dimanche 14 avril 2013

Saints TIBURCE (TIBURTIUS), VALÉRIEN (VALERIUS) et MAXIME (MAXIMUS), martyrs


Sts Tiburce, Valérien et Maxime, martyrs

La déposition des Sts martyrs est attestée ce jour dans le martyrologe Hiéronymien et leur fête dès le VIe siècle dans le sacramentaire de Vérone. Au VIIe siècle, elle a place dans le sacramentaire Grégorien. Depuis lors, elle a toujours été célébrée à Rome.

Léon XIII réduisit la fête au rang de commémoraison lorsqu’il institua celle de St Justin en 1882.

Textes de la Messe

Eodem die 14 aprilis

Ss. Tiburtii, Valeriani et Maximi

Martyrum

Commemoratio
Tempore paschali, Missa Sancti tui, de Communi Martyrum II loco, cum Epistola et Evangelio ex Missa Protexísti, de Communi Mártyrum 1 loco, et cum orationibus ut infra.
Extra tempus paschale, Missa Sapiéntiam,, de Communi plurimorum Martyrum II loco, cum orationibus ut infra.

Oratio.

Præsta, quǽsumus, omnípotensDeus : ut, qui sanctórum Mártyrum tuórum Tibúrtii, Valeriáni et Máximi sollémnia cólimus ; eórum étiam virtútes imitémur. Per Dóminum nostrum.

Secreta

Hæc hóstia, quǽsumus, Dómine, quam sanctórum Mártyrum tuórum natalítia recenséntes offérimus : et víncula nostræ pravitátis absolvat, et tuæ nobis misericórdiæ dona concíliet. Per Dóminum.

Postcommunio

Sacro múnere satiáti, súpplices te, Dómine, deprecámur : ut, quod débitæ servitútis celebrámus offício, salvatiónis tuæ sentiámus augméntum. Per Dóminum.



ce même 14 avril

Sts Tiburce, Valérien et Maxime

Martyrs

Commémoraison

Au Temps Pascal, Messe Sancti tui, du Commun de plusieurs Martyrs II, avec l’Épître et l’Évangile de la messe Protexísti, du Commun des Martyrs 1, et avec les oraisons ci-dessous.

Hors du Temps pascal, Messe Sapiéntiam, du Commun de plusieurs Martyrs II, avec les oraisons ci-dessous.

Collecte

Faites, nous vous en supplions, Dieu tout-puissant, que, célébrant la fête de vos saints Martyrs Tiburce, Valérien et Maxime, nous imitions aussi leurs vertus.

Secrète

Que cette hostie, nous vous en prions, Seigneur, que nous vous offrons en honorant de nouveau la naissance au ciel de vos saints Martyrs, brise les liens de notre perversité et nous attire les dons de votre miséricorde.
Postcommunion

Rassasiés par votre don sacré, nous vous supplions, Seigneur : qu’en célébrant cette fête avec les hommages qui vous sont dus, nous sentions l’accroissement de notre salut.


Francesco Francia  (1450–1517). Légende de Sainte Cécile et de Saint Valérien, 1504-1506, 


Leçons des Matines avant 1960

Neuvième leçon. Valérien était romain et de noble naissance. Sous l’empire d’Alexandre Sévère, cédant aux exhortations de la bienheureuse vierge Cécile, qu’il avait épousée et qui était d’une noblesse égale à la sienne, il fut baptisé ainsi que son frère Tiburce, par le Pape saint Urbain. Almachus, préfet de Rome, apprenant que les deux frères étaient chrétiens, et qu’après avoir distribué leur patrimoine aux pauvres, ils s’occupaient à ensevelir les corps des fidèles, les fit comparaître devant lui, tes reprit sévèrement, et voyant qu’avec une constance invincible ils confessaient la divinité du Christ et affirmaient hautement que les dieux n’étaient que de vains simulacres des démons, il ordonna de les battre de verges. Mais comme on ne parvenait pas à les contraindre par les coups à révérer la statue de Jupiter, et qu’au contraire ils persévéraient avec courage dans là vraie foi, ils eurent la tête tranchée à quatre milles de Rome. Maxime, officier domestique du préfet, qui les avait conduits au supplice, saisi d’admiration pour leur vertu, se déclara chrétien avec plusieurs autres serviteurs d’Almachus. Peu après, ils furent tous battus à coups de fouets garnis de plomb, et de serviteurs du diable qu’ils étaient, ils devinrent les Martyrs du Christ notre Seigneur.


Lorenzo Costa  (1460–1535)Conversion de Valérien par le Pape Urbain, 1504-1506, 


Dom Guéranger, l’Année Liturgique

Saluons avec amour le noble triumvirat de martyrs que l’Église Romaine du IIe siècle députe aujourd’hui vers Jésus ressuscité. C’est Valérien, le noble et chaste époux de Cécile, qui s’élève au ciel, le front ceint de sa couronne de roses et de lis ; c’est Tiburce son frère, l’autre conquête de Cécile, portant la palme triomphale qu’il a sitôt cueillie ; c’est Maxime, qui, voyant monter vers les cieux les âmes des deux frères, semblables à de jeunes épouses parées pour la fête nuptiale, s’est épris du désir de les suivre. L’immortelle Cécile plane sur ce groupe sacré ; car ces trois triomphes sont son ouvrage : il est donc juste de lui en offrir sa part de gloire. Son sang virginal se mêla aussi à celui du divin Agneau pascal, quoique à cinq mois de distance ; sa fête est même renvoyée jusqu’en novembre, où elle brille comme l’un des plus doux rayons de l’Année liturgique à son déclin. Longtemps d’ailleurs l’Église n’admit que des fêtes d’un rang secondaire dans la partie de l’année où nous sommes, afin de ne pas trop distraire la pensée des fidèles de la contemplation de Jésus ressuscité ; la fète de Cécile qui, dans l’antiquité, était précédée d’une Vigile, devait mieux développer ses splendeurs dans une autre saison.

