mardi 11 octobre 2016

Saint JEAN XXIII, Pape



MESSE ET CANONISATION DES BIENHEUREUX JEAN XXIII ET JEAN-PAUL II

HOMÉLIE DU PAPE FRANÇOIS

Place Saint-Pierre

IIe Dimanche après Pâques (ou de la Divine Miséricorde), 27 avril 2014


Au centre de ce dimanche qui conclut l’Octave de Pâques, et que saint Jean Paul II a voulu dédier à la Divine Miséricorde, il y a les plaies glorieuses de Jésus ressuscité.

Il les montre dès la première fois qu’il apparaît aux Apôtres, le soir même du jour qui suit le sabbat, le jour de la résurrection. Mais ce soir là, nous l’avons entendu, Thomas n’est pas là ; et quand les autres lui disent qu’ils ont vu le Seigneur, il répond que s’il ne voyait pas et ne touchait pas les blessures, il ne croirait pas. Huit jours après, Jésus apparut de nouveau au Cénacle, parmi les disciples, Thomas aussi était là ; il s’adresse à lui et l’invite à toucher ses plaies. Et alors cet homme sincère, cet homme habitué à vérifier en personne, s’agenouille devant Jésus et lui dit « Mon Seigneur et mon Dieu » (Jn 20,28).

Les plaies de Jésus sont un scandale pour la foi, mais elles sont aussi la vérification de la foi. C’est pourquoi dans le corps du Christ ressuscité les plaies ne disparaissent pas, elles demeurent, parce qu’elles sont le signe permanent de l’amour de Dieu pour nous, et elles sont indispensables pour croire en Dieu. Non pour croire que Dieu existe, mais pour croire que Dieu est amour, miséricorde, fidélité. Saint Pierre, reprenant Isaïe, écrit aux chrétiens : « Par ses plaies vous avez été guéris » (1P 2,24 ; Cf. Is 53,5).

Saint Jean XXIII et saint Jean Paul II ont eu le courage de regarder les plaies de Jésus, de toucher ses mains blessées et son côté transpercé. Ils n’ont pas eu honte de la chair du Christ, ils ne se sont pas scandalisés de lui, de sa croix ; ils n’ont pas eu honte de la chair du frère (Cf. Is 58,7), parce qu’en toute personne souffrante ils voyaient Jésus. Ils ont été deux hommes courageux, remplis de la liberté et du courage (parresia) du Saint Esprit, et ils ont rendu témoignage à l’Église et au monde de la bonté de Dieu, de sa miséricorde.

Il ont été des prêtres, des évêques, des papes du XXème siècle. Ils en ont connu les tragédies, mais n’en ont pas été écrasés. En eux, Dieu était plus fort ; plus forte était la foi en Jésus Christ rédempteur de l’homme et Seigneur de l’histoire ; plus forte était en eux la miséricorde de Dieu manifestée par les cinq plaies ; plus forte était la proximité maternelle de Marie.

En ces deux hommes, contemplatifs des plaies du Christ et témoins de sa miséricorde, demeurait une « vivante espérance », avec une « joie indicible et glorieuse» (1P 1,3.8). L’espérance et la joie que le Christ ressuscité donne à ses disciples, et dont rien ni personne ne peut les priver. L’espérance et la joie pascales, passées à travers le creuset du dépouillement, du fait de se vider de tout, de la proximité avec les pécheurs jusqu’à l’extrême, jusqu’à l’écœurement pour l’amertume de ce calice. Ce sont l’espérance et la joie que les deux saints Papes ont reçues en don du Seigneur ressuscité, qui à leur tour les ont données au peuple de Dieu, recevant en retour une éternelle reconnaissance.

Cette espérance et cette joie se respiraient dans la première communauté des croyants, à Jérusalem, dont parlent les Actes des Apôtres (Cf. 2, 42-47), que nous avons entendus en seconde lecture. C’est une communauté dans laquelle se vit l’essentiel de l’Évangile, c'est-à-dire l’amour, la miséricorde, dans la simplicité et la fraternité.

C’est l’image de l’Église que le Concile Vatican II a eu devant lui. Jean XXIII et Jean Paul II ont collaboré avec le Saint Esprit pour restaurer et actualiser l’Église selon sa physionomie d’origine, la physionomie que lui ont donnée les saints au cours des siècles. N’oublions pas que ce sont, justement, les saints qui vont de l’avant et font grandir l’Église. Dans la convocation du Concile, saint Jean XXIII a montré une délicate docilité à l’Esprit Saint, il s’est laissé conduire et a été pour l’Église un pasteur, un guide-guidé, guidé par l’Esprit. Cela a été le grand service qu’il a rendu à l’Église. C’est pourquoi j’aime penser à lui comme le Pape de la docilité à l’Esprit Saint.

Dans ce service du Peuple de Dieu, saint Jean Paul II a été le Pape de la famille. Lui-même a dit un jour qu’il aurait voulu qu’on se souvienne de lui comme du Pape de la famille. Cela me plaît de le souligner alors que nous vivons un chemin synodal sur la famille et avec les familles, un chemin que, du Ciel, certainement, il accompagne et soutient.

Que ces deux nouveaux saints Pasteurs du Peuple de Dieu intercèdent pour l’Église, afin que, durant ces deux années de chemin synodal, elle soit docile au Saint Esprit dans son service pastoral de la famille. Qu’ils nous apprennent à ne pas nous scandaliser des plaies du Christ, et à entrer dans le mystère de la miséricorde divine qui toujours espère, toujours pardonne, parce qu’elle aime toujours.

© Copyright - Libreria Editrice Vaticana

SOURCE : http://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/fr/homilies/2014/documents/papa-francesco_20140427_omelia-canonizzazioni.html


Saint Jean XXIII

Pape (261e) de 1958 à 1963

Surnom affectueux : « Le Bon Pape
»

« Au vu de la dimension extraordinaire avec laquelle ces Souverains Pontifes ont offert au clergé et aux fidèles un modèle singulier de vertu et ont promu la vie dans le Christ, tenant compte des innombrables requêtes partout dans le monde, le Saint-Père François, faisant siens les désirs unanimes du peuple de Dieu, a disposé que les célébrations de saint Jean XXIII, Pape, et de saint Jean-Paul II, Pape, soient inscrites dans le Calendrier Romain général, la première le 11, la deuxième le 22 octobre, avec le degré de mémoire facultative. […] »

De la Congrégation pour le culte divin et la discipline des sacrements, 29 mai 2014, solennité de l’Ascension du Seigneur.

Jean XXIII (au siècle : Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli) est né le 25 novembre 1881, à Sotto il Monte près de Bergame, dans une famille nombreuse de milieu modeste. Il entre au séminaire à l'âge de douze ans. Il y suit le cursus ecclésiastique classique.

En 1904, il est ordonné prêtre. Peu après, il est nommé secrétaire de Mgr Giacomo Radini Tedeschi, nouvel évêque de Bergame, et reste à son service jusqu'à la mort de ce dernier en 1914. Pendant cette période, il s'occupe aussi de l'enseignement auprès du séminaire de Bergame.

En 1915, il est incorporé dans le service des santés des armées, avant de devenir aumônier militaire. Après la guerre, il devient directeur spirituel du séminaire de Bergame.

