vendredi 12 avril 2013

Saint JULES I, Pape et confesseur



Médaillon dans la basilique Saint-Paul-hors-les-murs 
où se trouve une longue série de médaillons représentant tous les Papes de l’histoire

Saint Jules Ier

Il faudrait remettre à l'honneur ce nom d'un grand pape du IVe siècle. On doit s'en souvenir quand on proclame le "Credo", dont le sous-titre est "Symbole de Nicée Constantinople", les deux premiers conciles en Asie mineure. Jules Ier est pape entre les dates de ces deux conciles (325 et 381). Leur mission fut de "défendre et d'illustrer " le mystère de la Sainte Trinité et de la divinité du Christ contre l'hérésie de l'arianisme. De cette foi intégrale, le pape Jules II fut un ardent promoteur. Il ne s'agissait pas de querelles byzantines, comme on dit parfois, mais de la source et du sommet de la Révélation chrétienne. "Je crois en un seul Dieu le Père... et en un seul Seigneur, Jésus Christ son Fils unique et en l'Esprit Saint qui est Seigneur et qui donne la vie."

Le grand mérite du pape Jules Ier est d'avoir maintenu avec fermeté la foi en ce mystère primordial d'un seul Dieu en trois personnes. En le proclamant chaque dimanche et aux fêtes majeures de la liturgie, nous rejoignons "nos ancêtres de l'âge d'or" des premiers conciles et des pères de l'Église de ce IVe siècle, tels que les saints Basile de Césarée, les deux Grégoire de Nysse et de Nazianze et Athanase d'Alexandrie d'Egypte. Grâce à eux, sur la base des Evangiles du Christ, nous pouvons tenir solidement les deux bouts de la chaîne de l'Incarnation de Jésus vrai Dieu et vrai homme. L'arianisme - hérésie minimisant la divinité du Christ -, contre laquelle luttaient ces géants de la vraie foi, a toujours tendance à renaître. Des titres récents l'expriment, désignant Jésus comme "L'homme qui s'est pris pour Dieu" ou "L'homme qui est devenu Dieu".

Le pape Jules Ier acheva sa mission de Pasteur intrépide du Peuple de Dieu à Rome le 12 avril 352.

Le prénom Jules vient du latin Julia, famille illustre de romains qui prétendaient être les descendants directs de Vénus !

Le membre le plus célèbre de cette famille est bien sûr Jules César.

Rédacteur : Frère Bernard Pineau, OP



Saint Jules Ier

Pape (35 ème) de 337 à 352 (✝ 352)

Il travailla à affermir la foi en combattant l'arianisme qui professait que, si le Christ était parfait, en revanche il n'était pas divin. Son mérite fut d'avoir maintenu le mystère de la Sainte Trinité contre ceux qui tentaient de faire de la doctrine chrétienne un monothéisme à moitié rationaliste, acceptable par tous sans doute, mais éloigné des paroles du Christ lui-même dans leur interprétation fondamentale.

Il fallut six conciles pour que la doctrine trinitaire et christologique puisse exprimer et respecter le mystère essentiel de la foi. Le plus célèbre d'entre eux fut celui que le Pape Jules Ier réunit à Sardique (actuellement Sofia en Bulgarie) Au moment où le patriarche d'Alexandrie, saint Athanase, était exilé, le Pape saint Jules le soutint et le rencontra à Rome.

À Rome, au cimetière de Calépode, au troisième mille sur la voie Aurélienne, en 352, la mise au tombeau du pape saint Jules Ier, qui garda fermement la foi catholique, alors que sévissaient les ariens, prit la défense de saint Athanase contre les attaques de ses ennemis, l’accueillit quand il fut exilé et prit soin de convoquer dans cette affaire le Concile de Sardique.

Martyrologe romain



Saint Jules I (337-352)

Lors du concile de Sardes (actuelle Sofia), il fut établi que toute décision prise lors des conciles ou par les sièges épiscopaux devrait être ratifiée par Rome.

On doit à ce Pape l’institution des Archives Vaticanes.

Il fut inhumé dans l’église Sainte Marie, à Transtevere.


Pope St. Julius I

The reign of Pope St. Julius (337-352) found at its doorstep the vexing problem of the Eastern Arians. It is true that the Council of Nicaea had condemned Arianism, but in spite of that Arians had been growing in strength and had even gained the ear of Constantine, and what was more crucial, that of his son Constantius who succeeded him in the East.