La sainte Église n’a conservé, pour ainsi dire, qu’un souvenir de nos trois grands martyrs dans son Office. On ne doit pas s’en étonner : cette fête est de là plus haute antiquité, et dans les premiers siècles de l’Église, cette forme d’Office simple était très usitée. Les trois Nocturnes, aux trois Leçons chacun, étaient réservés pour les fêtes majeures.

Fruits bénis de l’Apostolat de la grande Cécile, nous nous joignons en ce jour aux Esprits bienheureux pour saluer votre entrée dans la cour du souverain Roi. Initié par votre noble épouse, ô Valérien, à la foi du Christ et à la plus sublime vertu, vous la précédez dans les joies célestes ; mais dans quelques mois elle montera près de vous, et l’amour qui vous unissait ici-bas recevra de Dieu sa sanction pour l’éternité. L’Ange vous avait dit sur la terre que vos lis et vos roses ne se flétriraient jamais ; leur parfum d’amour et de pureté est plus suave encore dans les cieux qu’il ne le fut dans notre humble séjour. Associé par le sang et par l’alliance à ces deux anges terrestres, ô Tiburce, vous leur avez dû la palme que vous remportez en ce jour ; votre heureuse société est maintenant indissoluble, et vos trois noms sont aussi inséparables au ciel qu’ils le furent sur la terre. Vous n’avez pas tardé à rejoindre, ô Maxime, les deux héros que le glaive immola sous vos yeux. Leur sort excita votre envie, et le Dieu de Cécile ne tarda pas à devenir le vôtre. Vous lui avez donné votre sang ; et en retour, il vous a placé pour jamais près de Cécile, votre mère dans la foi, près de Tiburce et de Valérien, dont la différence des conditions vous eût isolé pour toujours sur la terre.

Maintenant donc, ô saints Martyrs, soyez nos protecteurs, et répondez à nos vœux par des faveurs nouvelles. Attirez nos cœurs en haut, et parlez de nos besoins à votre Roi immortel. Vous qui fûtes ses vaillants chevaliers, rendez-nous généreux à votre exemple. Vous avez méprisé la vie présente ; nous devons la mépriser aussi, pour mériter de voir éternellement notre divin Ressuscité dont la vue fait vos délices. Le combat diffère peut-être, mais la récompense qui nous attend doit être immortelle comme la voue. Plutôt que de trahir le Christ, vous avez donné votre vie ; notre devoir n’est pas différent du vôtre ; car nous devons comme vous préférer la mort au péché. Soutenez-nous, ô saints Martyrs, afin que nous honorions par notre vie cette Pâque qui nous a régénérés. Priez aussi pour la sainte Église Romaine dont vous êtes tous trois les fils ; les jours de l’épreuve sont revenus pour elle ; elle a droit de compter sur votre intervention pour obtenir le secours qu’elle implore.


Amico Aspertini  (1475–1552)Martyre de Saint Valérien et de Saint Tiburce, 1504-1506


Bhx Cardinal Schuster, Liber Sacramentorum

L’histoire de ces martyrs est étroitement liée à celle de sainte Cécile dont Valérien fut l’époux et Tiburce le beau-frère. Quant à Maxime, il était un commentariensis du juge qui les avait condamnés à mort ; mais, s’étant converti au spectacle de la constance dont les deux frères avaient fait preuve durant leur martyre, il partagea leurs peines et leurs couronnes. Sur les tombes de ce groupe de martyrs s’éleva par la suite une basilique de forme circulaire à cinq absides, entièrement restaurée par Hadrien Ier. Finalement la solitude du lieu et les incursions des Lombards désolant la campagne romaine décidèrent Paschal lei à mettre ces saints corps en sûreté dans l’intérieur de la Ville. De leur tombe primitive, au cimetière de Prétextât, sur la voie Appienne, les ruines demeurent à peine aujourd’hui, mais les corps des martyrs sont en grande vénération dans le titulus Caeciliae.

La messe est celle du Commun des Martyrs au temps pascal, Sancti tui.

La fête de saint Justin, introduite dans le calendrier sous le pape Léon XIII, fit passer en seconde ligne celle des martyrs du titulus Caeciliae, réduite de ce fait au rang de simple commémoraison liturgique. Leur messe appartient cependant à la primitive tradition romaine et se trouve dans tous les Sacramentaires du moyen âge.

L’antienne pour l’entrée du célébrant est tirée du psaume 14 . « Vos élus, Seigneur, vous béniront et glorifieront votre règne. »

A Pâques s’est terminé, pour les martyrs, le temps des souffrances et a commencé celui de leur joyeux triomphe dans le Christ. C’est pourquoi, tandis que sur la terre leurs ossements sont couverts de fleurs et de parfums et qu’aujourd’hui les pieux baisers des fidèles les réchauffent, comme pour anticiper leur résurrection finale, leurs âmes dans le ciel, réunies au Christ, chef mystique de l’Église, chantent désormais les gloires et les triomphes du nouveau royaume messianique.

Le répons alléluiatique, à chanter sur les degrés de l’ambon, semble tiré du livre apocryphe d’Esdras, auquel ont été aussi empruntés d’autres passages de l’office pascal des martyrs. Cette dérivation accuse une période liturgique très ancienne, et ces textes ont pu s’introduire à Rome avec la liturgie byzantine. « Alléluia. Vos saints, Seigneur, fleuriront comme un lis, et leur odeur en votre présence sera comme celle d’un baume parfumé. » « Alléluia. » Ps. 115 : « Précieuse devant le Seigneur est la mort de ses saints, alléluia. » — Mort précieuse, alors même qu’aux hommes charnels elle pourra sembler cruelle et humiliante, marquée, comme elle l’est souvent, des stigmates du Calvaire.