En 1921, il entre dans la Curie romaine, dans la Congrégation pour la propagation de la foi (plus connue sous le nom de Propaganda Fide).

En 1925, Pie XI (Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, 1922-1939) le promut évêque et l'envoie en Bulgarie, terre orthodoxe, en tant que visiteur, puis délégué apostolique. Il occupe ensuite le même poste à Istanbul entre 1935 et 1944, ce qui lui permet de sauver, pendant l'occupation, des victimes du nazisme.

En 1945, il succède comme nonce apostolique de Paris à Mgr Valeri, compromis avec le régime de Vichy. Il règle avec succès le problème des autres évêques compromis avec le régime de Vichy, dont le gouvernement français demandait la substitution. Pie XII (Eugenio Pacelli, 1939-1958) devra accepter seulement les démissions de trois prélats : les évêques de Mende, Aix-en-Provence et Arras.
En 1953, sa carrière diplomatique s'achève, et il retourne à sa première vocation pastorale : il est nommé patriarche de Venise, puis cardinal.

Le 9 octobre 1958 le pape Pie XII vient de mourir. Le cardinal Angelo Roncalli, patriarche de Venise, âgé et malade, se rend à la Cité du Vatican pour participer au conclave qui élira un nouveau pontife. À mesure que le conclave se déroule Roncalli revoit très clairement des images de son passé, comme lorsque, jeune prêtre, il soutenait des ouvriers en grève ; ou bien cette fois où, délégué apostolique en Turquie, il a négocié secrètement avec un ambassadeur nazi afin de sauver des juifs arrivant dans les trains bondés; ou encore en France, devant un de Gaulle autoritaire, qu'il a convaincu de ne pas expulser plusieurs évêques contestés.

Au douzième tour du scrutin, le 28 octobre 1958, Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli est élu pape et prend le nom de Jean XXIII : il est couronné le 4 novembre. On s'attendait à ce qu'il soit un pape de transition sans grand éclat. Mais il surprend le monde entier en convoquant, le 25 janvier 1959, le Concile Vatican II. Cette démarche audacieuse vers une importante modernisation de l'église vise à assurer que cette institution, l'une des plus vielle au monde, continuera de s'épanouir jusqu'à la fin du 20e siècle et bien au-delà. Il se préoccupe aussi du conflit entre les États-Unis et l'Union soviétique, qui devient de plus en plus pressant.

Le 11 octobre 1962, le concile, couramment désigné depuis lors sous le nom de « Vatican II », est ouvert. Jean XXIII y prononce un important >>> Discours. À la fin de la journée d’ouverture du Concile, était organisée une procession aux flambeaux entre le château Saint-Ange et la place Saint-Pierre. Le pape Jean XXIII, attiré par la prière de la foule, était apparu à sa fenêtre, improvisant une allocution connue aujourd’hui comme le >>> Discours à la lune. Le passage qui a fait éclater les applaudissements est celui de la larme d’un enfant : « En rentrant chez vous, vous trouverez vos enfants. Donnez une caresse à vos enfants, et dites-leur : c’est la caresse du pape. Vous trouverez peut-être quelque larme à essuyer. Ayez une bonne parole pour celui qui souffre : Le pape est avec nous, spécialement aux heures de tristesse et d’amertume ».

Vers la fin de 1962, un cancer de l’estomac est diagnostiqué. Jean XXIII s’efforce cependant de permettre au concile de continuer son travail. Le 11 avril 1963, il promulgue une encyclique qui est perçue comme étant son testament spirituel : >>> Pacem in Terris. Au-delà du monde catholique elle est adressée à tous les hommes de bonne volonté, fait l’apologie de la démocratie, affirme que la guerre ne peut être un instrument de justice et préconise que ce soit désormais la « loi morale » qui régisse la relation entre les états, prônant la solidarité, la justice et la liberté. Le 11 mai il reçoit le prix Balzan pour son engagement en faveur de la paix : c’est là sa dernière apparition publique.

Le 28 mai 1963 il est victime d'une hémorragie. À ce moment Radio Vatican transmet chaque jour l'état de santé du Pape en indiquant sa température et son pouls défaillants. Jean XXIII, entre lucidité et inconscience, continue toutefois de tenir son rôle jusqu'aux derniers moments. À l'issu d'une longue agonie il meurt le 3 juin 1963, jour de la fête de la Pentecôte. Il voulait être un prêtre ordinaire, mais il a changé la face du monde à jamais.

Jean XXIII (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli) a été béatifié le 3 septembre 2000 par saint Jean-Paul II.

Le  27 avril 2014 sa Sainteté le pape Francesco a proclamé saints ses prédécesseurs Jean XXIII et Jean-Paul II. Un moment de joie et de prière pour les 800.000 et plus fidèles qui du monde entier ont conflué dans la place Saint-Pierre, mais aussi le début d'un voyage éternel dans la gloire de l'Église catholique.

Sources principales : paroissejeanxxiii.org/; wikipédia.org (« Rév. x gpm »).



Saint Jean XXIII

Pape (261 ème) de 1958 à 1963 ( 1963)


Béatifié le 3 septembre 2000, canonisé le 27 avril 2014 en même temps que Jean-Paul II.

'Jean XXIII a été le Pape de la docilité à l’Esprit Saint!' (le pape François) - texte complet de l'homélie.

'Le Pape Jean a laissé dans le souvenir de tous l'image d'un visage souriant et de deux bras ouverts pour embrasser le monde entier.' (Jean-Paul II)

'Il convoqua le Concile Vatican II qui marqua le début de la rénovation de l'Église, la réforme de ses structures et la révision de sa liturgie. Puissent ces réformes porter des fruits pour nous tous et l'Église du troisième millénaire' (Benoît XVI)

À Rome, près de saint Pierre, en 1963, Jean XXIII, pape. D’une humanité singulière, il mit tout en œuvre pour répandre en abondance la charité chrétienne, rechercher l’union fraternelle des peuples et, dans son souci principal de l’efficacité pastorale de l’Église du Christ dans le monde entier, il convoqua le second Concile œcuménique du Vatican.

Martyrologe romain

'Nous ne sommes pas sur terre dans le but de monter la garde sur les tombes des apôtres, des saints et des héros, mais pour marcher sur leurs traces.'

Jean XXIII



Sa Sainteté Jean XXIII

Jean XXIII est né à Sotto il Monte, province de Bergame, le 25 novembre 1881, fils ainé de Marianna Mazzola et de Giovanni Battista Roncalli. Le soir même le nouveau-né fut baptisé par le curé don Francesco Rebuzzini, recevant le nom d'Angelo Giuseppe. On lui donna comme parrain, son grand-oncle Zaverio Roncalli, homme très pieux, qui, resté célibataire, assumera l’éducation religieuse de ces nombreux petits- neveux. Le futur Jean XXIII conserva un souvenir ému et reconnaissant pour les soins et les sollicitudes de ce vieux patriarche.