The man who was compelled to face the problem was Julius, a Roman who had been chosen to succeed Mark after an unexplained interval of four months. He soon received delegates from Alexandria asking him to acknowledge a certain Pistus as bishop of Alexandria in place of Athanasius, the mighty fighter for orthodoxy. The delegates tried to prove that Athanasius, who actually had been the victim of Arian intrigue, had been validly deposed. Athanasius on his part also sent envoys and later came to Rome in person to plead his case before the Pope. The Arians asked Julius to hold a synod to decide the case, but when in 341 Julius actually did convene it, they refused to attend. The Pope held it without them and over fifty bishops decreed that Athanasius had been unjustly condemned. Julius informed the Arians at Alexandria of this decision and let them know that he was displeased at their uncooperative attitude.

The Emperor Constans, who ruled in the West, was favorable to the orthodox Christians while his brother Constantius, who ruled the East, was proArian. At this time both Emperors agreed to hold a big general council to see if religious unity could be achieved. Pope Julius approved of the plan and sent legates to Sardica, the modern Sofia, where the council gathered. The council did not achieve religious unity because the Arians, when they found themselves outnumbered, walked out. The council once again vindicated Athanasius and once more repeated the solemn Nicene Creed. It also left an interesting set of regulations on the manner in which appeals to the pope should be made.

In spite of the repeated vindications of Athanasius, that good man was unable to return to his see. Emperor Constans supported the Arian George until the usurper died. Then and only then was the long-suffering Athanasius allowed to go home. Pope Julius, delighted, wrote a letter to the people of Alexandria, congratulating them on the return of their true bishop.

At Rome the number of Christians continued to grow during the pontificate of Julius. He built two new basilicas and three cemetery churches. The stay of St. Athanasius at Rome helped to popularize Egyptian monasticism and gave an impetus to religious life there.

Pope St. Julius died April 12, 352. He was buried in the Cemetery of Calepodius. His feast is kept on April 12.



Pope St. Julius I

(337-352).

The immediate successor of Pope Silvester, Arcus, ruled the Roman Church for only a very short period — from 18 January to 7 October, 336 — and after his death the papal chair remained vacant for four months. What occasioned this comparatively long vacancy is unknown. On 6 Feb., 337, Julius, son of Rustics and a native ofRome, was elected pope. His pontificate is chiefly celebrated for his judicious and firm intervention in theArian controversies, about which we have abundant sources of information. After the death of Constantine the Great (22 May, 337), his son Constantine II, Governor of Gaul, permitted the exiled Athanasius to return to hisSee of Alexandria (see ATHANASIUS). The Arians in Egypt, however, set up a rival bishop in the person ofPistus, and sent an embassy to Julius asking him to admit Pistus into communion with Rome, and delivering to the pope the decisions of the Council of Tyre (335) to prove that Athanasius had been validly deposed. On his side Athanasius likewise sent envoys to Rome to deliver to Julius a synodal letter of the Egyptian bishops, containing a complete justification of their patriarch. On the arrival of the Athanasian envoys in Rome,Macarius, the head of the Arian representatives, left the city; the two remaining Arian envoys, with theAthanasian deputies, were summoned by Pope Julius. The Arian envoys now begged the pope to assemble a great synod before which both parties should present their case for decision.


