samedi 24 octobre 2015

Saint PROCLUS de CONTANTINOPLE, archévêque et confesseur


Pyotr Mikhailovich Shamshin (1811 -1895), Saint Proclus, Archevêque de Constantinople, 1847, 
Saint Petersburg, Musée  de l’État de Russie

Saint Proclus

évêque de Constantinople ( 446)

Disciple de saint Jean Chrysostome, il fut d'abord évêque de Cyzique, mais les habitants le refusèrent parce qu'ils ne voulaient pas d'un évêque venu de la capitale de l'empire. Il retourna donc à Constantinople où il lutta contre l'hérésie nestorienne pour rétablir l'orthodoxie à l'égard de Marie, Mère de Dieu, en particulier par une célèbre homélie devant l'empereur lui-même. Secrétaire du Patriarche Maximien, il lui succéda en 434 et affermit l'Église dans l'unité et la charité. C'est lui qui introduisit le "Trisagion" dans la liturgie ("Trois fois saint") et qui fit revenir les reliques de saint Jean Chrysotome qui était mort en exil.

À Constantinople, en 446, saint Proclus, évêque, qui proclama avec force la bienheureuse Marie Mère de Dieu et qui rendit à la cité, par une translation solennelle, le corps de saint Jean Chrysostome qui était mort en exil.


Martyrologe romain




Commentaire de Proclus sur la parabole du grain de moutarde,selon Matthieu.

Le grain d'où a germé le monde

« Qu'est ce que le Royaume des cieux, sinon le Christ ? Il dit, en effet, de lui-même : Voici que le règne de Dieu est au milieu de vous (Lc 17, 21). Or, qu'y a-t-il de plus grand que le Christ selon la divinité ? Mais qu'y a-t-il de plus petit que le Christ selon l'incarnation, lui qui s'est fait moindre que les anges (Ps 8, 5-6) et les hommes ? »

« En écoutant (Mt 13, 31-35) , on dira : comment le même est à la fois Royaume des cieux et grain, à la fois grand et petit ? Parce que, dans l'excès de sa compassion envers sa créature, il s'est fait tout à tous, afin de gagner tous les hommes (1 Co 9, 22). Il était Dieu (Jn 1, 1) - et il l'est et le sera, car c'est sa nature -, et il s'est fait homme - car il veut nous sauver. Ô grain par lequel le monde a été fait, par lequel les ténèbres ont été dissipées et l'Église a été renouvelée ! Ce grain, pendu à la croix, a eu une telle force que, même attaché, d'un mot il a arraché le larron à la croix et l'a fait entrer dans les délices du paradis ! Ce grain, malgré son flanc percé par la lance, est devenu source d'une boisson d'immortalité pour les assoiffés ! Ce grain de moutarde, une fois descendu du bois et placé dans un jardin, a couvert de sa frondaison toute la terre qui est sous le ciel ! Ce grain de moutarde, placé dans un jardin, a plongé ses racines jusqu'aux enfers, où il a emporté les âmes qui s'y trouvaient pour les ramener au ciel le troisième jour ! »

« Sème ce grain de moutarde dans le jardin de ton âme, afin de dire, toi aussi : Éveille-toi, Vent du nord ! Viens, Vent du sud ! Souffle sur mon jardin et ses arômes s’exhaleront ! (Ct 4, 16)»

Sermon sur la parabole du grain de moutarde (PG 64, 21-23), traduction inédite de Guillaume Bady.


Saint Proclus de Constantinople (v. 390-446): «Béni soit celui qui vient, lui, notre Roi»

Sermon 9, pour le jour des Rameaux ; PG 65, 772 (trad. Brésard, 2000 ans, année C, p. 108)

Le jour présent, mes bien-aimés, est de la plus grande importance. Il demande de nous un très grand désir, un immense empressement, un vif allant pour nous porter à la rencontre du Roi des Cieux. Paul, le messager de la bonne nouvelle, nous disait : « Le Seigneur est proche, n’ayez aucun souci » (Ph 4,5-6)…

Allumons donc les lampes de la foi : comme les cinq vierges sages (Mt 25,1s), remplissons-les de l’huile de la miséricorde envers les pauvres ; accueillons le Christ bien éveillés, et chantons-le, les palmes de justice à la main. Embrassons-le en répandant sur lui le parfum de Marie (Jn 12,3).