Selon le Lectionnaire romain de Würzbourg, la lecture évangélique serait la même qu’aux messes de vigiles des Apôtres ; elle est tirée de saint Jean, et nous l’avons déjà rapportée le 20 décembre.

Notre Missel actuel assigne une péricope différente, mais également empruntée à saint Jean (XV, 1-7) ; c’est un passage du dernier discours de Jésus à la Cène. La condition essentielle pour que nous puissions agir efficacement dans l’ordre surnaturel, est que nous demeurions en intime union de foi et d’amour avec le principe même de cette foi surnaturelle, qui est Jésus. S’éloigner de lui équivaut à se condamner à la stérilité ; relâcher l’union avec lui, c’est s’étioler et se flétrir comme une branche en qui ne court plus librement la sève ; renoncer à lui, c’est renoncer aussi à l’héritage paternel du ciel.

L’antienne pour l’offrande des dons par le peuple est tirée du psaume 31 : « Réjouissez-vous, ô justes, et exultez dans le Seigneur ; soyez glorifiés vous tous qui avez le cœur droit. » Les cieux de l’Église sont les Apôtres et les martyrs, qui, par le sacrifice suprême de leur vie, ont donné la preuve de leur foi sublime, et maintenant, après le combat, ont part au triomphe et aux joies messianiques.

Le Sacramentaire Grégorien assigne cette préface à la fête de ce jour : ... aeterne Deus ; et Te in Sanctorum Martyrum tuorum festivitate laudare, qui semper es mirabilis in tuorum commemoratione Sanctorum, et magnae fidei largiris effectum, et tolerantiam tribuis passionum, et antiqui hostis facis superare machinamentum, quo egregii Martyres tui ad capiendam supernorum beatitudinem praemiorum, nullis impediantur retinaculis blandimentorum. Per Christum.

L’antienne pour la Communion du peuple est tirée du psaume 31 : « Réjouissez-vous, ô justes, dans le Seigneur ; la louange convient bien à ceux qui sont droits de cœur. » Les justes sont aussi appelés droits, parce que Dieu a imprimé au cœur humain un élan irrésistible vers lui ; et les impies font preuve d’une fureur satanique, en détournant de Dieu cette impulsion et en se dirigeant vers le mal.

En certains manuscrits du Sacramentaire Grégorien, la collecte est différente : Caelesti munere saginati, quaesumus, Domine, Deus noster, ut haec no bis dona Martyr uni tuorum intercessio beata sanctificet. « Sanctificet », c’est-à-dire, que l’intercession des martyrs fasse que cette Communion soit vraiment, de notre part, sainte et fructueuse.


Amico Aspertini  (1475–1552)Sépulture de Saint Valérien et de Saint Tiburce, 1504-1506, 


Dom Pius Parsch, le Guide dans l’année liturgique

Saint Tiburce et ses compagnons. — Ce noble triumvirat de martyrs (vers 230, à Rome) est l’œuvre de la célèbre vierge romaine et martyre, sainte Cécile (cf. 22 novembre). Ce sont Valérien, le noble et chaste époux de Cécile ; Tiburce, son frère, que Cécile conquit aussi pour le ciel ; Maxime, le serviteur du tribunal, qui les vit se rendre au supplice avec tant de joie qu’ils semblaient aller aux noces et qui les suivit. Leurs saints ossements sont honorés actuellement dans l’Église de Sainte-Cécile.



On lit au Martyrologe romain de ce jour :

À Rome, sur la voie Appienne, l’anniversaire des saints Martyrs Tiburce, Valérien et Maxime, sous l’empereur Alexandre et le préfet Almaque.

Les deux premiers, convertis au Christ par les exhortations de la bienheureuse Cécile et baptisés par le Pape saint Urbain, furent meurtris à coups de bâton, puis percés par le glaive, pour la confession de leur Foi.

Saint Maxime, camérier du préfet, touché de leur constance et fortifié par l’apparition d’un Ange, crut au Christ ; il fut pour ce motif, frappé avec des fouets garnis de plomb jusqu’à ce qu’il eût rendu l’âme.


Saint Valérien

Martyr à Rome (+260)
Fiancé à Sainte Cécile, converti par elle le jour de leur mariage, Saint Valérien fut baptisé par le pape Urbain à qui il avait professé sa foi: "Un seul Dieu, une seule foi, un seul baptême, un seul Dieu et Père de tous, qui est au-dessus de tout et en nous tous" (Eph 4).

Il fut condamné à mort avec Tiburce, parce qu'ils donnaient une sépulture aux chrétiens massacrés; avant leur supplice, ils convertirent Maxime, chargé de les exécuter. Tous trois (Valérien, Tiburce et Maxime) sont fêtés le même jour.

