samedi 7 janvier 2017

Saint CANUT (KNUD) LAVARD, martyr

Saint Knud Lavard

Prince Danois, roi de Wagrie, martyr ( 1137)

ou Canut.
Duc de Schleswig, il gouverna avec justice et prudence et favorisa le christianisme. Il fut assassiné, dans une forêt, par des ennemis envieux de son autorité.

Au Danemark, en 1137, saint Canut, surnommé Lavard, martyr.
Martyrologe romain


January 7

St. Canut

ST. CANUT, second son of Eric the Good, king of Denmark, was made duke of Sleswig, his elder brother Nicholas being king of Denmark. Their father, who lived with his people as a father with his children, and no one ever left him without comfort, says the ancient chronicle Knytling-Saga, p. 71. died in Cyprus, going on a pilgrimage to the holy land, in which he had been received by Alexius Comnenus, emperor, at Constantinople, with the greatest honour, and had founded an hospital at Lucca for Danish pilgrims. He died in 1103, on the 11th of July. Mallet, l. 2. p. 112.

Canut set himself to make justice and peace reign in his principality: those warriors could not easily be restrained from plundering. One day, when he had condemned several together to be hanged for piracies, one cried out, that he was of blood royal, and related to Canut. The prince answered, that to honour his extraction, he should be hanged on the top of the highest mast of his ship, which was executed. (Helmold, l. 6, c. 49.) Henry, king of the Sclavi, being dead, and his two sons, St. Canut his nephew succeeded, paid homage to the emperor Lothaire II. and was crowned by him king of the Obotrites, or western Sclavi. St. Canut was much honoured by that emperor, in whose court he had spent part of his youth. Valour, prudence, zeal, and goodness, endeared him to all. He was slain by a conspiracy of the jealous Danes, the 7th of January, 1130, and canonized in 1171. His son became duke of Sleswig, and in 1158 king of Denmark, called Valdemar I. and the Great, from his virtuous and glorious actions.

Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73).  Volume I: January. The Lives of the Saints.  1866.

Canute Lavard M (RM)

(also known as Knud)

Born at Roskilde, c. 1096; died 1131; canonized in 1169; feast of the translation of his relics is July 25 in Denmark.

Nephew of King Saint Canute of Denmark and the second son of King Eric the Good of Denmark, Canute spent part of his youth at the Saxon court. When he came of age and returned to Denmark with ideals of feudalism and military organization, his uncle King Niels (Nils) of Denmark made him duke of southern Jutland. Canute ruled from Schleswig, which he fortified, and defended the whole territory against the Wends. In fact, most of his life was spent fighting against the viking pirates, but he finally brought peace and order to the territory. Canute also encouraged and aided the missionary activities of Saint Vicelin, evangelizer of the Wends, who was afterwards bishop of Staargard, now Oldenburg.

While duke of Schleswig, Canute was recognized by Emperor Lothair III in 1129 as sovereign over the western Wends. This infuriated his uncle, King Niels, who began to regard Canute as a rival. Two years later, this jealousy led to Canute's murder in an ambush by Magnus Nielssen and Henry Skadelaar (his cousins) in the forest of Haraldsted near Ringsted in Zealand.

Canute was formally canonized as a martyr for justice by Pope Alexander III, at the request of his son, King Valdemar I. The archbishops of Lund and Uppsala presented evidence about Canute's life and miracles attributed to his intercession. His relics were enshrined at Ringsted in 1170 (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer).

In art, Saint Canute is portrayed as a knight with a wreath, lance, and ciborium. Sometimes he is shown on horseback in full armor. Venerated in Denmark (Roeder).


Saint Canute Lavard

Also known as
  • Canute Laward
  • Canute of Schleswig
  • Canute the Lord
  • Duke of Jutland
  • King of the Western Wends
  • Knud Lavard
  • Knut Lavard

Second son of King Eric the Good of Denmark. Nephew of King Saint Canute of Denmark. Raised in the court of Saxony. Duke of Jutland with his court at Schlewig. Spent years defending against Viking raids. Supported the missionary work of Saint Vicelin. Father of King Valdemar I, who worked for Canute’s canonization. King of the Western Wends in 1129. Canute’s uncle, King Nils of Denmark, opposed Canute coming to the throne, and arranged his murder. Venerated in Denmark.