Écoutons le chant de la résurrection ; que nos voix s’élèvent, dignes de la majesté divine, et clamons avec le peuple ce cri qui s’échappe de la foule : « Hosanna dans les hauteurs. Béni soit celui qui vient au nom du Seigneur, le Roi d’Israël ». Il est bien de dire : « Celui qui vient », car il vient sans cesse, jamais il ne nous manque : « Le Seigneur est proche de tous ceux qui l’invoquent en vérité » (Ps 144,18). « Béni soit celui qui vient au nom du Seigneur. »

Le Roi doux et pacifique se tient à notre porte. Celui qui trône dans les cieux sur les chérubins est assis ici-bas sur le petit d’une ânesse. Préparons les maisons de nos âmes, débarrassons-les de ces toiles d’araignée que sont les mésententes fraternelles ; qu’on ne trouve pas chez nous la poussière des médisances.

Répandons à flots l’eau de l’amour, et apaisons tous les heurts que soulève l’animosité ; puis parsemons le vestibule de nos lèvres des fleurs de la piété. Avec le peuple poussons alors ce cri qui jaillit de la foule : « Béni soit celui qui vient au nom du Seigneur, le Roi d’Israël ».




Saint Proclus, Archevêque de Constantinople, de ses premières années consacre tout son temps à la prière et l'étude de l'Ecriture Sainte. Le Seigneur lui a accordé le plus grand bonheur d'être un disciple de saint Jean Chrysostome (Novembre 13), qui dans un premier temps l'a ordonné un diacre, puis à la sainte prêtrise. Il a vu l'apparition de l'apôtre Paul à saint Jean Chrysostome. St Proclus a reçu de son maître une profonde compréhension de l'Écriture Sainte, et a appris à élucider ses pensées sous une forme polie.

         Après l'exil et la mort de Saint Jean Chrysostome, le saint Patriarche de Constantinople Sisinius (426-427) a consacré St Proclus comme Evêque de la ville de Cyzique, mais sous l'influence des hérétiques nestoriens, il a été expulsé par son troupeau là-bas.

        St Proclus est ensuite retourné dans la capitale et a prêché la Parole de Dieu dans les églises de Constantinople, le renforcement des auditeurs de la Foi orthodoxe et de dénoncer l'impiété des hérétiques. Une fois, il a prêché un sermon avant Nestorius dans lequel il a sans crainte défendu le titre "Theotokos", en parlant de la sainte Vierge. A la mort de l'Sisinius Patriarche, St Proclus a été choisi pour prendre sa place. Ayant ainsi été réalisés patriarche de Constantinople, il a guidé l'Eglise au cours de douze ans (434-447). Par les efforts de saint Proclus, les reliques de saint Jean Chrysostome ont été transférés de Comane à Constantinople à l'époque de l'empereur saint St Théodose II (408-450).

        Lorsque saint Proclus était patriarche, l'Empire a subi des tremblements de terre destructeurs, qui dure depuis plusieurs mois. À la Bithynie, dans l'Hellespont, et dans les villes ont été dévastées Phrygie, les rivières ont disparu de la surface de la terre, et de terribles inondations a eu lieu dans des endroits secs préalablement. Le peuple de Constantinople est sorti de la ville avec le patriarche et l'empereur à leur tête et ont offert des prières pour mettre fin à des calamités sans précédent.

         Au cours d'une cérémonie de prière, un garçon de la foule a été happé dans l'air par une force invisible, et monta à une hauteur telle qu'il n'était plus à être vu par des yeux humains. Puis, ensemble et sains et saufs, l'enfant a été abaissé au sol et il a rapporté qu'il a entendu et il vit les anges glorifiant le chant de Dieu: "Dieu Saint, Dieu Fort, Saint Immortel». Tous les gens ont commencé à chanter cette prière Trisagion, en y ajoutant le refrain, «Aie pitié de nous!" Ensuite, les tremblements de terre s'arrêta. L'Eglise orthodoxe chante encore cette prière au service divin à ce jour.