Manifestant depuis l'enfance une inclinaison sérieuse à la vie ecclésiastique, à la fin de l’école élémentaire, il se prépare à l'entrée au séminaire diocésain ; pour cela il suit des leçons d’italien et de latin de quelques prêtres et fréquente le collège prestigieux de Celana. Le 7 novembre 1892 il fait son entrée au séminaire de Bergame. Après un début difficile due à une préparation insuffisante, il ne tarde pas à se distinguer dans ses études et dans sa formation spirituelle, à tel point qu’à 14 ans il est admis à la tonsure. Ayant terminé en juillet 1900 sa deuxième année de théologie, il est envoyé à Rome au séminaire de l'Apollinaire, avec une bourse d'étude. Malgré un intermède d’un an de service militaire, la formation au séminaire reste très fructueuse.

Le 13 juillet 1904, très jeune à vingt-deux ans et demi, il obtient le doctorat en théologie. Le 10 août 1904, il est ordonné prêtre; il célèbre sa première Messe dans la Basilique Saint Pierre pendant laquelle il renouvelle son don total au Christ et sa fidélité à l'Église. Après un bref séjour dans son pays natal, il commence en octobre à Rome des études de droit canonique, interrompues en février 1905, par sa nomination comme secrétaire du nouvel Évêque de Bergame, Monseigneur Giacomo Radini Tedeschi. Ce furent dix ans d'engagement intense auprès d’un Évêque influent, très dynamique et riche d'initiatives qui contribuèrent à faire du diocèse bergamasque un modèle pour l'Église italienne. 

En plus de sa charge de secrétaire, il a d’autres engagements. Dès 1906 il enseigne au séminaire l’histoire ecclésiastique, la patrologie et apologétique et en 1910 un cours supplémentaire de théologie fondamentale. Il assume ces charges jusqu'en 1914. Ses cours lui permettent d’approfondir l'histoire locale par la publication des Actes de la Visite Apostolique de s. Carlo à Bergame (1575), qu’il travaillera jusqu’à la veille de son élection au Pontificat. Il fut aussi directeur du magazine diocésain "La Vie Diocésaine" et à partir de 1910 assistant de l'union des Femmes Catholiques. La disparition prématurée de Mons. Radini en 1914 met fin à une expérience pastorale exceptionnelle ; même si il y eu des moments difficiles, comme lorsqu’il est accusé injustement de modernisme, le futur Jean XXIII gardera toujours en mémoire son expérience pastorale dans l'accomplissement des fonctions auxquelles il sera appelé. Pendant la guerre il est nommé chapelain avec le grade de sergent auprès des blessés hospitalisés dans les hôpitaux militaires de Bergame ; il se comportera en héros. En juillet 1918 il accepte, avec générosité, de rendre service aux soldats atteints de tuberculose, sachant qu’il risque sa vie à cause de la contagion.

En décembre 1920 le Pape lui demande de venir présider le dicastère de la Propagation de la Foi au Vatican, alors qu’il venait de prendre la responsabilité de la Maison des étudiants en même temps que sa charge de directeur spirituel au séminaire. Après maintes hésitations, il finit par accepter cette fonction qui se révèle délicate dans les relations avec les organisations missionnaires existantes. Il commence un long voyage à l'étranger pour convaincre les différentes institutions de soutien aux missions à venir à Rome et il ira dans les diocèses italiens pour récolter des fonds et expliquer les buts de l'œuvre qu’il préside.

En 1925 nommé Visiteur Apostolique en Bulgarie il commence la période diplomatique au service du Saint Siège jusqu’en 1952. Nommé Évêque le 19 mars 1925, il part pour la Bulgarie avec le devoir de pourvoir aux graves besoins de la petite communauté catholique. Le séjour initialement prévu pour un temps limité se transforme en un séjour de 10 ans pendant lequel Mgr Roncalli pose les bases d'une Délégation Apostolique dont il est nommé le premier représentant en 1931. Non sans difficulté il réussit à réorganiser l'Église catholique, à instaurer des relations amicales avec le Gouvernement et la Maison Royale bulgare, malgré l'incident du mariage orthodoxe du roi Boris avec la princesse Giovanna de Savoie, et à créer les premiers contacts œcuméniques avec l'Église Orthodoxe bulgare. Le 27 novembre 1934 il est nommé Délégué Apostolique en Turquie et en Grèce, pays sans relations diplomatiques avec le Vatican.

Contrairement à la Grèce, où l'action de Roncalli n'obtient pas de résultat notable, les relations avec le gouvernement turc s’améliorent car le délégué du Vatican se montre compréhensif devant les mesures inspirées par la politique de laïcisation de ce gouvernement. Avec tact et habilité il organise quelques rencontres officielles avec le Patriarche de Constantinople, les premières après des siècles de séparation avec l'Église Catholique.

Pendant la Second Guerre Mondiale sa position neutre va lui permettre d’aider efficacement des milliers de juifs sauvés de l'extermination, ainsi que la population grecque, épuisée par la faim.

Par décision personnelle de Pie XII il est nommé à la prestigieuse Nonciature de Paris, qu’il rejoint le 30 décembre 1944. Une situation particulièrement compliquée l'attend : le gouvernement provisoire demandant la destitution d’une trentaine d’Évêques accusés de collaborationnisme avec le gouvernement de Vichy. Le calme et l'adresse du nouveau Nonce réussirent à limiter à trois le nombre d’Évêques destitués. A travers ses qualités humaines il acquiert l'estime du milieu Parisien diplomatique et politique, où il noue des rapports d'amitié avec certains membres importants du gouvernement français. Il se révèle aussi bon diplomate que pasteur dans ses visites des diocèses en France, Algérie comprise. L'Église française trouve en Monseigneur Roncalli un observateur attentif et prudent.

Toujours dans le respect d'obéissance, il accepte sa nomination au siège de Venise le 5 mars 1953 , après avoir étè crée cardinal au dernier Consistoire de Pie XII. Son épiscopat se caractérise par son engagement scrupuleux à respecter ses devoirs d'Evêque, entre autre par la visite pastorale et la célébration du Synode diocésain. L'histoire religieuse de Venise lui suggère de nouvelles initiatives pastorales comme celle de rapprocher les fidèles à l’ Écriture Sacrée , comme en son temps l’avait fait le proto-patriarche s. Lorenzo Giustiniani solennellement commémoré au cours de 1956.

L'élection, le 28 octobre 1958, du Cardinal Roncalli, à soixante dix sept ans, comme Successeur de Pie XII fut reçue par beaucoup comme un Pontificat de transition. Mais dés le début Jean XXIII révèle un style qui mit en avant sa personnalité humaine et sacerdotale mûrie à travers ses expériences. Au-delà de son souci à gérer le fonctionnement de la curie, il se préoccupe de donner une empreinte pastorale à son ministère, en tant qu’ Évêque de Rome. Convaincu que l'intérêt direct du diocèse constitue une partie essentielle du Ministère Pontifical, il multiplie les contacts avec les fidèles à travers les visites aux paroisses, aux hôpitaux et aux prisons. À travers la convocation du Synode diocésain il veut assurer le fonctionnement régulier des institutions diocésaines par le renforcement du Vicariat et la normalisation de la vie paroissiale.