Julius convened the synod at Rome, having dispatched two envoys to bear a letter of invitation to the Easternbishops. Under the leadership of Eusebius, who had been raised from Nicomedia to the See of Constantinople, the Arian bishops had meanwhile held a council at Antioch, and elected George of Cappadocia Bishop ofAlexandria in the place of Pistus. George was intruded forcibly into his see, and Athanasius, being again exiled, made his way to Rome. Many other Eastern bishops removed by the Arian party, among them Marcellus of Ancyra, also came to Rome. In a letter couched in haughty terms, however, the Arian bishops of the party of Eusebius refused to attend the synod summoned by Julius. The synod was held in the autumn of 340 or 341, under the presidency of the pope, in the titular church of the presbyter Vitus. After a detailedexamination of the documents, Athanasius and Marcellus of Ancyra, who had made a satisfactory profession offaith, were exonerated and re-established in their episcopal rights. Pope Julius communicated this decision in a very notable and able letter to the bishops of the Eusebian party. In this letter he justifies his proceedings in the case, defends in detail his action in reinstating Athanasius, and animadverts strongly on the non-appearance of the Eastern bishops at the council, the convening of which they themselves had suggested. Even if Athanasius and his companions were somewhat to blame, the letter runs, the Alexandrian Churchshould first have written to the pope. "Can you be ignorant," writes the pope, "that this is the custom, that we should be written to first, so that from here what is just may be defined" (Julii ep. ad Antiochenos, c. xxii). After his victory over his brother Constantine II, Emperor Constans was ruler over the greater part of theEmpire. He was entirely orthodox in his views, and, at the request of the pope and other Western bishops,interceded with his brother Constantius, Emperor of the East, in favour of the bishops who had been deposedand persecuted by the Arian party. Both rulers agreed that there should be convened a general council of theWestern and Eastern bishops at Sardica, the principal city of the Province of Dacia Mediterranea (the modern Sofia). It took place in the autumn of 342 or 343, Julius sending as his representatives the priests Archidamusand Philoxenus and the deacon Leo. Although the Eastern bishops of the Arian party did not join in thecouncil, but held their assembly separate and then departed, the synod nevertheless accomplished its task. Through the important canons iii, iv, and v (vii in the Latin text) of this council, the procedure against accusedbishops was more exactly regulated, and the manner of the papal intervention in the condemnation of bishopswas definitely established.

At the close of its transactions the synod communicated its decisions to the pope in a dutiful letter. Notwithstanding the reaffirmation of his innocence by the Synod of Sardica, St. Athanasius was not restored to his see by Emperor Constantius until after the death of George, the rival Bishop of Alexandria, in 346. Pope Julius took this occasion to write a letter, which is still extant, to the priests, deacons, and the faithful ofAlexandria, to congratulate them on the return of their great pastor. The two bishops Ursacius of Singidunumand Valens of Mursia, who, on account of their Arianism, had been deposed by the Council of Sardica, now made a formal recantation of their error to Julius, who, having summoned them to an audience and received a signed confession of faith, restored to them their episcopal sees. Concerning the inner life of the Roman Church during the pontificate of Julius we have no exact information; all agree, however, that there was a rapid increase in the number of the faithful in Rome, where Julius had two new basilicas erected: the titularchurch of Julius (now S. Maria in Trastevere) and the Basilica Julia (now the Church of the Twelve Apostles). Beside these he built three churches over cemeteries outside the walls of Rome: one on the road to Porto, a second on the Via Aurelia, and a third on the Via Flaminia at the tomb of the martyr St. Valentine. The ruins of the last-mentioned have been discovered. The veneration of the faithful for the tombs of the martyrscontinued to spread rapidly. Under the pontificate of Julius, if not earlier, catalogues of feast-days of saintscame into use — the Roman feast-calendar of Philocalus dates from the year 336.


Through St. Athanasius, who remained in Rome several years subsequent to 339, the Egyptian monastic lifebecame well-known in the capital, and the example of the hermits of the Egyptian deserts found many imitators in the Roman Church. Julius died on 12 April, 352, and was buried in the catacombs of Calepodius on the Aurelian Way, and, very soon after his death, was honoured as a saint. His body was later transported to S. Maria in Trastevere, the church which he had built. His feast is celebrated on 12 April.

Sources

Liber Pontif., ed. DUCHESNE, I, 205: P.L., VIII, 858 sqq.; JAFFE, Regesta Rom. Pont., I (2nd ed.), 30 sqq.: RIVINGTON, The primitive church and the see of St. Peter, 173 sqq., 407 sqq.; DUCHESNE, Hist. ancienne de l'Église, II (Paris, 1907), 197 sqq.; GRISAR, Gesch. Roms und der Paepste, I, 150 sqq., 253 sqq.: LANGEN, Gesch. der roemischen Kirche, I, 424-59; HEFELE, Konziliengesch., I (2nd ed.), 499 sqq., 553 sqq.; FUNCK, Die Echtheit der Kanones von Sardika in Kirchengesch. Abhandl. u. Untersuch., III (Paderborn, 1907), 159-217.

Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope St. Julius I." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 11 Apr. 2015 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08561a.htm>.

Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by John Fobian. In memory of Donald Thomas.


Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. October 1, 1910. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York.