New Catholic Encyclopedia
COPYRIGHT 2003 The Gale Group Inc.
Danish noble; b. Roskilde, c. 1096; d. Haraldsted, Jan. 7, 1131. Son of the Danish King Erik Evergood, he was baptized Gregory. The surname "Lavard" is equivalent to the English "Lord." As a youth he was at the court of Saxony with the future Emperor Lothair III. His uncle, King Niels (Nicholas), named him duke of Schleswig c. 1115. Through the protection of Lothair, whom he tried to evangelize, he became, c. 1129, prince (Knés) of the Wends in eastern Holstein. Put forward as eventual successor to King Niels, he constituted a rival to the latter's son, Magnus, whose entourage assassinated Canute at Haraldsted, near Ringsted, Denmark. This crime brought on a civil war that lasted until the accession of Canute's son, Waldemar I the Great. Reports of miracles at Canute's tomb at Ringsted led to the building of a chapel on the site of the murder. Pope Alexander III canonized Canute in 1169; the solemn translation of his remains took place on June 25, 1170. Canute became the patron saint of the Danish guilds, and his cult spread throughout Denmark and Schleswig. His present tomb at Sankt-Bendt church, Ringsted, dates only from the 17th century.
Feast: Jan. 7; June 25.
Bibliography: Vitae sanctorum danorum, ed. m. c. gertz (new ed. Copenhagen 1908–12) 169–247. l. weibull, Nordisk historia 2 (1948) 415–432. a. butler, The Lives of the Saints, ed. h. thurston and d. attwater (New York 1956) 1:49. t. gad, Kulturhistorisk leksikon for nordisk middelalder, ed. j. danstrup (Copenhagen 1956—) 8:600–603, with bibliog.
[l. musset]

San Canuto Lavard Martire

Roskilde (Danimarca), 1096 circa - Haraldsted-Ringstadium (Zeeland, Danimarca), 7 gennaio 1131
San Canuto Lavard, duca di Schleswig e re di Wagrie, governò con giustizia e prudenza, favorì la religione cattolica, morì martire della giustizia, ucciso dai cugini pretendenti al trono, e fu canonizzato nel 1169 da Alessandro III. E’ commemorato in data odierna dal nuovo Martyrologium Romanum.

Patronato: Zeeland (Danimarca)

Emblema: Palma, Corona, Lancia, Ciborio

Martirologio Romano: Nella selva presso Ringsted in Danimarca, san Canuto, detto Lavard: duca dello Schleswig, resse con giustizia e prudenza il suo principato e favorì il culto, ma fu ucciso da nemici invidiosi della sua autorità.

Knud, figlio secondogenito del re Eric il Buono di Danimarca e perciò nipote del re San Canuto IV, nacque a Roskilde verso il 1096 ed è conosciuto come “il Signore” dai suoi connazionali. Allevato ed educato alla corte di Sassonia, suo zio re Niels lo nominò duca dello Jutland meridionale, con sede a Schlewig, e gli affidò la difesa di tale territorio dai Vendi, popolo slavo proveniente dalla Sassonia orientale e dalla Prussia. Si sforzò in ogni modo per la promozione della giustizia e della pace, ma la pirateria vichinga mise duramente alla prova i suoi buoni propositi. Nel 1129 l'imperatore Lotario III lo riconobbe quale re dei Vendi occidentali (re di Wagrie), irritando però in tal modo il re Niels, che lo fece uccidere dai suoi cugini Magnus Nielsen e Henry Skadelaar il 7 gennaio 1131 nella foresta di Haraldsted vicino a Ringstadium in Zelanda.

L'aver sostenuto durante il suo regno l'attività missionaria di San Vicelin, apostolo dei Vendi, costituì un presupposto determinante per favorire la celebrazione della sua canonizzazione, avvenuta nel 1169 per mano del papa Alessandro III, su proposta del figlio postumo di Knud, re Valdemaro I, e dell'arcivescovo Eskil di Lund. L'anno successivo le sue reliquie furono traslate a Ringsted il 25 giugno. In tale anniversario San Canuto Lavard è commemorato in Danimarca, mentre il nuovo Martyrologium Romanum lo cita così nel giorno della morte: “Nel bosco presso Ringstadium, in Danimarca, ricordo di San Canuto Lavard, martire, che a capo degli Slavi occidentali condusse il regno con giustizia e prudenza, esercitando la pietà; fu ucciso dai nemici invidiosi della sua nobile autorevolezza”.

Autore: Fabio Arduino