A lire aussi: les saints martyrs Tiburce, Valérien et Maxime (abbaye de Saint Benoît)

À Rome, au cimetière de Prétextat sur la voie Appienne, les saints martyrs Tiburce, Valérien et Maxime.
Martyrologe romain
SOURCE : https://nominis.cef.fr/contenus/saint/9951/Saint-Valerien.html



Saint Tiburce

Martyr à Rome (+260)

A lire aussi: les saints martyrs Tiburce, Valérien et Maxime
(abbaye de Saint Benoît)

À Rome, au cimetière de Prétextat sur la voie Appienne, les saints martyrs Tiburce, Valérien et Maxime.
Martyrologe romain

Saint Maxime

Martyr à Rome (+260)

A lire aussi: les saints martyrs Tiburce, Valérien et Maxime (abbaye de Saint Benoît)


À Rome, au cimetière de Prétextat sur la voie Appienne, les saints martyrs Tiburce, Valérien et Maxime.
Martyrologe romain
SOURCE : https://nominis.cef.fr/contenus/saint/975/Saint-Maxime.html


Abbazia di San Valeriano, Diocesi di Vercelli, Via Reale, Robbio


Tiburtius, Valerius & Maximus MM (RM)

Died c. 190 (?). There is a Saint Tiburtius buried in the cemetery of Praetextatus on the Via Appia, together with Saint Valerian and Saint Maximus. Nothing else is known about them, but all three were given parts in the legend of Saint Cecilia and honored at Rome from an early date. According to the legend, Valerian was a young pagan when Cecilia was betrothed to him, not by her own wish, but by the decision of her parents. Cecilia had determined not to marry, so as to devote herself entirely to God. On their wedding day, she told Valerian of this vow. So persuasively did Cecilia speak of her faith that she converted her new husband to Christianity. He went to the home of his parents and succeeded in converting his brother, Tiburtius.

The two brothers now set about displaying the virtues of Christian charity. One of these was especially dangerous: gathering the broken bodies of Christian martyrs and giving them burial. Tiburtius and Valerian were caught at this work. The prefect Almachius demanded that they sacrifice to pagan gods. Both refused, so they were taken outside Rome to Pagus Triopius, where they were beaten, and then beheaded.

Maximus was a Roman official, who was so impressed by their witness to Christ that he became a Christian and was martyred with them. Cecilia buried the three and in turn was arrested and killed. The Roman Martyrology says that Tiburtius and the others suffered under Emperor Alexander, who ruled 222-235 (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Farmer).

SOURCE : http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0414.shtml


Abbazia di San Valeriano, Diocesi di Vercelli, Via Reale, Robbio

April 14

SS. Tiburtius, Valerian, and Maximus, Martyrs

See the acts of St. Cecily, and the remarks of Henschenius, ad 14 Aprilis, t. 2, pp. 203, 220.

A.D. 229.

THESE holy martyrs have always been held in singular veneration in the church, as appears from the ancient calendar of Fronto, the sacramentary of St. Gregory, St. Jerom’s Martyrology, that of Thomasius, &c. Valerian was espoused to St. Cecily, and converted by her to the faith; and with her he became the instrument of the conversion of his brother Tiburtius. Masimus, the officer appointed to attend their execution, was brought to the faith by the example of their piety, and received with them the crown of martyrdom, in the year 229. The theatre of their triumph seems to have been Rome, though some have imagined they suffered in Sicily. They were interred in the burying place of Prætextatus, which, from them, took the name of Tiburtius. It was contiguous to that of Calixtus. In that place Pope Gregory III. repaired their monument in 740; and Adrian I. built a church under their patronage. But Pope Paschal translated the remains of these martyrs, of St. Cecily, and the popes SS. Urban and Lucius, into the city, where the celebrated church of St. Cecily stands. These relics were found in it in 1599, and visited by the Order of Clement VIII., and approved genuine by the Cardinals Baronius and Sfondrate. The Greeks vie with the Latins in their devotion to these martyrs.

Most agreeable to the holy angels was this pious family, converted to God by the zeal and example of St. Cecily, who frequently assembled to sing together, with heavenly purity and fervour, the divine praises. We shall also draw upon ourselves the protection, constant favour, and tender attention of the heavenly spirits, if we faithfully imitate the same angelical exercise. Mortification, temperance, humility, meekness, purity of mind and body, continual sighs toward heaven, prayer, accompanied with tears and vehement heavenly desires, disengagement of the heart from the world, a pure and assiduous attention to God and to his holy will, and a perfect union by the most sincere fraternal charity, are virtues and exercises infinitely pleasing to them. The angels of peace are infinitely delighted to see the same perfect intelligence and union, which make an essential part of their bliss in heaven, reign among us on earth, and that we have all but one heart and one soul. Happy are those holy souls which have renounced the world, in order more perfectly to form in their hearts the spirit of these virtues, in which they cease not, day and night, to attend to the divine praises, and consecrate themselves to Jesus Christ, by employing their whole life in this divine exercise. Their profession is a prelude to, or rather a kind of anticipation of, the bliss of heaven. The state of the blessed, indeed, surpasses it in certain high privileges and advantages. First, They praise God with far greater love and esteem, because they see and know him much more clearly, and as he is in himself. Secondly, They praise him with more joy, because they possess him fully. Thirdly, Their praises have neither end nor interruption. Yet our present state has also its advantages. First, If our praises are mingled with tears, compunction, watchfulness, and conflicts, they merit a continual immense increase of grace, love, and bliss for eternity. Secondly, Our praises cost labour, difficulty, and pain: they are a purgatory of love; those of the blessed the reward and the sovereign bliss. Thirdly, We praise God in a place where he is little loved and little known: we celebrate his glory in an enemy’s country, amidst the contradiction of sinners. This obliges us to acquit ourselves of this duty with the utmost fidelity and fervour. A second motive to excite us to assiduity in this exercise is, that it associates us already to the angels and saints, and makes the earth a paradise: it is also, next to the sacraments, the most powerful means of our sanctification and salvation. With what delight do the holy angels attend and join us in it! With what awe and fervour, with what purity of heart, ardent love, and profound sentiments of humility, adoration, and all virtues, ought we in such holy invisible company to perform this most sacred action! We should go to it penetrated with fear and respect, as if we were admitted into the sanctuary of heaven itself, and mingled in its glorious choirs. We ought to behave at it as if we were in paradise, with the utmost modesty, in silence, annihilating ourselves in profound adoration with the seraphim, and pronouncing every word with interior sentiment and relish. From prayer we must come as if we were just descended from heaven, with an earnest desire of speedily returning thither, bearing God in our souls, all animated and inflamed by him, and preserving that spirit of devotion with which his presence filled us at prayer.

Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73).  Volume IV: April. The Lives of the Saints.  1866

SOURCE : http://www.bartleby.com/210/4/141.html


1866, 230 X 260, Museo del Prado
St. Cecilia
Virgin and martyrpatroness of church music, died at Rome.
This saint, so often glorified in the fine arts and in poetry, is one of the most venerated martyrs of Christian antiquity. The oldest historical account of St. Cecilia is found in the "Martyrologium Hieronymianum"; from this it is evident that her feast was celebrated in the Roman Church in the fourth century. Her name occurs under different dates in the above-mentioned martyrology; its mention under 11 August, the feast of the martyr Tiburtius, is evidently a later and erroneous addition, due to the fact that this Tiburtius, who was buried on the Via Labicana, was wrongly identified with Tiburtius, the brother-in-law of St. Cecilia, mentioned in the Acts of her martyrdom. Perhaps also there was another Roman martyr of the name of Cecilia buried on the Via Labicana. Under the date of 16 September Cecilia is mentioned alone, with the topographical note: "Appiâ viâ in eâdem urbe Româ natale et passio sanctæ Ceciliæ virginis (the text is to be thus corrected). This is evidently the day of the burial of the holy martyr in the Catacomb of Callistus. The feast of the saint mentioned under 22 November, on which day it is still celebrated, was kept in the church in the Trastevere quarter at Romededicated to her. Its origin, therefore, is to be traced most probably to this church. The early medieval guides (Itineraria) to the burial-places of Roman martyrs point out her grave on the Via Appia, next to the crypt of the Roman bishops of the third century (De Rossi, Roma sotterranea, I, 180-181). De Rossi located the burial-place of Cecilia in the Catacomb of Callistus in a crypt immediately adjoining the crypt or chapel of the popes; an empty niche in one of the walls contained, probably, at one time the sarcophagus with the bones of the saint. Among the frescoes of a later time with which the wall of the sepulchre are adorned, the figure of a richly-dressed woman appears twice and Pope Urban, who was brought personal into close relation with the saint by the Acts of her martyrdom, is depicted once. The ancient titular church of Rome, mentioned above was built as early as the fourth century and is still preserved in the Trastevere. This church was certainly dedicated in the fifth century to the saint buried on the Via Appia; it is mentioned in the signatures of the Roman Council of 499 as "titulus sanctae Caeciliae" (Mansi, Coll, Conc. VIII, 236). Like some other ancient Christian churches of Rome, which are the gifts of the saints whose names they bear, it may be inferred that the Roman Church owes this temple to the generosity of the holy martyr herself; in support of this view it is to be noted that the property, under which the oldest part of the true Catacomb of Callistus is constructed, belonged most likely, according to De Rossi's researches, to the family of St. Cecilia (Gens Caecilia), and by donation passed into the possession of the Roman Church. Although her name is not mentioned in the earliest (fourth century) list of feasts (Depositio martyrum), the fact that in the "Sacramentarium Leoniam", a collection of masses completed about the end of the fifth century, are found no less than five different masses in honour of St. Cecilia testifies to the great veneration in which the saint was at that time held in the Roman Church ["Sacram. Leon.", ed. Muratori, in "Opera" (Arezzo, 1771), XIII, I, 737, sqq.].
About the middle of the fifth century originated Acts of the martyrdom of St. Cecilia which have been transmitted in numerous manuscripts; these acts were also translated into Greek. They were utilized in the prefaces of the above-mentioned masses of the "Sacramentarium Leonianum". They inform us, that Cecilia, a virgin of a senatorial family and a Christian from her infancy, was given in marriage by her parents to a noble pagan youth Valerianus. When, after the celebration of the marriage, the couple had retired to the wedding-chamber, Cecilia told Valerianus that she was betrothed to an angel who jealously guarded her body; therefore Valerianus must take care not to violate her virginity. Valerianus wished to see the angel, whereupon Cecilia sent him to the third milestone on the Via Appia where he should meet Bishop (Pope) Urbanus. Valerianus obeyed, was baptized by the pope, and returned a Christian to Cecilia. An angel then appeared to the two and crowned them with roses and lilies. When Tiburtius, the brother of Valerianus, came to them, he too was won over to Christianity. As zealous children of the Faith both brothers distributed rich alms and buried the bodies of the confessors who had died for Christ. The prefect, Turcius Almachius, condemned them to death; an officer of the prefect, Maximus, appointed to execute this sentence, was himself converted and suffered martyrdom with the two brothers. Their remains were buried in one tomb by Cecilia. And now Cecilia herself was sought by the officers of the prefect. Before she was taken prisoner, she arranged that her house should be preserved as a place of worship for the Roman Church. After a glorious profession of faith, she was condemned to be suffocated in the bath of her own house. But as she remained unhurt in the overheated room, the prefect had her decapitated in that place. The executioner let his sword fall three times without separating the head from the trunk, and fled, leaving the virgin bathed in her own blood. She lived three days, made dispositions in favour of the poor, and provided that after her death her house should be dedicated as a church. Urbanus buried her among the bishops and the confessors, i.e. in the Catacomb of Callistus.
In this shape the whole story has no historical value; it is a pious romance, like so many others compiled in the fifth and sixth century. The existence of the aforesaid martyrs, however, is a historical fact. The relation between St. Cecilia and Valerianus, Tiburtius, and Maximus, mentioned in the Acts, has perhaps some historical foundation. These three saints were buried in the Catacomb of Praetextatus on the Via Appia, where their tombs are mentioned in the ancient pilgrim Itineraria. In the "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" their feast is set down under 14 April with the note: "Romae via Appia in cimiterio Prætextati"; and the octave under 21 April, with the comment: "Rome in cimiterio Calesti via Appia". In the opinion of Duchesne the octave was celebrated in the Catacomb of Callistus, because St. Cecilia was buried there. If, therefore, this second notice in the martyrology is older than the aforesaid Acts, and the latter did not give rise to this second feast, it follows that before the Acts were written this group of saints in Rome was brought into relation with St. Cecilia. The time when Cecilia suffered martyrdom is not known. From the mention of Urbanus nothing can be concluded as to the time of composition of the Acts; the author without any authority, simply introduced the confessor of this name (buried in the Catacomb of Praetextatus) on account of the nearness of his tomb to those of the other martyrs and identified him with the pope of the same name. The author of the "Liber Pontificalis" used the Acts for his notice of Urbanus. The Acts offer no other indication of the time