La plus grande contribution de Jean XXIII est sans aucun doute le concile Vatican II dont l'annonce fut donnée dans la basilique de saint Paul le 25 avril 1959. Il s'agissait d'une décision personnelle, prise par le Pape après des consultations privées avec quelques amis intimes et le Secrétaire d'État, Cardinal Tardini. Les buts évoqués dans le discours d’ouverture du 11 octobre 1962 étaient originaux : il ne s'agissait pas de définir de nouvelles vérités, mais de réexposer la doctrine traditionnelle de manière plus adaptée à la sensibilité moderne. Dans la perspective d'une mise à jour de toute la vie de l'Église, Giovanni XXIII invite à privilégier la miséricorde et le dialogue avec le monde plutôt que la condamnation et l'opposition en une conscience renouvelée de la mission ecclésiale qui enlace tous les hommes.

Dans cette ouverture universelle les différentes confessions chrétiennes ne pouvant pas être exclues, sont invitées aussi à participer au Concile pour commencer un chemin de rapprochement. Au cours de la première phase on put constater que Giovanni XXIII voulait un Concile vraiment délibérant dont il respecta les décisions après que toutes les voix eussent pu s'exprimer et de se mesurer.

Au printemps de 1963 il fut décoré du Prix "Balzan" pour la paix en témoignage de son engagement au service de la paix par la publication des encycliques Mater et Magistra (1961) et Pacem en terris (1963), et de son intervention décisive à l'occasion de la crise grave du Cuba à l’automne 1962. 

L’anxiété témoignée autour du Pape mourant et la douleur profonde du monde à la nouvelle de sa disparition le soir du 3 juin 1963 montre combien il fut admiré et respecté.

Source : www.vatican.va



Saint Jean XXIII

Le bon pape Jean

Il fut élu pape à l'âge de 77 ans. En 1959 il déclara "Je veux ouvrir largement les portes de l'Église, afin que nous puissions voir ce qui se passe à l'extérieur, et que le monde puisse voir ce qui se passe à l'intérieur de l'Église" Le Concile Vatican II était lancé.
Angélo Guiseppe Roncalli fut le 261ème pape de l’Eglise catholique Romaine.
Il règne sous le nom de Jean XXIII du 28 octobre 1958 au 3 juin 1963. Il naît le 25 novembre 1881 à Sotto-il-Monte, non loin de Bergame, troisième enfant d’une pauvre famille paysanne qui en compte10. Il entre au petit séminaire à l’âge de 12 ans. En 1900 il se rend à Rome pour terminer ses études de théologie. Il est ordonné prêtre le 10 août 1904.
De retour à Bergam, en plus de ses activités d’aumônier de jeunes, il enseigne l’histoire, l'apologétique et la patristique au séminaire de Bergame. Il accompagne spirituellement de nombreux séminaristes et devient le secrétaire particulier de son évêque Mgr Radini Tedeschi.Après la Première Guerre mondiale, à laquelle il participe comme infirmier militaire, il fonde une maison d’étudiants et anime l’Action Catholique et les "œuvres missionnaires".
Profondément marqué par la personnalité de saint Charles Borromée ; il se charge de l’édition d’une partie de l’œuvre immense de l’ancien évêque de Milan grande figure du Concile de Trente. Ce travail le met en contact avec Mgr Achille Ratti, préfet de la bibliothèque ambrosienne de Milan, et futur Pie XI.
En 1921, la congrégation pour la propagation de la foi lui demande de réorganiser les œuvres de coopération missionnaire en Italie. Ordonné évêque à Rome le 19 mars 1925, il est envoyé à Sofia, en Bulgarie comme visiteur apostolique puis comme délégué apostolique. En 1934 il est envoyé à Istanbul comme délégué apostolique en Turquie et en Grèce. A la fin de l’année 1944 il est nommé nonce apostolique en France. En 1953 il est créé cardinal et est nommé patriarche de Venise. Cinq an plus tard, le 28 octobre 1958, à 77 ans, il est élu pape. Celui qui fut considéré comme un « Pape de transition » surprend tout le monde en annonçant 3 mois après son élection, la convocation d’un nouveau concile.
Vatican II s’ouvre le 11 octobre 1962 avec pour mission « l’aggiornamento de l’Eglise ». Il ne verra pas la fin du Concile, il meurt le 3 juin 1963. Le 3 septembre 2000, le bienheureux Jean Paul II béatifie le « bon pape Jean »
Sébastien Antoni

SOURCE : http://croire.la-croix.com/Definitions/Figures-spirituelles/Saint-Jean-XXIII/Le-bon-pape-Jean


Prière de Saint Jean XXIII (1881-1963), initiateur du Concile Vatican II
 Esprit Saint, notre conseiller,
achève en nous l’œuvre commencée par Jésus.
Rends intense et continuelle la prière que nous faisons
au nom du monde entier.

Accélère en chacun de nous l’avènement
d’une profonde vie intérieure.
Donne l’élan à notre effort pour atteindre tous les hommes
et tous les peuples, tous rachetés par le Sang du Christ,
tous associés à son héritage.

Étouffe en nous la suffisance naturelle et élève-nous
jusqu’au niveau de l’humilité,
de la vraie crainte de Dieu, du courage généreux.

Que nulle attache terrestre ne nous empêche de faire
honneur à notre vocation,
Que nul intérêt ne puisse ; par lâcheté de notre part,
étouffer les exigences de la justice.
Que les calculs ne réduisent pas aux étroitesses
de nos égoïsmes les espaces immenses de la charité.
Que tout soit grand en nous :
La recherche et le culte de la vérité, la promptitude
au sacrifice, jusqu’à la Croix et jusqu’à la mort.

Que ton Esprit d’amour se répande sur l’Église, sur les
institutions, sur chacun de nous et sur tous les peuples.



POPE JOHN XXIII

Bl. Pope John XXIII was born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli at Sotto il Monte, Italy, in the Diocese of Bergamo on 25 November 1881. He was the fourth in a family of 14. The family worked as sharecroppers. It was a patriarchal family in the sense that the families of two brothers lived together, headed by his great-uncle Zaverio, who had never married and whose wisdom guided the work and other business of the family. Zaverio was Angelo's godfather, and to him he always attributed his first and most fundamental religious education. The religious atmosphere of his family and the fervent life of the parish, under the guidance of Fr Francesco Rebuzzini, provided him with training in the Christian life.

He entered the Bergamo seminary in 1892. Here he began the practice of making spiritual notes, which he continued in one form or another until his death, and which have been gathered together in the Journal a Soul. Here he also began the deeply cherished practice of regular spiritual direction. In 1896 he was admitted to the Secular Franciscan Order by the spiritual director of the Bergamo seminary, Fr Luigi Isacchi; he made a profession of its Rule of life on 23 May 1897.

From 1901 to 1905 he was a student at the Pontifical Roman Seminary. On 10 August 1904 he was ordained a priest in the church of Santa Maria in Monte Santo in Rome's Piazza del Popolo. In 1905 he was appointed secretary to the new Bishop of Bergamo, Giacomo Maria Radini Tedeschi. He accompanied the Bishop in his pastoral visitations and collaborated with him in his many initiatives: a Synod, management of the diocesan bulletin, pilgrimages, social works. In the seminary he taught history, patrology and apologetics. He was an elegant, profound, effective and sought-after preacher.