Pope St. Julius I

The immediate successor of Pope Silvester, Arcus, ruled the Roman Church for only a very short period — from 18 January to 7 October, 336 — and after his death the papal chair remained vacant for four months.

What occasioned this comparatively long vacancy is unknown. On 6 Feb., 337, Julius, son of Rustics and a native of Rome, was elected pope. His pontificate is chiefly celebrated for his judicious and firm intervention in the Arian controversies, about which we have abundant sources of information. After the death of Constantine the Great (22 May, 337), his son Constantine II, Governor of Gaul, permitted the exiled Athanasius to return to his See of Alexandria

The Arians in Egypt, however, set up a rival bishop in the person of Pistus, and sent an embassy to Julius asking him to admit Pistus into communion with Rome, and delivering to the pope the decisions of the Council of Tyre (335) to prove that Athanasius had been validly deposed. On his side Athanasius likewise sent envoys to Rome to deliver to Julius a synodal letter of the Egyptian bishops, containing a complete justification of their patriarch.

On the arrival of the Athanasian envoys in Rome, Macarius, the head of the Arian representatives, left the city; the two remaining Arian envoys, with the Athanasian deputies, were summoned by Pope Julius. The Arian envoys now begged the pope to assemble a great synod before which both parties should present their case for decision.

Julius convened the synod at Rome, having dispatched two envoys to bear a letter of invitation to the Eastern bishops. Under the leadership of Eusebius, who had been raised from Nicomedia to the See of Constantinople, the Arian bishops had meanwhile held a council at Antioch, and elected George of Cappadocia Bishop of Alexandria in the place of Pistus. George was intruded forcibly into his see, and Athanasius, being again exiled, made his way to Rome.

Many other Eastern bishops removed by the Arian party, among them Marcellus of Ancyra, also came to Rome. In a letter couched in haughty terms, however, the Arian bishops of the party of Eusebius refused to attend the synod summoned by Julius. The synod was held in the autumn of 340 or 341, under the presidency of the pope, in the titular church of the presbyter Vitus. After a detailed examination of the documents, Athanasius and Marcellus of Ancyra, who had made a satisfactory profession of faith, were exonerated and re-established in their episcopal rights. Pope Julius communicated this decision in a very notable and able letter to the bishops of the Eusebian party.

In this letter he justifies his proceedings in the case, defends in detail his action in reinstating Athanasius, and animadverts strongly on the non-appearance of the Eastern bishops at the council, the convening of which they themselves had suggested. Even if Athanasius and his companions were somewhat to blame, the letter runs, the Alexandrian Church should first have written to the pope. "Can you be ignorant," writes the pope, "that this is the custom, that we should be written to first, so that from here what is just may be defined" (Julii ep. ad Antiochenos, c. xxii). After his victory over his brother Constantine II, Emperor Constans was ruler over the greater part of the Empire.

He was entirely orthodox in his views, and, at the request of the pope and other Western bishops, interceded with his brother Constantius, Emperor of the East, in favour of the bishops who had been deposed and persecuted by the Arian party. Both rulers agreed that there should be convened a general council of the Western and Eastern bishops at Sardica, the principal city of the Province of Dacia Mediterranea (the modern Sofia). It took place in the autumn of 342 or 343, Julius sending as his representatives the priests Archidamus and Philoxenus and the deacon Leo. Although the Eastern bishops of the Arian party did not join in the council, but held their assembly separate and then departed, the synod nevertheless accomplished its task. Through the important canons iii, iv, and v (vii in the Latin text) of this council, the procedure against accused bishops was more exactly regulated, and the manner of the papal intervention in the condemnation of bishops was definitely established.

At the close of its transactions the synod communicated its decisions to the pope in a dutiful letter. Notwithstanding the reaffirmation of his innocence by the Synod of Sardica, St. Athanasius was not restored to his see by Emperor Constantius until after the death of George, the rival Bishop of Alexandria, in 346. Pope Julius took this occasion to write a letter, which is still extant, to the priests, deacons, and the faithful of Alexandria, to congratulate them on the return of their great pastor.

The two bishops Ursacius of Singidunum and Valens of Mursia, who, on account of their Arianism, had been deposed by the Council of Sardica, now made a formal recantation of their error to Julius, who, having summoned them to an audience and received a signed confession of faith, restored to them their episcopal sees.