        Le troupeau de Constantinople estimait leur patriarche pour sa vie ascétique, pour sa préoccupation au sujet des opprimés, et pour sa prédication. De nombreuses œuvres de la sainte ont survécu jusqu'à nos jours. Les plus connus sont ses discours contre les Nestoriens, les deux étendues de la sainte à la louange de la Mère de Dieu, et de quatre voies sur la Nativité du Christ, énonçant l'enseignement orthodoxe sur l'Incarnation du Fils de Dieu. L'activité du saint patriarche dans l'établissement de décorum dans tous les affaires de l'Eglise lui a valu l'estime universelle. Entouré par l'amour et le respect, saint Proclus partit pour le Seigneur, après avoir purgé en tant que patriarche depuis vingt ans



Proclus of Constantinople B (RM)


Born at Constantinople; died c. 446. Proclus was a disciple of Saint John Chrysostom, became a lector, and then was secretary to John's opponent, Patriarch Atticus of Constantinople, who ordained him. He was named bishop of Cyzicus but the people there would not accept him. In 428, Nestorius was named Patriarch of Constantinople by Emperor Theodosius II, and Proclus, by now famous for his preaching, opposed his teachings. He was firm but gentle in his treatment of heretics, notably the Nestorians.


In 434 Maximian, who had succeeded Nestorius when he was deposed in 431, died, and Proclus was name patriarch. He continued his opposition to Nestorianism, ministered to the people of the city when it was struck with a devastating earthquake, and was known for his dedication and tactful handling of those with whom he disagreed.

He wrote several treatises, notably Tome to the Armenians, which opposed the Nestorian-flavored teaching of Theodore of Mopsuestia without mentioning him by name. Several of his letters and sermons have survived. According to tradition he instituted the singing of the Trisagion in the liturgy in miraculous circumstances (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia). 



St. Proclus

Patriarch of Constantinople.

Saint Proclus died in 446 or 447. Proclus came to the fore in the time of Atticus, the Patriarch of Constantinople who succeeded (406) Arsacius who had been intruded upon the patriarchal throne after the violent deposition of St. John Chrysostom (404). "Proclus was a Lector at a very early age, and, assiduously frequenting the Schools, became devoted to the study of rhetoric. On attaining manhood he was in the habit of constant intercourse with Atticus, having been constituted his secretary" (Socrates, "H.E.", VII, xl). From Atticus he received the diaconate and priesthood (ibid.). When Atticus died (425), there was a strong party in favour of Proclus, but Sissinius was eventually chosen as his successor. Sissinius appointed him Archbishop of Cyzicus; but the Cyzicans chose a bishop of their own, and no attempt was made to force Proclus upon a reluctant people. Sissinius died at the end of 427, and again Proclus was likely to be appointed to the patriarchate, but eventually Nestorius was chosen. Nestorius was deposed at the Council of Ephesus (431) and Proclus was on the point of being made patriarch, but "some influential persons interfered on the ground of its being forbidden by the ecclesiastical canon that a person nominated to one bishopric should be translated to another" (Soc., VII, xxxv). In consequence a priest, Maximian, was appointed, upon whose death (434) Proclus succeeded. "The Emperor Theodosius wishing to prevent the disturbances which usually attend the election of a bishop, directed the bishops who were then in the city to place Proclus in the episcopal chair before the body of Maximian was interred, for he had received letters from Celestine, Bishop of Rome, approving of this election" (Soc., VII, xl). In 438 Proclus brought the body of St. John Chrysostom to Constantinople and placed it in the church of the Apostles. In 436 some bishops of Armenia consulted him about some propositions attributed to Theodore of Mopsuestia which were being put forward by the Nestorians. Proclus replied in an epistle (often called the "Tome of St. Proclus"), in which he required the propositions to be condemned. Here a difficulty arose. People were ready to condemn the propositions but not the memory of Theodore. Proclus met this difficulty by disclaiming any intention of attributing the propositions to Theodore. Volusianus, the uncle of Melania the Younger, was converted and baptized by him. The writings of Proclus, consisting chiefly of homilies and epistles, were first printed by Ricardus (Rome, 1630), reprinted in Gallandi, IX; also in P.G., LXV, 651. For Proclus and the Trisagion, see TRISAGION.

Sources

TILLEMONT, H.E., 704 sq.; CEILLIER, Hist. des Auteurs Sac., XIII, 472 sq.; BUTLER, Lives of the Saints, October 24.

Bacchus, Francis Joseph. "St. Proclus." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 24 Oct. 2015 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12449b.htm>.



St. Proclus, Archbishop of Constantinople, Confessor

From his writings, Liberatus, c. 10. Socrates, l. 7, c. 28, 41, 45. Chron. Paschal. Marcellin. in chron. &c. See Orsi, t. 13 and 14.

A.D. 447.