These were the years of his deepening spiritual encounter with two saints who were outstanding pastors: St Charles Borromeo and St Francis de Sales. They were years, too, of deep pastoral involvement and apprenticeship, as he spent every day beside "his" Bishop, Radini Tedeschi. When the Bishop died in 1914, Fr Angelo continued to teach in the seminary and to minister in various pastoral areas.

When Italy went to war in 1915 he was drafted as a sergeant in the medical corps and became a chaplain to wounded soldiers. When the war ended, he opened a "Student House" for the spiritual needs of young people.

In 1919 he was made spiritual director of the seminary, but in 1921 he was called to the service of the Holy See. Benedict XV brought him to Rome to be the Italian president of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith. In 1925 Pius XI named him Apostolic Visitator in Bulgaria, raising him to the episcopate with the titular Diocese of Areopolis. For his Episcopal motto he chose Oboedientia et Pax, which became his guiding motto for the rest of his life.

On 19 March 1925 he was ordained Bishop and left for Bulgaria. He was granted the title Apostolic Delegate and remained in Bulgaria until 1935, visiting Catholic communities and establishing relationships of respect and esteem with the other Christian communities. In the aftermath of the 1928 earthquake his solicitude was everywhere present. He endured in silence the misunderstandings and other difficulties of a ministry on the fringes of society, and thus refined his sense of trust and abandonment to Jesus crucified.

In 1935 he was named Apostolic Delegate in Turkey and Greece. The Catholic Church was present in many ways in the young Turkish republic. His ministry among the Catholics was intense, and his respectful approach and dialogue with the worlds of Orthodoxy and Islam became a feature of his tenure. When the Second World War broke out he was in Greece. He tried to get news from the prisoners of war to their families and assisted many Jews to escape by issuing "transit visas" from the Apostolic Delegation. In December 1944 Pius XII appointed him Nuncio in France.

During the last months of the war and the beginning of peace he aided prisoners of war and helped to normalize the ecclesiastical organization of France. He visited the great shrines of France and participated in popular feasts and in important religious celebrations. He was an attentive, prudent and positive observer of the new pastoral initiatives of the Bishops and clergy of France. His approach was always characterized by a striving for Gospel simplicity, even amid the most complex diplomatic questions. The sincere piety of his interior life found expression each day in prolonged periods of prayer and meditation. In 1953 he was created a Cardinal and sent to Venice as Patriarch. He was filled with joy at the prospect of ending his days in the direct care of souls, as he had always desired since becoming a priest. He was a wise and enterprising pastor, following the model pastors he had always venerated and walking in the footsteps of St Laurence Giustiniani, first Patriarch of Venice. As he advanced in years his trust in the Lord grew in the midst of energetic, enterprising and joyful pastoral labours.

At the death of Pius XII he was elected Pope on 28 October 1958, taking the name John XXIII. His pontificate, which lasted less than five years, presented him to the entire world as an authentic image of the Good Shepherd. Meek and gentle, enterprising and courageous, simple and active, he carried out the Christian duties of the corporal and spiritual works of mercy: visiting the imprisoned and the sick, welcoming those of every nation and faith, bestowing on all his exquisite fatherly care. His social magisterium in the Encyclicals Pacem in terris and Mater et Magistra was deeply appreciated.
He convoked the Roman Synod, established the Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law and summoned the Second Vatican Council. He was present as Bishop in his Diocese of Rome through his visitation of the parishes, especially those in the new suburbs. The faithful saw in him a reflection of the goodness of God and called him "the good Pope". He was sustained by a profound spirit of prayer. He launched an extensive renewal of the Church, while radiating the peace of one who always trusted in the Lord. Pope John XXIII died on the evening of 3 June 1963, in a spirit of profound trust in Jesus and of longing for his embrace.




From L'Osservatore Romano, Weekly Edition in English 6 September 2000




POPE JOHN XXIII

1958-1963

When on October 20, 1958 the cardinals, assembled in conclave, elected Angelo Roncalli as pope many regarded him, because of his age and ambiguous reputation, as a transitional pope, little realizing that the pontificate of this man of 76 years would mark a turning point in history and initiate a new age for the Church. He took the name of John in honor of the precursor and the beloved disciple—but also because it was the name of a long line of popes whose pontificates had been short.
Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, the third of thirteen children, was born on November 25, 1881 at Sotto il Monte (Bergamo) of a family of sharecroppers. He attended elementary school in the town, was tutored by a priest of Carvico, and at the age of twelve entered the seminary at Bergamo. A scholarship from the Cerasoli Foundation (1901) enabled him to go on to the Apollinaris in Rome where he studied under (among others) Umberto Benigni, the Church historian. He interrupted his studies for service in the Italian Army but returned to the seminary, completed his work for a doctorate in theology, and was ordained in 1904. Continuing his studies in canon law he was appointed secretary to the new bishop of Bergamo, Giacomo Radini-Tedeschi. Angelo served this social-minded prelate for nine years, acquiring first-hand experience and a broad understanding of the problems of the working class. He also taught apologetics, church history, and patrology.

With the entry of Italy into World War I in 1915 he was recalled to military service as a chaplain. On leaving the service in 1918 he was appointed spiritual director of the seminary, but found time to open a hostel for students in Bergamo. It was at this time also that he began the research for a multi-volume work on the episcopal visitation of Bergamo by St. Charles Borromeo, the last volume of which was published after his elevation as pope.

In 1921 he was called to Rome to reorganize the Society for the Propagation of the Faith. Nominated titular archbishop of Areopolis and apostolic visitator to Bulgaria (1925), he immediately concerned himself with the problems of the Eastern Churches. Transferred in 1934 to Turkey and Greece as apostolic delegate, he set up an office in Istanbul for locating prisoners of war. In 1944 he was appointed nuncio to Paris to assist in the Church's post-war efforts in France, and became the first permanent observer of the Holy See at UNESCO, addressing its sixth and seventh general assemblies in 1951 and 1952. In 1953 he became cardinal-patriarch of Venice, and expected to spend his last years there in pastoral work. He was correcting proofs of the synodal Acts of his first diocesan Synod (1958) when he was called to Rome to participate in the conclave that elected him pope.

In his first public address Pope John expressed his concern for reunion with separated Christians and for world peace. In his coronation address he asserted "vigorously and sincerely" that it was his intention to be a pastoral pope since "all other human gifts and accomplishments—learning, practical experience, diplomatic finesse—can broaden and enrich pastoral work but they cannot replace it." One of his first acts was to annul the regulation of Sixtus IV limiting the membership of the College of Cardinals to 70; within the next four years he enlarged it to 87 with the largest international representation in history. Less than three months after his election he announced that he would hold a diocesan synod for Rome, convoke an ecumenical council for the universal Church, and revise the Code of Canon Law. The synod, the first in the history of Rome, was held in 1960; Vatican Council II was convoked in 1962; and the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code was appointed in 1963.