Concerning the inner life of the Roman Church during the pontificate of Julius we have no exact information; all agree, however, that there was a rapid increase in the number of the faithful in Rome, where Julius had two new basilicas erected: the titular church of Julius (now S. Maria in Trastevere) and the Basilica Julia (now the Church of the Twelve Apostles). Beside these he built three churches over cemeteries outside the walls of Rome: one on the road to Porto, a second on the Via Aurelia, and a third on the Via Flaminia at the tomb of the martyr St. Valentine.

The ruins of the last-mentioned have been discovered. The veneration of the faithful for the tombs of the martyrs continued to spread rapidly. Under the pontificate of Julius, if not earlier, catalogues of feast-days of saints came into use — the Roman feast-calendar of Philocalus dates from the year 336.

Through St. Athanasius, who remained in Rome several years subsequent to 339, the Egyptian monastic life became well-known in the capital, and the example of the hermits of the Egyptian deserts found many imitators in the Roman Church. Julius died on 12 April, 352, and was buried in the catacombs of Calepodius on the Aurelian Way, and, very soon after his death, was honoured as a saint. His body was later transported to S. Maria in Trastevere, the church which he had built.

SOURCE : http://www.catholic.net/index.php?option=dedestaca&id=7684

Julius I, Pope (RM)

Born in Rome; died there in April 12, 352. Saint Julius, son of Rusticus, was elected pope on February 6, 337, to succeed Pope Saint Mark. Soon Julius was involved in the Arian controversy when Eusebius of Nicomedia opposed the return of Saint Athansius to the see of Alexandria in 338. The Arian bishops in the East sent three deputies to Julius to accuse Athanasius. Julius shared the charges they presented with Athanasius, who thereupon sent his representatives to Rome. Upon questioning them, he decided that the accusations of Eusebius were false.


At the insistence of the Arians, Julius convened a synod in Rome in 340 or 341 in which Athanasius and other orthodox bishops participated. Neither the Arians or semi-Arians attended. When Julius demanded the they appear before him, they answered by convening the council of Antioch in 341 during which Eusebuis and his followers elected George as patriarch of Alexandria, whereupon the Arians elected Pistus (so now there are three bishops of the same see).

In a letter to the Eusebian bishops, Julius declared that Athanasius was the rightful patriarch of Alexandria and reinstated him. In it the Holy Father demonstrates the authority of the bishop of Rome. He writes:

"If they [Athanasius and Marcellus] had been guilty, you should have written to us all, that judgment might have been given by all: for they were bishops and churches that suffered, and these not common churches, but the same that the apostles themselves had governed. Why did they not write to us especially concerning the church of Alexandria? Are you ignorant, that it is the custom to write to us immediately, and that the decision ought to come from hence? In case therefore that the bishop of that see lay under any suspicions, you ought to have written to our church. But now, without having sent us any information on the subject, and having acted just as you thought proper, you require of us to approve your measures, without sending us any account of the reasons of your proceedings. These are not the ordinances of Paul, this is not the tradition of our fathers; this is an unprecedented sort of conduct. I declare to you what we have learned from the blessed apostle Peter, and I believe it so well known to everybody, that I should not have mentioned it, had not this happened."

This letter is considered one of the most momentous pronouncements of the Roman see, according to the historian Socrates, who wrote: "Julius, by virtue of the prerogative of his see, sent the bishops into the East, with letters full of vigor, restoring to each of them his see." Sozomen similarly writes: "For, because the care of all belonged to him, by the dignity of his see, he restored to every one his church."

The matter was not really settled until the Council of Sardica (Sofia), summoned by the Emperors Constans and Constantius in 342 or 343 at the urging of Julius, which declared Julius's action correct and that any deposed bishop had the right of appeal to the pope in Rome. It declared Athanasius and Marcellus of Ancyra as orthodox and restored them to their respective sees. (This was an ecumenical council but is considered as an appendix to the Council of Nicaea because it only confirmed its decrees, although it enacted 21 disciplinary canons.)

Julius, a model of charity and wisdom, also built several basilicas and churches in Rome before his death (Attwater2, Benedictines, Delaney, Husenbeth).