ST. PROCLUS was a native of Constantinople, and was very young when he was made a reader of that church. The service of the church did not hinder him from closely following his studies, and he was some time a disciple of St. Chrysostom, and his secretary. Atticus ordained him deacon and priest. After his death, many pitched upon Proclus as the fittest person to be placed in that important see: but Sisinnius was chosen, who ordained Proclus archbishop of Cyzicus, metropolis of the Hellespont. The inhabitants of that city being unwilling to acknowledge the jurisdiction of the bishop of Constantinople, refused to receive him, and chose Dalmatius, a monk. Proclus, therefore, continued at Constantinople, where he got a great reputation by his preaching. Upon the demise of Sisinnius, in 427, many again cast their eyes upon him as the most worthy of that dignity; but others alleged that he had been chosen bishop of another see, and that translations were forbidden by the canons. Nestorius, who was raised to that dignity, advanced his errors at first covertly, but at length openly. St. Proclus courageously maintained the truth against him, and, in 429, preached a sermon (which is the first among his printed homilies) to show that the Blessed Virgin ought to be styled the Mother of God. Nestorius, who was present, publicly contradicted him in the church. When that heresiarch was deposed in 431, Maximian was chosen to succeed him, those that were for St. Proclus being overruled by the above-mentioned exception; but after Maximian’s death, in 434, this saint, who had never been able to take possession of the see of Cyzicus, was promoted to that of Constantinople. The mildness with which he treated even the most obstinate among the Nestorians, Arians, and other heretics, was a distinguishing part of his character; 1 though he strenuously supported the Catholic faith, and kept a correspondence, and lived in close union and friendship with the pope, St. Cyril of Alexandria, and John of Antioch. The Armenian bishops consulted him about the doctrine and writings of Theodorus, bishop of Mopsuestia, who was then dead, and whose name was in reputation in those parts. St. Proclus answered them in 436, by his tome to the Armenians, which is the most famous of his writings. In it he condemned the doctrine mentioned as savouring of Nestorianism, and expounded the article of the incarnation. Without naming Theodorus, who was dead in the communion of the church, he exhorted them to adhere to the doctrine of St. Basil and St. Gregory Nazianzen, whose names and works were in particular veneration among them. Others carried on this contest with greater warmth; and some would needs have had the names of Theodorus, Theodoret and Ibas, condemned; which was the origin of the dispute of the three chapters. John of Antioch wrote to St. Proclus in the same year, 436, against the doctrine of some who seemed to him to confound the two natures in Christ; which error was soon after openly advanced by Eutyches.

The letters of St. Proclus, which are extant, regard chiefly the disputes of that age concerning the incarnation; and of the twenty homilies of this father, which were published at Rome by Riccardi in 1630, and by F. Combefis: 2 the last is a fragment of a sermon in praise of St. Chrysostom; the first, fifth, and sixth, are upon the Blessed Virgin Mary, whose title of Mother of God he justly extols: the rest turn chiefly upon the mysteries of Christ, and principal festivals of the year. The style of this father is concise, sententious, and full of lively witty turns, more proper to please and delight than to move the heart. This sort of composition requires much pains and study; and though this father was very successful in this way, is not to be compared to the easy natural gravity of St. Basil, or the sweet style of St. Chrysostom. The first part of the year 447 is memorable for a dreadful earthquake which was felt from place to place, during six months, in divers parts of Egypt and the East, especially near the Hellespont, and in Bithynia, in Phrygia, and at Antioch in Syria. The earth shook like a ship abandoned to the mercy of the winds, and tossed by the fury of the waves worked up by a storm. Amidst the ruins of many stately buildings men ran to and fro almost distracted with fear and horror, not being able to find any place of refuge or security. At Constantinople the inhabitants wandered in the fields; and, with the rest, the emperor Theodosius the Younger, and all his courtiers. St. Proclus, with his clergy, followed his scattered flock, and ceased not to comfort and exhort them amidst their afflictions, and to implore the divine mercy with them. The people continually answered by a triple repetition of this prayer: “Have mercy on us, O Lord.” Theophanes 3 and other Greek historians tell us that a child was taken up into the air, and heard angels singing the Trisagion, or triple doxology; which gave occasion to St. Proclus to teach the people to sing it in these words: “Holy God, holy strong, holy immortal, have mercy on us.” It is at least agreed that St. Proclus with the people used this prayer, and that thereupon the earthquakes ceased. This trisagion was inserted by him in the divine office, which the Greek Church uses to this day. 4 The heretics in the East by various additions to this trisagion, corrupted the sense by their errors. Peter Fullo, the Eutychian patriarch of Antioch, referring the whole trisagion to Christ alone, added these words: “Who suffered for us,” meaning that there was but one person in Christ, and that his divinity itself suffered. Other heretics corrupted it divers ways. Several Catholics understood the whole of Christ; which is arbitrary, though, by the church, it is meant of God in three persons, as St. Ambrose observes; but prayers directed immediately to any of the three persons are addressed to the Trinity, all the persons being one God. To curb the rashness of heretics it was forbidden in the council in Trullo, in 692, to make any addition to the trisagion. 5 The Orientals ascribe to St. Proclus the last revision of the liturgies both of St. Chrysostom (or of the church of Constantinople) and of St. James (or of the church of Jerusalem.) Our saint is styled by St. Cyril, “A man full of piety, perfectly skilled in ecclesiastical discipline, and a strict observer of the canons.” Pope Sixtus III. gives him the like praises, and Vigilius 6 calls him the most learned of prelates. St. Proclus died on the 24th of October in 447, the same year in which the earthquakes had happened. His name is placed in the Greek Menologies, and in the Muscovite Calendar. 7