of the martyrdomVenantius Fortunatus (Miscellanea, 1, 20; 8,6) and Ado (Martyrology, 22 November) place the death of the saint in the reign of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus (about 177), and De Rossi tried to prove this view as historically the surest one. In other Western sources of the early Middle Ages and in the Greek "Synaxaria" this martyrdom is placed in the persecution of Diocletian. P.A. Kirsch tried to locate it in the time of Alexander Severus (229-230); Aubé, in the persecution of Decius (249-250); Kellner, in that of Julian the Apostate (362). None of these opinion is sufficiently established, as neither the Acts nor the other sources offer the requisite chronological evidence. The only sure time indication is the position of the tomb in the Catacomb of Callistus, in the immediate proximity of the very ancient crypt of the popes, in which Urbanus probably, and surely Pontianus and Anterus were buried. The earliest part of this catacomb dates at all events from the end of the second century; from that time, therefore, to the middle of the third century is the period left open for the martyrdom of St. Cecilia.
Her church in the Trastevere quarter of Rome was rebuilt by Paschal I (817-824), on which occasion the pope wished to transfer thither her relics; at first, however, he could not find them and believed that they had been stolen by the Lombards. In a vision he saw St. Cecilia, who exhorted him to continue his search, as he had already been very near to her, i.e. near her grave. He therefore renewed his quest; and soon the body of the martyr, draped in costly stuffs of gold brocade and with the cloths soaked in her blood at her feet, was actually found in the Catacomb of Prætextatus. They may have been transported thither from the Catacomb of Callistus to save them from earlier depredations of the Lombards in the vicinity of Rome. The relics of St. Cecilia with those of Valerianus, Tiburtius, and Maximus, also those of Popes Urbanus and Lucius, were taken up by Pope Paschal, and reburied under the high altar of St. Cecilia in Trastevere. The monks of a convent founded in the neighbourhood by the same pope were charged with the duty of singing the daily Office in this basilica. From this time the veneration of the holy martyr continued to spread, and numerous churches were dedicated to her. During the restoration of the church in the year 1599 Cardinal Sfondrato had the high altar examined and found under it the sarcophagi, with the relics of the saints, that Pope Paschal had transported thither. Recent excavations beneath the church, executed at the instigation and expense of Cardinal Rampolla, disclosed remains of Roman buildings, which have remained accessible. A richly adorned underground chapel was built beneath the middle aisle, and in it a latticed window, opening over the altar, allows a view of the receptacles in which the bones of the saints repose. In a side chapel of the church there have long been shown the remains of the bath in which, according to the Acts, Cecilia was put to death.
The oldest representations of St. Cecilia show her in the attitude usual for martyrs in the Christian art of the earlier centuries, either with the crown of martyrdom in her hand (e.g. at S. Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna, in a sixth-century mosaic) or in the attitude of prayer, as an Orans (e.g. the two sixth and seventh-century pictures in her crypt). In the apse of her church in Trastevere is still preserved the mosaic made under Pope Paschal, wherein she is represented in rich garments as patroness of the popeMedieval pictures of the saint are very frequent; since the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries she is given the organ as an attribute, or is represented as playing on the organ, evidently to express what was often attributed to her in panegyrics and poems based on the Acts, viz., that while the musicians played at her nuptials she sang in her heart to God only ("cantantibus organis illa in corde suo soi domino decantabat"); possibly the cantantibus organis was erroneously interpreted of Cecilia herself as the organist. In this way the saint was brought into closer relation with music. When the Academy of Music was founded at Rome (1584) she was made patroness of the institute, whereupon her veneration as patroness of church music in general became still more universal; today Cecilian societies (musical associations) exist everywhere. The organ is now her ordinary attribute; with it Cecilia was represented by Raphael in a famous picture preserved at Bologna. In another magnificent masterpiece, the marble statute beneath the high altar of the above-mentioned church of St. Cecilia at RomeCarlo Maderna represented her lying prostrate, just as she had received the death-blow from the executioner's hand. Her feast is celebrated in the Latin and the Greek Church on 22 November. In the "Martyrologium Hieronymainum" are commemorated other martyrs of this name, but of none of them is there any exact historical information. One suffered martyrdom in Carthage with Dativus in 304.
Sources
MOMBRITIUS, Sanctuarium, I, 186 sqq.; BOSIO, Atti di S. Cecilia (Rome, 1600); SURIUS, De vitis Sanctorum (Venice, 1581), VI, 161 sqq.; LADERCHI, S. Caciliae virg. et mart. acta ac transtiberina basilica (Rome, 1722); BOLLANDISTS ed., Bibliotheca hagiographica latina (Brussels, 1898-99), I, 224; SIMEON METAPHRASTES, in P.G., CXVI; BARONIUS, Annales, ad an. 821, 15 xv (the spurious document of Pope Paschal I); BOLLANDISTS ed., Synaxarium Constatinopolitanum (Brussels, 1902), 243; Liber Pontificalis, ed. DUCHESNE, I, xciii sq., 143, and II, 55-57, 65; TILLEMONT, Hist. eccles., III, 259 sqq.; De Rossi, Roma Sotterranea, II, xxxii sq.; GUERANGER, Histoire de Ste Cécile (Paris 1849; 2nd ed., 1852); IDEM, Sainte Cécile et la société romaine (Paris, 1878); MORSE, BIRKS, and HOLE, in Dict. of Christian Biog., s.v.; AUBE, Les chrétiens dans l'empire romain (2nd ed., Paris, 1881), 352 sqq.; ALLARD, Histoire des persécutions, I, 427 sqq.; ERBES, Die heilige Cacilia im Zusammenhang mit der Papstcrypta sowie der ältesten Kirche Roms, in Zeitschrift fur Kirchengeschichte, IX, 1888, 1 sqq.; P.A. KIRSCH, Die heilge Cacilia, Jungfrau und Martyrin (Ratisbon, 1901); IDEM, Das Todesjahr der heiligen Cacilia, in Stromation Archaiologikon (Rome, 1900), 42-77; KELLNER, Das wahre Zeitalter der heil. Cacilia, in Theologische Quartalschrift (Tübingen, 1902), 237 sqq.; (1903), 321 sqq.; (1905), 258 sqq.; DUFOURCQ, Les Gesta martyrum romains (Paris, 1900), 116 sqq., 293 sqq.; MARUCCHI, Basiliques et églises de Rome (Rome, 1902), 438 sqq.; BIANCHI-CAGLIESI, S. Cecilia e sua basilica (Rome, 1902); DETZEL, Christl. Ikonographie (Freiburg im Br., 1896), 220 sqq.; ROHAULT DE FLEURY, Les saints de la Messe, I, pl, 16-17; P. SIXTUS, Elucubrationes historico-liturgicae de recenti quadem sententia circa aetatem S. Caeciliae martyris, in Ephemerides liturgicae (Rome, Sept.-Oct. 1907). See also the accounts in BUTLER, Lives of the Saints, 22 November.
Kirsch, Johann Peter. "St. Cecilia." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 14 Apr. 2020 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03471b.htm>.
Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Michael T. Barrett. Dedicated to Sophie Kidder-Chang.
Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. November 1, 1908. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York.



