; to efface it, it would be necessary to modify physically this human being which is sin. Calvin, without going so far as Luther, has nevertheless insisted on this total corruption. "Let it stand, therefore, as an indubitable truth which no engines can shake," says he (Institution II, v, § 19), "that the mind of man is so entirely alienated from the righteousness of God that he cannot conceive, desire, or design anything but what is weak, distorted, foul, impure or iniquitous, that his heart is so thoroughly environed by sin that it can breathe out nothing but corruption and rottenness; that if some men occasionally make a show of goodness their mind is ever interwoven with hypocrisy and deceit, their soul inwardly bound with the fetters of wickedness." "Now," says Cunningham, "this doctrine, whatever there may be to be said for it, is not the doctrine of Saint Austin. He held that sin is the defect of a good nature which retains elements of goodness, even in its most diseased and corrupted state, and he gives no countenance, whatever to this modern opinion of total depravity." It is the same with Calvin's affirmation of the irresistible action of God on the will. Cunningham shows that these doctrines are irreconcilable with liberty and responsibility, whereas, on the contrary, "St. Austin is careful to attempt to harmonize the belief in God's omnipotence with human responsibility" (St. Austin, p. 86). The Council of Trent was therefore faithful to the true spirit of the African Doctor, and maintained pure Augustinism in the bosom of the Church, by Its definitions against the two opposite excesses. Against Pelagianism it reaffirmed original sin and the absolute necessity of grace (Sess. VI, can. 2); against Protestant predestinationism it proclaimed the freedom of man, with his double power of resisting grace (posse dissentire si velit — Sess. VI, can. 4) and of doing good or evil, even before embracing the Faith (can. 6 and 7).
In the seventeenth century Jansenism adopted, while modifying it, the Protestant conception of original sin and the state of fallen man. No more than Luther did the Jansenists admit the two orders, natural and supernatural. All the gifts which Adam had received immortality, knowledge, integrity, sanctifying grace — are absolutely required by the nature of man. Original sin is, therefore, again regarded as a profound alteration of human nature. From which the Jansenists conclude that the key to St. Augustine's system is to be found in the essential difference of the Divine government and of grace, before and after the Fall of Adam. Before the Fall Adam enjoyed complete liberty, and grace gave him the power of resisting or obeying; after the Fall there was no longer in men liberty properly so called; there was only spontaneity (libertas a coactione, and not libertas a necessitate). Grace, or delectation in the good, is essentially efficacious, and necessarily victorious once it is superior in degree to the opposite concupiscence. The struggle, which was prolonged for two centuries, led to a more profound study of the Doctor of Hippo and prepared the way for the definite triumph of Augustinism, but of an Augustinism mitigated in accordance with laws which we must now indicate.
Laws which governed the mitigation of Augustinism
Laws which governed the mitigation of Augustinism
In spite of what Protestant critics may have said, the Church has always been faithful to the fundamental principles defended by Augustine against the Pelagians and Semipelagians, on original sin, the necessity and gratuity of grace, the absolute dependence on God for salvation. Nevertheless, great progress was made along the line of gradual mitigation. For it cannot be denied that the doctrine formulated at Trent, and taught by all our theologians, produces an impression of greater suavity and greater clarity than this or that passage in the works of St. Augustine. The causes of this softening down, and the successive phases of this progress were as follows:
- First, theologians began to distinguish more clearly between the natural order and the supernatural, and hence the Fall of Adam no longer appeared as a corruption of human nature in its constituent parts; it is the loss of the whole order of supernatural elevation. St. Thomas (Summa, I:85:1) formulates the great law of the preservation, in guilty Adam's children, of all the faculties in their essential integrity: "Sin (even original) neither takes away nor diminishes the natural endowments." Thus the most rigorist Thomists, Alvarez, Lemos, Contenson, agree with the great Doctor that the sin of Adam has not enfeebled (intrinsece) the natural moral forces of humanity.