How many great, how many learned, how many once holy men have with Nestorius suffered shipwreck before the end of their course! At the sight of such examples, who does not tremble for himself? If we know ourselves, we shall be persuaded that no one is weaker and frailer than we are. Can any creature be more unworthy of the divine mercy than we who have repaid the greatest graces and favours with continual sloth and the basest infidelities? When, therefore, we read of the fall or sins of others, we ought to turn our eyes upon ourselves; to adore the divine mercy which has still borne with us, and is yet ready with stretched-forth arms to embrace us: to shake off our sloth in the practice of virtue, enter upon a fervent penitential life, and without ceasing, call upon God in fear and humility. He is our strength and support, who is almighty and most willing and desirous to save us, if our wilful wretchedness and pride stand not in the way. He alone can effectually remove these obstacles: humble prayer and compunction will not fail to obtain this constant grace. To neglect these means is to perish.

Note 1. Socrat. l. 7, c. 41, 42. [back]

Note 2. In Auctar. Bibl. Patr. [back]

Note 3. Chron. p. 64. [back]

Note 4. The Trisagion or Sanctus, sung in the preface of the mass, is of much greater antiquity. The seraphim were heard by Isaias thrice repeating, Holy, Holy, Holy, and by this doxology, praising in heaven the strong and immortal, who subsists one God ever adorable in three persons. (Isa. vi.) It is from heaven that the church has borrowed this hymn, where St. John assures us that the saints sing it for all eternity. (Apoc. iv. 8.) The preface and Sanctus occur in all the most ancient liturgies, and are mentioned by Tertullian, (l. de Orat.) St. Cyprian, (l. de Orat. Domin.) St. Cyril of Jerusalem, (Catech. Myst. 5,) the Apostolical Constitutions, (l. 5, c. 16,) St. Dionysius, (Hierar. Eccl. c. 3,) St. Gregory of Nyssa, (Or. de non differ. Bapt.) St. Chrysostom, (Hom. 14, in Eph. 19. in Mat. &c.) the Sacramentaries of Gelasius and St. Gregory, St. Anastasius the Sinaite, (ed. Combefits,) &c. See Dom Claude de Vert, Explic. des Cérémonies de l’Eglise, t. 1, p. 118, and F. Le Brun, Explic. des Cérémonies de la Messe, t. 1, pp. 384, 400. Certain modern Greeks say St. Proclus made some alterations in certain parts of the liturgy, which St. Chrysostom is said in the Menæa to have abridged or revised, and which bears to this day the name of that father, and is certainly the ancient liturgy of the church of Constantinople. By the authority and means of the patriarchs of this see, it is long since received in general use in the whole Greek church, except that on certain festivals the liturgy of St. Basil, which has longer collects for those days, is made use of; and the liturgy of St. James is still used on certain days, though very rarely, in the church of Jerusalem, of which it was certainly the ancient liturgy; on which account it bears the name of St. James, who was the first bishop of that see. It agrees with that explained by St. Cyril of Jerusalem, except in a few slight things, which differences seem introduced since that father’s time. The only alteration which St. Proclus seems to have introduced in the liturgies of Constantinople, adopted into that of Jerusalem, seems to be the addition of the trisagion, not, as most writers mistake, that commonly called the Sanctus in the preface, as appears from what is said above; but another which the Greeks have adopted, and prefixed to the lectures of the gospel, and which consists in these words: “Agios O Theos, agios ischyros, agios athanatos, eleison imas.” “Holy God, holy strong, holy immortal, have mercy on us.” See Le Brun, t. 2, pp. 352 and 396, also t. 3, and Renaudot, Goar, &c. [back]