Cappella di San Valeriano, nei boschi di Val DellaTorre(TO)


Santi Tiburzio, Valeriano e Massimo Martiri di Roma


Roma, 177 - Roma, 14 aprile 229

I tre santi martiri Tiburzio, Valeriano e Massimo, vissuti nel III secolo a Roma, sono ricordati da antiche fonti sin dal V secolo, tuttavia vi sono due versioni che trattano la loro personalità ed esistenza storica; una è legata alla «Passio» di santa Cecilia († 232), mentre l'altra è riportata dal «Martirologio Geronimiano». Secondo la «Passio», Valeriano era sposo di Cecilia e da lei convertito, fu battezzato dal papa Urbano I (222-230) e a sua volta convertì al cristianesimo il fratello Tiburzio; ambedue furono condannati a morte dal prefetto Almachio, che li affidò al «cornicularius» Massimo, (ufficiale in seconda del console) il quale prima di fare eseguire la sentenza, si convertì anche lui, venendo così condannato e ucciso qualche giorno dopo. Valeriano e Tiburzio furono martirizzati e sepolti in un posto chiamato Pagus da Cecilia, a quattro miglia da Roma, ma che non è stato identificato, e che poco dopo seppellì anche Massimo in un diverso sarcofago. (Avvenire)
Etimologia: Tiburzio = oriundo di Tivoli, dal latino; Valeriano = che sta bene, forte, robus
Emblema: Palma

Martirologio Romano: A Roma nel cimitero di Pretestato sulla via Appia, santi Tiburzio, Valeriano e Massimo, martiri.

I tre santi martiri Tiburzio, Valeriano e Massimo, vissuti nel III secolo a Roma, sono ricordati da antiche fonti sin dal V secolo, tuttavia vi sono due versioni che trattano la loro personalità ed esistenza storica; una è legata alla “passio” di s. Cecilia († 232), mentre l’altra è riportata dal ‘Martirologio Geronimiano’.

Nel suddetto Martirologio sono citati ben quattro volte, la prima li indica come sepolti nel cimitero di Pretestato e ricordati il 14 aprile e questa versione è quella passata poi nel Martirologio Romano, ancora oggi in uso.

Le altre versioni li ricordano come sepolti in altri cimiteri di Roma, ricordati in date diverse, a volte confusi, come il caso di s. Tiburzio con altro omonimo; gli studiosi della materia non sono giunti ad una certezza assoluta, sembra comunque che nel cimitero di Pretestato era sepolto il solo s. Tiburzio con celebrazione al 14 aprile, mentre nel cimitero di Callisto vi erano Massimo e Valeriano con la loro celebrazione al 21 aprile, che vennero poi traslati nel cimitero di Pretestato; sembra che in seguito fu s. Gregorio Magno ad unirli in un’unica celebrazione.