His progressive encyclical, Mater et Magistra, was issued in 1961 to commemorate the anniversary of Leo XIII's Rerum novarum. Pacem in terris, advocating human freedom and dignity as the basis for world order and peace, came out in 1963. He elevated the Pontifical Commission for Cinema, Radio, and Television to curial status, approved a new code of rubrics for the Breviary and Missal, made notable advances in ecumenical relations by creating a new Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity and by appointing the first representative to the Assembly of the World Council of Churches held in New Delhi (1961). In 1960 he consecrated fourteen bishops for Asia, Africa, and Oceania. The International Balzan Foundation awarded him its Peace Prize in 1962.

Since his death on June 3, 1963, much has been written and spoken about the warmth and holiness of the beloved Pope John. Perhaps the testimony of the world was best expressed by a newspaper drawing of the earth shrouded in mourning with the simple caption, "A Death in the Family."

© Copyright - Libreria Editrice Vaticana




BEATIFICATION OF PIUS IX, JOHN XXIII, TOMMASO REGGIO, 
WILLIAM CHAMINADE AND COLUMBA MARMION  


HOMILY OF HIS HOLINESS JOHN PAUL II

Sunday, 3 September 2000

1. In the context of the Jubilee Year, it is with deep joy that I have declared blessed two Popes, Pius IX and John XXIII, and three other servants of the Gospel in the ministry and the consecrated life: Archbishop Tommaso Reggio of Genoa, the diocesan priest William Joseph Chaminade and the Benedictine monk Columba Marmion.

Five different personalities, each with his own features and his own mission, all linked by a longing for holiness. It is precisely their holiness that we recognize today: holiness that is a profound and transforming relationship with God, built up and lived in the daily effort to fulfil his will. Holiness lives in history and no saint has escaped the limits and conditioning which are part of our human nature. In beatifying one of her sons, the Church does not celebrate the specific historical decisions he may have made, but rather points to him as someone to be imitated and venerated because of his virtues, in praise of the divine grace which shines resplendently in him.

I extend my respectful greetings to the official delegations of Italy, France, Ireland, Belgium, Turkey and Bulgaria which have come here for this solemn occasion. I also greet the relatives of the new blesseds, together with the Cardinals, Bishops, civil and religious dignitaries who have wished to take part in our celebration. Lastly, I greet you all, dear brothers and sisters who have come in large numbers to pay homage to the servants of God whom the Church today is enrolling among the blessed.

2. Listening to the words of the Gospel acclamation: "Lord, lead me on a straight road", our thoughts naturally turn to the human and religious life of Pope Pius IX, Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti. Amid the turbulent events of his time, he was an example of unconditional fidelity to the immutable deposit of revealed truths. Faithful to the duties of his ministry in every circumstance, he always knew how to give absolute primacy to God and to spiritual values. His lengthy pontificate was not at all easy and he had much to suffer in fulfilling his mission of service to the Gospel. He was much loved, but also hated and slandered.

However, it was precisely in these conflicts that the light of his virtues shone most brightly: these prolonged sufferings tempered his trust in divine Providence, whose sovereign lordship over human events he never doubted. This was the source of Pius IX's deep serenity, even amid the misunderstandings and attacks of so many hostile people. He liked to say to those close to him: "In human affairs we must be content to do the best we can and then abandon ourselves to Providence, which will heal our human faults and shortcomings".

Sustained by this deep conviction, he called the First Vatican Ecumenical Council, which clarified with magisterial authority certain questions disputed at the time, and confirmed the harmony of faith and reason. During his moments of trial Pius IX found support in Mary, to whom he was very devoted. In proclaiming the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, he reminded everyone that in the storms of human life the light of Christ shines brightly in the Blessed Virgin and is more powerful than sin and death.

3. "You are good and forgiving" (Entrance Antiphon). Today we contemplate in the glory of the Lord another Pontiff, John XXIII, the Pope who impressed the world with the friendliness of his manner which radiated the remarkable goodness of his soul. By divine design their beatification links these two Popes who lived in very different historical contexts but, beyond appearances, share many human and spiritual similarities. Pope John's deep veneration for Pius IX, to whose beatification he looked forward, is well known. During a spiritual retreat in 1959, he wrote in his diary: "I always think of Pius IX of holy and glorious memory, and by imitating him in his sacrifices, I would like to be worthy to celebrate his canonization" (Journal of a Soul, Ed. San Paolo, 2000, p. 560).

Everyone remembers the image of Pope John's smiling face and two outstretched arms embracing the whole world. How many people were won over by his simplicity of heart, combined with a broad experience of people and things! The breath of newness he brought certainly did not concern doctrine, but rather the way to explain it; his style of speaking and acting was new, as was his friendly approach to ordinary people and to the powerful of the world. It was in this spirit that he called the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, thereby turning a new page in the Church's history: Christians heard themselves called to proclaim the Gospel with renewed courage and greater attentiveness to the "signs" of the times. The Council was a truly prophetic insight of this elderly Pontiff who, even amid many difficulties, opened a season of hope for Christians and for humanity.

In the last moments of his earthly life, he entrusted his testament to the Church: "What counts the most in life is blessed Jesus Christ, his holy Church, his Gospel, truth and goodness". We too wish to receive this testament, as we glorify God for having given him to us as a Pastor.

4. "Be doers of the word, and not hearers only" (Jas 1: 22). These words of the Apostle James make us think of the life and apostolate of Tommaso Reggio, a priest and journalist who later became Bishop of Ventimiglia and finally Archbishop of Genoa. He was a man of faith and culture, and as a Pastor he knew how to be an attentive guide to the faithful in every circumstance. Sensitive to the many sufferings and the poverty of his people, he took responsibility for providing prompt help in all situations of need. Precisely with this in mind, he founded the religious family of the Sisters of St Martha, entrusting to them the task of assisting the Pastors of the Church especially in the areas of charity and education.

His message can be summed up in two words: truth and charity. Truth, first of all, which means attentive listening to God's word and courageous zeal in defending and spreading the teachings of the Gospel. Then charity, which spurs people to love God and, for love of him, to embrace everyone since they are brothers and sisters in Christ. If there was a preference in Tommaso Reggio's choices, it was for those who found themselves in hardship and suffering. This is why he is presented today as a model for Bishops, priest and lay people, as well as for those who belong to his spiritual family.

5. The beatification during the Jubilee Year of William Joseph Chaminade, founder of the Marianists, reminds the faithful that it is their task to find ever new ways of bearing witness to the faith, especially in order to reach those who are far from the Church and who do not have the usual means of knowing Christ. William Joseph Chaminade invites each Christian to be rooted in his Baptism, which conforms him to the Lord Jesus and communicates the Holy Spirit to him.

Fr Chaminade's love for Christ, in keeping with the French school of spirituality, spurred him to pursue his tireless work by founding spiritual families in a troubled period of France's religious history. His filial attachment to Mary maintained his inner peace on all occasions, helping him to do Christ's will. His concern for human, moral and religious education calls the entire Church to renew her attention to young people, who need both teachers and witnesses in order to turn to the Lord and take their part in the Church's mission.

6. Today the Benedictine Order rejoices at the beatification of one of its most distinguished sons, Dom Columba Marmion, a monk and Abbot of Maredsous. Dom Marmion left us an authentic treasure of spiritual teaching for the Church of our time. In his writings he teaches a simple yet demanding way of holiness for all the faithful, whom God has destined in love to be his adopted children through Jesus Christ (cf. Eph 1: 5). Jesus Christ, our Redeemer and the source of all grace, is the centre of our spiritual life, our model of holiness.