Note 5. Conc. in Trull. c. 3. [back]

Note 6. St. Ambr. l. 3, de Spir. Sanct. c. 18. [back]

Note 7. See Jos. Assemani in Calend. Univ. t. 6, p. 317 and 368. [back]

Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73).  Volume X: October. The Lives of the Saints.  1866.



Saint Proclus of Constantinople

Profile

Lector while still a student. Secretary to and spiritual student of Saint John Chrysostom. Priest. Chosen archbishop of Cyzicus, but the people of that city saw him as being under the control of Constantinople, and refused to accept him. Noted preacher in Constantinople. When Nestorius was chosen patriarch of Constantinople and began openly spreading the teachings that became known as the Nestorian heresy, Proclus continued to preach orthodox Christianity. Archbishop of Constantinople in 434. Friend and frequent correspondent with Saint Cyril of Alexandria. The Armenian bishops turned to him for analysis of the writings of other leaders. Noted for his forgiveness of heretics who wished to return to the Church, but his defense of and insistence on adherance to the true teachings of the Church. Many of his letters, sermons and teachings have survived. Hands-on leader of his clergy and minister to his flock following a destructive earthquake in early 447 that led many to live in open fields for fear of collapsing buildings; legend says that he led the people in prayers that stopped the quakes.

Born

Proclus of Constantinople: The powers of heaven are united with us in joyful celebration of Christ’s Resurrection 


Glorious is our paschal festival, and truly splendid this great assembly of the Christian people. And within this holy mystery are contained things both old and new.

The celebration of this week, or rather its joyfulness, is shared by such a multitude, that not alone does man rejoice on earth, but even the powers of heaven are united with us in joyful celebration of Christ’s Resurrection.

For now the angels, and the hosts of the archangels, also keep holiday this day, and stand waiting for the triumphant return from this earth of Christ our Lord, Who is King of heaven.

And the multitude of the Blessed likewise rejoice, proclaiming the Christ who was begotten before the day star rose (Ps. 109:3).

The earth rejoices, now washed by divine blood. The sea rejoices, honoured as it was by His feet upon its waters.

And ever more let each soul rejoice, who is born again of water and the Holy Ghost, and at last set free from the ancient curse!

With such great joy does Christ fill our hearts this day by His Resurrection, not only because He gives us the gladness of this day, but because He has also given us salvation through His passion, immortality through His Death, healing for our wounds, and resurrection from our fall!

And long ago, beloved, this Paschal Mystery, begun in Egypt, was symbolically pointed out to us in the Old Law, in the sacrifice of the lamb. And now, in the Gospel, let us celebrate the Resurrection of the Lamb: our Pasch.

Then a lamb of the flock was slain, as the Law laid down (Ex. 12); now Christ, the Lamb of God, is offered up.

There a sheep from the sheepfold; here, in the place of the sheep, the Good Shepherd lays down His life for His sheep.

There the sprinkled blood upon the doorposts was a sigh of deliverance for the people of God; here the Precious Blood of Christ was poured out for the deliverance of the whole world, that we might be forgiven our sins.

There the firstborn of Egypt were slain; here the manifold children of sinners are made clean confessing the Lamb.

There Pharaoh and his fearful host were drowned in the sea; here the spiritual Pharaoh with all His children are immersed in the sea of baptism.

There the children of the Hebrews, crossing over the Red Sea, sang their song of victory to their Deliverer, singing: Let us sing a hymn to the Lord, for He is gloriously magnified! (Ex. 15:1); here those found worthy of baptism sing their song of victory, singing: One Holy, one Lord Jesus Christ, in the glory of God the Father!

Proclus of Constantinople (d. 446 or 447): On the Holy Pasch, 1-2, in M.F. Toal: The Sunday Sermons of the Great Fathers: Volume 2From the First Sunday in Lent to the Sunday After the Ascension, pp.234.