mercredi 20 novembre 2013

Saint EDMOND le Martyr, roi

Saint Edmond le Martyr

roi d'Est-Anglia, martyr ( 870)

ou saint Edme. 

Il était le roi d'un petit royaume de l'est de l'Angleterre que les Danois envahissaient souvent. Fait prisonnier lors d'une bataille dans le Suffolk, il refusa leurs conditions en particulier celle d'apostasier et périt décapité après avoir été criblé de flèches. Les Anglais lui donnèrent la couronne du martyre. Il a laissé son nom à l'abbaye et à la ville de Bury-saint-Edmund

 (…). 

Dans le Norfolk en Angleterre, l’an 870, saint Edmond, martyr. Roi des Angles de l’Est, il lutta contre l’invasion des Vikings, fut vaincu, capturé et tué, parce qu’il refusait de renier la foi chrétienne.

Martyrologe romain

Saint Edmond, Roi et Martyr d'Anglie orientale (869)

Le saint roi orthodoxe Edmond le martyr, est un roi et martyr de l'Anglie orientale, du IXe siècle. Il monta sur le trône d'Anglie orientale en 855 à quatorze ans. Il mourut en martyr en luttant contre la "Grande Armée Païenne", une grande armée de Vikings qui pilla et conquit une grande partie de l'Angleterre à la fin du neuvième siècle. Il fut vénéré très tôt et devint populaire parmi la noblesse anglo-normande. Sa fête est au 20 Novembre.

Edmond est né en 841. Les premiers récits et les histoires sont vagues en ce qui concerne l'identité de son père. Les sources considérées comme les plus fiables représentent Edmond comme descendant des précédents rois d'Anglie orientale. Quand le roi Ethelweard mourut en 854, ce fut Edmond, alors qu'il n'avait que quatorze ans, qui lui succéda sur le trône.

On sait peu de choses des quatorze années subséquentes d'Edmond. Il a été dit de son règne qu'il était celui d'un roi modèle. On dit qu'il traitait tous avec une égale justice et qu'il était insensible aux flatteries. Il est dit qu'il passa un an dans sa résidence de Hunstanton à apprendre le psautier qu'il était capable de réciter de mémoire.

Les sources de description de son martyre varient. Les Danois de la Grande Armée Païenne avancèrent sur l'Anglie orientale en 869 et furent confrontés au roi Edmond et à son armée. Si Edmond pourrait avoir été tué dans la bataille, les traditions populaires sont qu'Edmond refusa les demandes des païens Danois de renoncer au Christ, ou qu'il ne pouvait tenir son royaume en tant que vassal de seigneurs païens. Ces deux histoires datent de peu de temps après sa mort et on ne sait pas laquelle des deux versions est la bonne.

Selon un biographe, Abbon de Fleury, Edmond a choisi, à la manière du Christ, de ne pas utiliser les armes avec les Danois païens et il fut capturé et emmené à Hoxne dans le Suffolk. Là, il fut battu puis attaché à un gros arbre où il a de nouveau été battu. Entendant les appels d'Edmond au Christ, pour avoir du courage, les Danois l'attaquèrent encore, tirant des nombreuses flèches sur le roi lié qui ne montra aucun désir de renoncer au Christ. Enfin, il fut décapité le 20 Novembre 869.

Le corps d'Edmond fut enterré à Beadoriceworth, le Bury Saint Edmunds moderne. Cet endroit est devenu un sanctuaire d'Edmond qui a grandement accru sa renommée. Sa popularité parmi la noblesse d'Angleterre a augmenté et a duré. Sa bannière est devenue un symbole chez les Anglo-Normands dans leurs expéditions en l'Irlande et à Caerlaverock Castle. Son emblème était porté sur une bannière à la bataille d'Azincourt. Des églises et des collèges ont été nommés d'après saint Edmond dans toute l'Angleterre .

Ces dernières années, des initiatives ont ont été prises en Angleterre pour restaurer saint Edmond comme saint patron de l'Angleterre. Edmond avait été remplacé par Saint-Georges comme saint patron par l'association de Saint-Georges du roi Edouard III avec l'Ordre de la Jarretière. La tentative a échoué. Cependant, saint Edmund a été nommé saint patron du comté de Suffolk en 2006.

Version française Claude Lopez-Ginisty
d'après

Ton 3

Tropaire à saint Edmond, Roi d'Anglie orientale,
Martyr, (Natalice en 869 A.D.)

Ton père ayant quitté le trône pour la bure,*
Tu reçus la couronne pour tes quatorze ans.*
Tu fus le modèle des monarques chrétiens,*
Et lors de l'invasion des barbares danois,*
Tu as donné ta vie pour l'Eglise du Christ.*
Saint Edmond, implore pour nous le Roi de Gloire!