- Secondly, such consoling and fundamental truths as God's desire to save all men, and the redeeming death of Christ which was really offered and accepted for all peoples and all individuals — these truths, which Augustine never denied, but which he left too much in the background and as it were hidden under the terrible formulas of the doctrine of predestination, have been placed in the full light, have been developed, and applied to infidel nations, and have at last entered into the ordinary teaching of theology. Thus our Doctors, without detracting in the least from the sovereignty and justice of God, have risen to the highest idea of His goodness: that God so sincerely desires the salvation of all as to give absolutely to all, immediately or mediately, the means necessary for salvation, and always with the desire that man should consent to employ those means. No one falls into hell except by his own fault. Even infidels will be accountable for their infidelity. St. Thomas expresses the thought of all when he says: "It is the common teaching that if a man born among the barbarous and infidel nations really does what lies in his power, God will reveal to him what is necessary for salvation, either by interior inspirations or by sending him a preacher of the Faith" (In Lib. II Sententiarum, dist. 23, Q. viii, a.4, ad 4am). We must not dissemble the fact that this law changes the whole aspect of Divine Providence, and that St. Augustine had left it too much in the shade, insisting only upon the other aspect of the problem: namely, that God, while making a sufficing appeal to all, is nevertheless not bound to choose always that appeal which shall in fact be efficacious and shall be accepted, provided that the refusal of consent be due to the obstinacy of the sinner's will and not to its lack of power. Thus the Doctors most eagerly approved the axiom, Facienti quod in se est Deus non denegat gratiam — God does not refuse grace to one who does what he can.
- Thirdly, from principles taught by Augustine consequences have been drawn which are clearly derived from them, but which he had not pointed out. Thus it is incontestably a principle of St. Augustine that no one sins in an act which he cannot avoid — "Quis enim peccat in eo quod caveri non potest?" This passage from "De libero arbitrio" (III, xviii, n. 50) is anterior to the year 395; but far from retracting it he approves and explains it, in 415, in the On Nature and Grace 67, n. 80. From that pregnant principle theologians have concluded, first, that grace sufficient to conquer temptations never fails anyone, even an infidel; then, against the Jansenists, they have added that, to deserve its name of sufficient grace, it ought to give a real power which is complete even relatively to the actual difficulties. No doubt theologians have groped about, hesitated, even denied; but today there are very few who would dare not to recognize in St. Augustine the affirmation of the possibility of not sinning.
- Fourthly, certain secondary assertions, which encumbered, but did not make part of the dogma, have been lopped off from the doctrine of Augustine. Thus the Church, which, with Augustine, has always denied entrance into Heaven to unbaptized children, has not adopted the severity of the great Doctor in condemning such children to bodily pains, however slight. And little by little the milder teaching of St. Thomas was to prevail in theology and was even to be vindicated against unjust censure when Pius VI condemned the pseudo-synod of Pistoja. At last Augustine's obscure formulæ were abandoned or corrected, so as to avoid regrettable confusions. Thus the expressions which seemed to identify original sin with concupiscence have given way to clearer formulæ without departing from the real meaning which Augustine sought to express.
Discussion, however, is not yet ended within the Church. On most of those points which concern especially the manner of the Divine action Thomists and Molinists disagree, the former holding out for an irresistible predetermination, the latter maintaining, with Augustine, a grace whose infallible efficacy is revealed by the Divine knowledge. But both of these views affirm the grace of God and the liberty of man. The lively controversies aroused by the "Concordia" of Molina (1588) and the long conferences de auxiliis held at Rome, before Popes Clement VIII and Paul V, are well known. There is no doubt that a majority of the theologian-consultors thought they discovered an opposition between Molina and St. Augustine. But their verdict was not approved, and (what is of great importance in the history of Augustinism) it is certain that they asked for the condemnation of doctrines which are today universally taught in all the schools. Thus, in the project of censure reproduced by Serry ("Historia Congregationis de Auxiliis," append., p. 166) the first proposition is this: "In statu naturæ lapsæ potest homo, cum solo concursu generali Dei, efficere opus bonum morale, quod in ordine ad finem hominis naturalem sit veræ virtutis opus, referendo illud in Deum, sicut referri potest ac deberet in statu naturali" (In the state of fallen nature man can with only the general concursus of God do a good moral work which may be a work of true virtue with regard to the natural end of man by referring it to God, as it can and ought to be referred in the natural state). Thus they sought to condemn the doctrine held by all the Scholastics (with the exception of Gregory of Rimini), and sanctioned since then by the condemnation of Proposition lvii of Baius. For a long time it was said that the pope had prepared a Bull to condemn Molina; but today we learn from an autograph document of Paul V that liberty was left to the two schools until a new Apostolic decision was given (Schneeman "Controversiarum de Div. grat., " 1881, p. 289). Soon after, a third interpretation of Augustinism was offered in the Church, that of Noris, Belleli, and other partisans of moral predetermination. This system has been called Augustinianism. To this school belong a number of theologians who, with Thomassin, essayed to explain the infallible action of grace without admitting either the scientia media of the Molinists or the physical predetermination of the Thomists. A detailed study of this interpretation of St. Augustine may be found in Vacant's "Dictionnaire de théologie catholique," I, cols. 2485-2501; here I can only mention one very important document, the last in which the Holy See has expressed its mind on the various theories of theologians for reconciling grace and liberty. This is the Brief of Benedict XIV (13 July, 1748) which declares that the three schools — Thomist, Augustinian (Noris), and Molinist — have full right to defend their theories. The Brief concludes with these words: "This Apostolic See favours the liberty of the schools; none of the systems proposed to reconcile the liberty of man with the omnipotence of God has been thus far condemned (op. cit., col. 2555).