Before entering the Benedictine Order, Columba Marmion spent some years in the pastoral care of souls as a priest of his native Archdiocese of Dublin. Throughout his life Bl. Columba was an outstanding spiritual director, having particular care for the interior life of priests and religious. To a young man preparing for ordination he once wrote: "The best of all preparations for the priesthood is to live each day with love, wherever obedience and Providence place us" (Letter, 27 December 1915). May a widespread rediscovery of the spiritual writings of Bl. Columba Marmion help priests, religious and laity to grow in union with Christ and bear faithful witness to him through ardent love of God and generous service of their brothers and sisters.

7. Let us confidently ask the new blesseds, Pius IX, John XXIII, Tommaso Reggio, William Joseph Chaminade and Columba Marmion, to help us live in ever greater conformity to the Spirit of Christ. May their love of God and neighbour illumine our steps at this dawn of the third millennium!



Pope Saint John XXIII

Also known as
  • Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli
Profile

Born to an Italian peasant family. Educated at Bergamo and the Pontifical Roman Seminary. Ordained on 10 August 1904. Secretary to the bishop of Bergamo, Italy from 1904 to 1914, during which he wrote the basis for his five-volume biography of Saint Charles Borromeo. Served in World War I in the medical corps, and as a chaplain. Worked in Rome, Italy after the war, and reorganized the Society for the Propagation of the Faith. Titular archbishop of Areopolis on 3 March 1925. Vatican diplomatic representative to Bulgaria on 16 October 1931, then to Turkey and Greece on 12 January 1935. Titular archbishop of Mesembria on 30 November 1934. Papal nuncio to France on 23 December 1944 where he mediated between conservative and socially radical clergy. Created cardinal on 12 January 1953, and patriarch of Venice, Italy on 15 January 1953. Elected 261st pope on 28 October 1958.

As pope he stressed his own pastoral duties as well as those of other bishops and clergy. Promoted social reforms for workers, poor people, orphans, and the outcast. He advanced cooperation with other faiths and traditions including Protestant, Greek Orthodox, Church of England, and even Shinto. In April 1959 he forbade Catholics to vote for parties supporting Communism. His encyclical, Mater et Magistra of 14 July 1961 advocated social reform, assistance to underdeveloped countries, a living wage for all workers, and support for socialist measures that promised real benefit to society.

He nearly doubled the number of cardinals, making the college the largest in history. On 25 January 1959, he announced his intent to call a council to consider ways to renew the Church in the modern world, promote diversity within the unity of the Church, and consider reforms promoted by ecumenical and liturgical movements. Convening the council, known as Vatican II, on 11 October 1962, was the high point of his reign.

His heartiness, his overflowing love for humanity individually and collectively, and his freshness of approach to ecclesiastical affairs made John one of the best-loved popes of modern times.

Born
Papal Ascension


Pope St. John XXIII (1881-1963)

The man who would go on to become one of the most beloved Catholic leaders of modern times was born into a large peasant family on November 25, 1881, in the village of Sotto Il Monte, in Bergamo, and was named Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli. After his seminary studies, he was ordained a priest in 1904, and was sent to pursue further studies in canon law., and he later served as a professor of Church history at the local seminary. During the First World War, he served as a stretcher-bearer, a role that brought him face-to-face with the brutal reality of modern war and its victims.


In 1925, Angelo Roncalli began his career in Church diplomacy; he would serve, in turn, as the papal nuncio to Bulgaria, (1925-35) Turkey and Greece (1935-44) and France (1944-58). During the Second World War, he distinguished himself by his consistent, effective efforts to defend and save many of the victims of the Nazis, especially Jews who were threatened by death. Many historians say that, as a Vatican diplomat, he provided numerous immigration certificates (and, some say. false baptismal papers) which enabled thousands of Jews to escape to safety. In more than one case, his efforts succeeded in the liberation of Jews who had already been deported to concentration camps. Sometimes, Roncalli’s efforts involved sympathetic Nazi officials, such as the German Ambassador to Turkey, Franz von Papen; Roncalli would later write that von Papen’s actions had allowed Roncalli to try to save the lives of 24,000 Jews. In 1944, Isaac Herzog, the Chief Rabbi of Jerusalem, wrote to Roncalli:

I want to express my deepest gratitude for the energetic steps that you have taken and will undertake to save our unfortunate people, innocent victims of unheard of horrors from a cruel power which totally ignores the principles of religion that are the basis of humanity. You follow in the tradition, so profoundly humanitarian, of the Holy See, and you follow the noble feelings of your own heart. The people of Israel will never forget the help brought to its unfortunate brothers and sisters by the Holy See and its highest representatives at this the saddest moment of our history. (Letter dated February 28,1944)
In December of 1944, shortly after the Allied liberation of France, Pope Pius XII named Archbishop Roncalli as its new nuncio. Eight years later, in November 1952, he was informed that he had been named a cardinal by the Pope, and had been nominated as the new Patriarch of Venice, a role he assumed in 1953. After the death of Pius XII in October 1958, he took part in the conclave which elected him Pope on October 28; many assumed that, as an old man, his papacy would be short and uneventful. However, his choice of papal name—John XXIII—was surprising to many, since the previous Pope John had been a 15th-century antipope, and subsequent popes had shied away from the name, as if it were tainted. However, it was perhaps an early indication of other surprises that his papacy might hold.

In January 1959, Pope John surprised the Catholic Church, and the world, with the announcement that he intended to call an ecumenical council of the world’s Catholic bishops, to begin in 1962. It was intended to foster a new dialogue between the Church and the world, and to promote aggiornamento (“updating”) where necessary. One of the key areas where John XXIII sought to renew Catholicism was in its attitude toward Judaism. Early on in his papacy, he ordered the adjective “perfidious” (“faithless,” sometimes interpreted as “treacherous”) removed from the solemn Good Friday “Prayer for the Conversion of the Jews,” and, when a cardinal accidentally reinserted it during the 1960 Holy Week services at the Vatican, the Pope asked him to repeat it, in the corrected version.
In June 1960, Pope John received the French Jewish historian Jules Isaac in an audience at the Vatican and, in response to Isaac’s plea that the upcoming Council discuss a re-thinking of Catholic attitudes towards Jews, he promised action, and commissioned Cardinal Augustin Bea to form a team of scholars who could begin to draft a document on Judaism for Vatican II. That document, after considerable debate and re-working, would eventually become Nostra Aetate, the Council’s landmark 1965 declaration on non-Christian religions. Sadly, John would not survive long enough to see the end of the Council; he died of cancer on June 3, 1963, and was widely mourned in the Jewish world. In September 2000, Pope John Paul II declared him Blessed, and he was canonized as a saint by Pope Francis in April 2014. Yad Vashem (the International Holocaust Memorial in Jerusalem) is currently considering the possibility of naming John XXIII as one of the Righteous Among the Nations, for his wartime efforts to save Jews.

Suggestions for further reading and study:

Hebblethwaite, Peter and Margaret Hebblethwaite. John XXIII: Pope of the Century, 2000.

Cahill, Thomas. Pope John XXIII: A Life, 2008.