Comunque secondo la ‘passio’, Valeriano era sposo di Cecilia e da lei convertito, fu battezzato dal papa Urbano I (222-230) e a sua volta convertì al cristianesimo il fratello Tiburzio; ambedue furono condannati a morte dal prefetto Almachio, che li affidò al “cornicularius” Massimo, (ufficiale in seconda del console) il quale prima di fare eseguire la sentenza, si convertì anche lui, venendo così condannato e ucciso qualche giorno dopo.

Valeriano e Tiburzio furono martirizzati e sepolti in un posto chiamato Pagus da Cecilia, a quattro miglia da Roma, ma che non è stato identificato, e che poco dopo seppellì anche Massimo in un diverso sarcofago.

I loro sepolcri furono restaurati prima da Gregorio III (731-41) poi da Adriano I (772-795) e finalmente da Pasquale I (817-24) il quale trasferì le loro reliquie nella basilica di S. Cecilia a Trastevere.

Autore: 
Antonio Borrelli




Giovanni Maria Chiodarolo e Cesare Tamaroccio. Battesimo di Valeriano, 1504-1506, 



San Valeriano Martire, venerato a Cumiana


La figura del martire San Valeriano non va assolutamente confusa con quella dell'omonimo presunto promesso sposo della martire romana Santa Cecilia, anche se il loro ricordo si celebra nel medesimo giorno. San Valeriano venerato a Cumiana ed in altre località del Piemonte, rientra nel folto gruppo dei martiri appartenenti alla famosa Legione Tebea, capitanata da San Maurizio, e sterminata nel Vallese nei pressi dell'antica Agaunum, ove oggi sorge il centro di Sainte Maurice.

Secondo una tradizione molto consolidata nei territori dell'arco alpino nord occidentale, non tutti i soldati furono uccisi sulle rive del Rodano, molti riuscirono a fuggire e a raggiungere le vallate della Valle d'Aosta, del Piemonte e della Lombardia. In questi luoghi svolsero opera di evangelizzazione presso le popolazioni ancora pagane e testimoniarono col sacrificio della vita la loro fede, o perché raggiunti da altri soldati mandati al loro inseguimento, o uccisi per mano di persecutori locali.

La critica agiografica, che molto si è occupata del caso della Legione Tebea, ha tentato di far luce anche su queste altre figure, giungendo a differenti risultati, tra loro spesso in contrasto. Da chi respinge totalmente le varie tradizioni locali di questi tebei fuggitivi, a chi accetta acriticamente ogni particolare delle loro leggende. Non è ovviamente possibile giungere ad una conclusione definitiva od univoca della problematica, dovendo ogni caso essere studiato ed analizzato singolarmente e solo successivamente confrontato con gli altri.

E' oggi opinione comune che santi o martiri locali, di cui per i più diversi motivi si perse memoria della loro reale identità, siano stati legati, per motivi agiografici e di necessità cultuale, agli autentici martiri tebei. Il loro numero fu ulteriormente accresciuto dalla traslazione di reliquie, dallo sdoppiamento di personaggi o anche semplicemente per motivi iconografici: bastava, infatti, che un santo fosse ritratto in abiti militari, per essere assimilato ai compagni di San Maurizio.

Valeriano dunque, secondo la tradizione, avrebbe raggiunto il territorio di Cumiana e lì si sarebbe dedicato alla diffusione della buona novella presso gli abitanti del luogo. Venne decapitato da un drappello di soldati che scoprirono il suo nascondiglio: il santo, prima di morire si inginocchiò e sulla pietra rimasero impresse le impronte delle sue ginocchia. Sul luogo del martirio, a circa un chilometro dalla frazione di Tavernette, alle pendici del monte Piuerne, venne poi innalzata una cappella votiva, ancor oggi esistente anche se in una più recente riedificazione, in cui è visibile il sasso del prodigio. E' molto probabile che questa tradizione sia da ricollegarsi all'esigenza di sacralizzare un luogo di culto pagano, dove si praticavano particolari riti litici, un fenomeno documentato per numerosi altri santuari dell'arco alpino e non.

Poco distante dalla cappella sorge il santuario vero e proprio. L'attuale costruzione venne terminata nel 1787, ma già dal 1454 è documentata la concessione, da parte del vescovo di Torino, di particolari indulgenze a chi avrebbe contribuito, con offerte o prestando manodopera, all'edificazione dell'oratorio in prossimità del sasso, venerato già in precedenza. Dietro l'altare maggiore dell'odierno santuario vi sarebbero ancora delle tracce di affreschi risalenti, molto probabilmente, a questa prima fase edilizia documentata.

Purtroppo i tre quadri che ornavano l'interno della chiesa e che rappresentavano altrettanti episodi della vita di San Valeriano, furono rubati negli scorsi decenni, insieme al reliquario in cui era conservata un'insigne reliquia del martire.

La festa annuale di San Valeriano si celebra il lunedì dell'Angelo; infatti, non essendo riportato dalla tradizione un dies natalis del santo, il suo nome venne segnato nei calendari al 14 di aprile, giorno in cui è commemorato, come si è detto, l'omonimo martire romano. Poiché tale giorno cade frequentemente in quaresima o nella Settimana Santa, la celebrazione venne fissata al giorno successivo la Pasqua, una giornata festiva che favorisce la partecipazione dei fedeli alla processione fino al pianoro sottostante il santuario e alla successiva celebrazione eucaristica.

Il santo, raffigurato nell'arte come un soldato romano, è anche venerato nella località che da lui prende il nome a Borgone di Susa, ove un oratorio, la cui costruzione presenta tracce di una fase romanica, venne edificato in prossimità della grotta in cui Valeriano avrebbe vissuto. forse anche in questo caso il culto del presunto martire tebeo fu una sacralizzazione di un più antico luogo di culto pagano.

Autore: 
Damiano Pomi