In conclusion we must indicate briefly the official authority which the Church attributes to St. Augustine in the questions of grace. Numerous and solemn are the eulogies of St. Augustine's doctrine pronounced by the popes. For instance, St. Gelasius I (1 November, 493), St. Hormisdas (13 August, 520), Boniface II and the Fathers of Orange (529), John II (534), and many others. But the most important document, that which ought to serve to interpret all the others, because it precedes and inspires them, is the celebrated letter of St. Celestine I (431), in which the pope guarantees not only the orthodoxy of Augustine against his detractors, but also the great merit of his doctrine: "So great was his knowledge that my predecessors have always placed him in the rank of the masters," etc. This letter is accompanied by a series of ten dogmatic capitula the origin of which is uncertain, but which have always been regarded, at least since Pope Hormisdas, as expressing the faith of the Church. Now these extracts from African councils and pontifical decisions end with this restriction: "As to the questions which are more profound and difficult, and which have given rise to these controversies, we do not think it necessary to impose the solution of them." — In presence of these documents emanating from so high a source, ought we to say that the Church has adopted all the teaching of St. Augustine on grace so that it is never permissible to depart from that teaching? Three answers have been given:
- For some, the authority of St. Augustine is absolute and irrefragable. The Jansenists went so far as to formulate, with Havermans, this proposition, condemned by Alexander VIII (7 December, 1690): "Ubi quis invenerit doctrinam in Augustino clare fundatam, illam absolute potest tenere et docere, non respiciendo ad ullam pontificis bullam" (Where one has found a doctrine clearly based on St. Augustine, he can hold and teach it absolutely without referring to any pontifical Bull). This is inadmissible. None of the pontifical approbations has a meaning so absolute, and the capitula make an express reservation for the profound and difficult questions. The popes themselves have permitted a departure from the thought of St. Augustine in the matter of the lot of children dying without baptism (Bull "Auctorem Fidei," 28 August, 1794).
- Others again have concluded that the eulogies in question are merely vague formulæ leaving full liberty to withdraw from St. Augustine and to blame him on every point. Thus Launoy, Richard Simon, and others have maintained that Augustine had been in error on the very gist of the problem, and had really taught predestinationism. But that would imply that for fifteen centuries the Church took as its guide an adversary of its faith.
- We must conclude, with the greater number of theologians, that Augustine has a real normative authority, hedged about, however, with reserves and wise limitations. In the capital questions which constitute the faith of the Church in those matters the Doctor of Hippo is truly the authoritative witness of tradition; for example, on the existence of original sin, the necessity of grace, at least for every salutary act; the gratuitousness of the gift of God which precedes all merit of man because it is the cause of it; the predilection for the elect and, on the other hand, the liberty of man and his responsibility for his transgressions. But the secondary problems, concerning the mode rather than the fact, are left by the Church to the prudent study of theologians. Thus all schools unite in a great respect for the assertions of St. Augustine.
At present this attitude of fidelity and respect is all the more remarkable as Protestants, who were formerly so bitter in defending the predestination of Calvin, are today almost unanimous in rejecting what they themselves call "the boldest defiance ever given to reason and conscience" (Grétillat, "Dogmatique," III, p. 329). Schleiermacher, it is true, maintains it, but he adds to it the Origenist theory of universal salvation by the final restoration of all creatures, and he is followed in this by Farrar Lobstein, Pfister, and others. The Calvinist dogma is today, especially in England, altogether abandoned, and often replaced by pure Pelagianism (Beyschlag). But among Protestant critics the best are drawing near to the Catholic interpretation of St. Augustine, as, for example, Grétillat, in Switzerland, and Stevens, Bruce, and Mozley (On the Augustinian Doctrine of Predestination), in England. Sanday (Romans, p. 50) also declares the mystery to be unfathomable for man yet solved by God: "And so our solution of the problem of Free-will, and of the problems of history and of individual salvation, must finally lie in the full acceptance and realization of what is implied by the infinity and the omniscience of God." These concluding words recall the true system of Augustine and permit us to hope that at least on this question there may be a union of the two Churches in a wise Augustinism.
Portalié, Eugène. "Teaching of St. Augustine of Hippo." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 28 Aug. 2015 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02091a.htm>.
Voir aussi : http://peresdeleglise.free.fr/Augustin/augustin.htm