SOURCE : http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0412.shtml

April 12

St. Julius, Pope and Confessor

HE was a Roman, and chosen pope on the 6th of February, in 337. The Arian bishops in the East sent to him three deputies to accuse St. Athanasius, the zealous patriarch of Alexandria. These informations, as the order of justice required, Julius imparted to Athanasius, who thereupon sent his deputies to Rome; when, upon an impartial hearing, the advocates of the heretics were confounded, and silenced, upon every article of their accusation. The Arians then demanded a council, and the pope assembled one in Rome, in 341, at which appeared St. Athanasius, Marcellus of Ancyra, and other orthodox prelates, who entreated the pope that he would cite their adversaries to appear. Julius accordingly sent them an order to repair to Rome within a limited time. They, instead of obeying, held a pretended council at Antioch, in 341, in which they presumed to appoint one Gregory an impious Arian, bishop of Alexandria, detained the pope’s legates beyond the time mentioned for their appearance; and then wrote to his holiness, alleging a pretended impossibility of their appearing, on account of the Persian war and other impediments. The pope easily saw through these pretences, and, in a council at Rome, examined the cause of St. Athanasius, declared him innocent of the things laid to his charge by the Arians, and confirmed him in his see. He also acquitted Marcellus of Ancyra, upon his orthodox profession of faith. “Julius, by virtue of the prerogative of his see, sent the bishops into the East, with letters full of vigour, restoring to each of them his see,” says Socrates. 1 “For, because the care of all belonged to him, by the dignity of his see, he restored to every one his church.” as Sozomen writes. 2 He drew up and sent by Count Gabian, to the Oriental Eusebian bishops, who had first demanded a council, and then refused to appear in it, an excellent letter, which Tillemont calls one of the finest monuments of ecclesiastical antiquity. In it we admire an extraordinary genius, and solid judgment, but, far more, an apostolic vigour and resolution tempered with charity and meekness. “If,” says he, “they (Athanasius and Marcellus) had been guilty, ye should have written to us all, that judgment might have been given by all: for they were bishops and churches that suffered, and these not common churches, but the same that the apostles themselves had governed. Why did they not write to us especially concerning the church of Alexandria? Are you ignorant, that it is the custom to write to us immediately, and that the decision ought to come from hence? In case therefore that the bishop of that see lay under any suspicions, ye ought to have written to our church. But now, without having sent us any information on the subject, and having acted just as ye thought proper, ye require of us to approve your measures, without sending us any account of the reasons of your proceedings. These are not the ordinances of Paul, this is not the tradition of our fathers; this is an unprecedented sort of conduct.—I declare to you what we have learned from the blessed Apostle Peter, and I believe it so well known to every body, that I should not have mentioned it, had not this happened.” 3 Finding the Eusebians still obstinate, he moved Constans, emperor of the West, to demand the concurrence of his brother Constantius in the assembling of a general council at Sardica, in Illyricum. This was opened in May, 347, 4 and was a general synod, as Baronius and Natalis Alexander demonstrate; but is joined as an appendix to the council of Nice, because it only confirmed its decrees of faith. This council declared St. Athanasius and Marcellus of Ancyra orthodox and innocent, deposed certain Arian bishops, and framed twenty-one canons of discipline. The first of these forbids the translation of bishops; for, if frequently made, it opens a door to let ambition and covetousness into the sanctuary, of which Eusebius of Nicomedia was a scandalous instance. The third, fourth, and seventh agree, that any bishop deposed by a synod in his province has a right to appeal to the bishop of Rome. St. Julius sat fifteen years, two months, and six days, dying on the 12th of April, 352. See St. Athanasius, Hist. Arianorum ad Monachos, t. 1, p. 349, et Apolog. contra Arianos, p. 142, 199; Tillemont, t. 7, p. 278; Fleury, t. 3; Ceillier, t. 4, p. 484; see also the letter of Julius to Prosdocius, with remarks; and his letter to the church of Alexandria, with the notes of Muratori, &c., in the second tome of the new complete edition of the Councils, printed at Venice in 1759.

Note 1. Socr. b. 2, c. 15. [back]

Note 2. Soz. b. 3, c. 7; Fleury, l. 12, Hist. n. 20, t. 3, p. 310. [back]

Note 3. See this letter inserted entire by St. Athanasius in his Apology, p. 141. [back]

Note 4. See Mansi in Suppl. Concil. t. 1, where he shows, in a particular Dissertation, that the council of Sardica was not held in 347, as most modern historians imagine, but in 344, and rectifies the history of it from three letters which he first published. [back]

Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73).  Volume IV: April. The Lives of the Saints.  1866.