St. Edmund the Martyr

King of East Anglia, born about 840; died at Hoxne, Suffolk, 20 November, 870. The earliest and most reliable accounts represent St. Edmund as descended from the preceding kings of East Anglia, though, according to later legends, he was born at Nuremberg (Germany), son to an otherwise unknown King Alcmund of Saxony. Though only about fifteen years old when crowned in 855, Edmund showed himself a model ruler from the first, anxious to treat all with equal justice, and closing his ears to flatterers and untrustworthy informers. In his eagerness for prayer he retired for a year to his royal tower at Hunstanton and learned the whole Psalter by heart, in order that he might afterwards recite it regularly. In 870 he bravely repulsed the two Danish chiefs Hinguar and Hubba who had invaded his dominions. They soon returned with overwhelming numbers, and pressed terms upon him which as a Christian he felt bound to refuse. In his desire to avert a fruitless massacre, he disbanded his troops and himself retired towards Framlingham; on the way he fell into the hands of the invaders. Having loaded him with chains, his captors conducted him to Hinguar, whose impious demands he again rejected, declaring his religion dearer to him than his life. His martyrdom took place in 870 at Hoxne in Suffolk. After beating him with cudgels, the Danes tied him to a tree, and cruelly tore his flesh with whips. Throughout these tortures Edmund continued to call upon the name of Jesus, until at last, exasperated by his constancy, his enemies began to discharge arrows at him. This cruel sport was continued until his body had the appearance of a porcupine, when Hinguar commanded his head to be struck off. From his first burial-place at Hoxne his relics were removed in the tenth century to Beodricsworth, since called St. Edmundsbury, where arose the famous abbey of that name. His feast is observed 20 November, and he is represented in Christian art with sword and arrow, the instruments of his torture.

Sources

Thomas Arnold, Memorials of St. Edmund's Abbey in R.S. (London, 1890), containing Abbo of Fleury, Passio S. Eadmundi (985), and Gaufridus De Fontibus, Infantia S. Eadmundi (c. 1150); Tynemouth and Capgrave, Nova Legenda Angliae, ed. Horstman (Oxford, 1901); Butler, Lives of the Saints (Dublin, 1872); Mackinlay, Saint Edmund King and Martyr (London, 1893).

Phillips, George. "St. Edmund the Martyr." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909.20 Nov. 2016 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05295a.htm>.

Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Ian Bruce Montgomery. Sermo Tuus Veritas Est.


Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. May 1, 1909. Remy Lafort, Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York.



St. Edmund, King and Martyr

On Christmas Day 855, 14-year-old Edmund was acclaimed king of Norfolk by the ruling men and clergy of that county. The following year the leaders of Suffolk also made him their king.
For 15 years Edmund ruled over the East Angles with what all acknowledged as Christian dignity and justice. He himself seems to have modelled his piety on that of King David in the Old Testament, becoming especially proficient in reciting the Psalms in public worship.
From the year 866 his kingdom was increasingly threatened by Danish invasions. For four years the East Angles managed to keep a shaky, often broken peace with them. Then the invaders burned Thetford. King Edmund’s army attacked the Danes but could not defeat the marauders.
On reaching East Anglia, their leaders confronted Edmund and offered him peace on condition that he would rule as their vassal and forbid the practice of the Christian faith. Edmund refused this last condition, fought, and was captured.
After his refusal he was tied to a tree and became the target for Danish bowmen until he was pierced by dozens of arrows. This torture he endured bravely all the while calling on the name of Jesus. He was finally decapitated. His burial place is the town of Bury St. Edmunds.
The tree at which tradition declared Edmund to have been slain stood in the park at Hoxne until 1849, when it fell. In the course of its breaking up an arrow-head was found embedded in the trunk.
Saint Edmund thus remains the only English sovereign until the time of King Charles I to die for religious beliefs as well as the defense of his throne. Edmund was quickly revered as a martyr and his cultus spread widely during the middle ages. Along with St. George, St. Edmund is the Patron Saint of England.

SOURCE : http://www.ucatholic.com/saints/st-edmund-the-martyr/

Edmund the Martyr, King (RM)

Born 841; died at Hoxne, Suffolk, England, in 869 or 870. Feast day formerly November 2.



On Christmas Day 855, 14-year-old Edmund was acclaimed king of Norfolk by the ruling men and clergy of that county. The following year the leaders of Suffolk also made him their king.

For 15 years Edmund ruled over the East Angles with what all acknowledged as Christian dignity and justice. He himself seems to have modelled his piety on that of King David in the Old Testament, becoming especially proficient in reciting the Psalms in public worship.

From the year 866 his kingdom was increasingly threatened by Danish invasions. For four years the East Angles managed to keep a shaky, often broken peace with them. Then the invaders burned Thetford. King Edmund's army attacked the Danes but could not defeat the marauders. Edmund was taken prisoner and became the target for Danish bowmen.

In a later account in the The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, reputedly derived second-hand from an eyewitness, Abbo compared Saint Edmund to Saint Sebastien, and so he also became a saint invoked against the plague. The story goes that Edmund was captured at Hoxne. He refused to share his Christian kingdom with the heathen invaders, whereupon he was tied to a tree and shot with arrows, till his body was 'like a thistle covered with prickles'; then his head was struck off. He died with the name of Jesus on his lips.

The record continues that the Danes "killed the king and overcame all the land . . . they destroyed all the churches that they came to, and at the same time reaching Peterborough, killed the abbot and monks and burned and broke everything they found there."

Saint Edmund thus remains the only English sovereign until the time of King Charles I to die for religious beliefs as well as the defense of his throne. Edmund was quickly revered as a martyr and his cultus spread widely during the middle ages (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Hervey, Roeder).

King Saint Edmund is generally depicted as a bearded king holding his emblem--an arrow. Sometimes he is shown suspended from a tree and shot, or his head between the paws of a wolf. He is sometimes confused with Saint Sebastien, who is never portrayed as a king (Roeder).

He is venerated at Bury Saint Edmunds (Saint Edmund's borough), where his body is enshrined and a great abbey arose in 1020. Richard II invoked him as patron as to those threatened by the plague (Roeder).