“Why Pope John XXIII is a Saint” (Father Robert Barron): http://youtu.be/CUd4ifViFBU

“Pope John XXIII: A Reflection” (Salt & Light Television): http://youtu.be/wXcGdiv9-2M

“Key Points in the Life of the ‘Good Pope’” (Rome Reports); http://youtu.be/unI8gWi1W10




Monument à Jean XXIII à Porto Viro, Rovigo, Italie


San Giovanni XXIII (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli) Papa

11 ottobre (3 giugno) - Memoria Facoltativa

Sotto il Monte, Bergamo, 25 novembre 1881 - Roma, 3 giugno 1963

(Papa dal 04/11/1958 al 03/06/1963).


Angelo Roncalli nacque a Sotto il Monte, piccolo borgo del bergamasco, il 25 novembre 1881, figlio di poveri mezzadri. Divenuto prete, rimase per quindici anni a Bergamo, come segretario del vescovo e insegnante al seminario. Allo scoppio della prima guerra mondiale fu chiamato alle armi come cappellano militare. Inviato in Bulgaria e in Turchia come visitatore apostolico, nel 1944 è Nunzio a Parigi, per divenire poi nel 1953 Patriarca di Venezia. Il 28 ottobre 1958 salì al soglio pontificio, come successore di Pio XII, assumendo il nome di Papa Giovanni XXIII. Avviò il Concilio Vaticano II, un evento epocale nella storia della Chiesa. Morì il 3 giugno 1963. Un breve ma intenso pontificato, durato poco meno di cinque anni, in cui egli riuscì a farsi amare dal mondo intero. È stato beatificato il 3 settembre del 2000 e canonizzato il 27 aprile 2014.


Martirologio Romano: A Roma, beato Giovanni XXIII, papa: uomo dotato di straordinaria umanità, con la sua vita, le sue opere e il suo sommo zelo pastorale cercò di effondere su tutti l’abbondanza della carità cristiana e di promuovere la fraterna unione tra i popoli; particolarmente attento all’efficacia della missione della Chiesa di Cristo in tutto il mondo, convocò il Concilio Ecumenico Vaticano II.

Nell’aria c’era già l’odore dell’estate, ma il giorno era triste. Quel 3 giugno 1963 una luce si spegneva nel mondo: il “Papa buono” era morto. Calde lacrime solcavano il viso delle tante persone che appresero in quei momenti la notizia della sua scomparsa. Nel suo breve ma intenso pontificato, durato poco meno di cinque anni, Papa Giovanni era riuscito a farsi amare dal mondo intero, che adesso ne piangeva la perdita.


Ma già subito dopo la sua morte incominciava il fervore della devozione popolare, che doveva avvolgere la sua figura di una precoce quanto indiscussa aureola di santità, e prendeva avvio il processo di beatificazione: un lavoro ciclopico, durato ben 34 anni, con l’avvicendarsi di diversi Postulatori e montagne di documenti da vagliare prima di pronunciarsi sulla sua eroicità. (…)Il 12 ottobre 1958 Angelo Roncalli era partito alla volta di Roma per partecipare insieme agli altri cardinali al conclave, ma non immaginava assolutamente di essere eletto Papa. Il suo desiderio era sempre stato quello di essere un pastore di anime, modesto e semplice come un parroco di campagna. 

Era nato a Sotto il Monte, piccolo borgo del bergamasco, il 25 novembre 1881, figlio di poveri mezzadri che lo battezzarono il giorno stesso della sua nascita nella locale Chiesa di S. Maria; la stessa dove, divenuto prete, avrebbe celebrato la sua prima Messa, il 15 agosto 1905, festa dell’Assunzione.

Angelino era molto intelligente e terminò le scuole in un lampo, tanto che in seminario era il più giovane della sua classe. A 19 anni aveva completato i corsi, ma per la legge ecclesiastica non poteva essere ordinato sacerdote prima dei 24 anni, così fu mandato a Roma per laurearsi alla Gregoriana. 

Divenuto prete, rimase per quindici anni a Bergamo, come segretario del vescovo e insegnante al seminario. Allo scoppio della prima guerra mondiale fu chiamato alle armi come cappellano militare. Nel 1921 Roncalli è a Roma e, successivamente, viene inviato in Bulgaria e in Turchia come visitatore apostolico: iniziava così la sua carriera diplomatica. Nominato Nunzio a Parigi nel 1944, diventa Patriarca di Venezia nel 1953.

Un’esistenza piuttosto appartata, senza fatti eclatanti, fino all’elezione al soglio di Pietro. Aveva allora 77 anni ed aveva già fatto testamento. Intendeva essere sepolto a Venezia e si era fatto costruire la tomba, nella cripta di S. Marco. Era naturale che ritenesse ormai imminente il suo commiato dal mondo. L’anno prima, 1957, aveva scritto infatti nel suo diario: “O Signore, siamo a sera. Anni settantasei in corso. Grande dono del Padre celeste la vita. Tre quarti dei miei contemporanei sono passati all’altra riva. Dunque anch’io mi debbo tener preparato al grande momento…”. Ma le vie del Signore sono sovente imprevedibili. Il 28 ottobre 1958 l’allora cardinale e patriarca di Venezia salì al soglio pontificio, come successore di Pio XII, e molti ne restarono sorpresi. Un vecchio avrebbe dovuto reggere la Chiesa? I giornali presto ci ricamarono su perché veniva da una famiglia di contadini. “Il papa contadino”, cominciarono a chiamarlo. Ma Roncalli aveva ben chiara la propria missione da compiere. 

“Vocabor Johannes…”. Mi chiamerò Giovanni, esordì appena eletto. Era il primo punto fermo del suo pontificato. Un nome che era già tutto un programma. E non si smentì. 

Nel 1959, un anno soltanto dopo la sua elezione, “tremando un poco di commozione, ma insieme con umile risolutezza di proposito”, come disse ai cardinali riuniti, annunciò il Concilio Vaticano II. Un evento epocale, destinato a cambiare il volto della Chiesa, a segnare un netto spartiacque nella storia della cristianità. 

(…) Fu il leit-motiv della sua vita e del suo pontificato. Dopo la S. Messa, nulla era per lui più importante del Rosario. Ogni giorno lo recitava per intero, meditando su ogni mistero. “Sono entusiasta – egli diceva - di questa devozione, soprattutto quando è capita ed appresa bene. Il vero Rosario è il cosiddetto Rosario meditato. Questo supplisce a molte altre forme di vita spirituale. È meditazione, supplicazione, canto ed insieme incantesimo delle anime. Quanta dolcezza e quanta forza in questa preghiera!”.

Mons. Loris Capovilla, suo segretario e fedele custode di memorie, ha detto che Papa Giovanni “durante tutta la sua esistenza si comportò con Maria di Nazareth come un figlio con la madre, uno di quei figli che un tempo davano del lei o del voi alla propria genitrice, manifestando amore dilatato dalla venerazione e rispetto alimentato dall’entusiasmo”.

Una venerazione tenera e forte, delicata e incrollabile, in cui possiamo vedere racchiuso il segreto della sua santità. 

Durante il suo pontificato fu pubblicato su “L’Osservatore Romano” un suo “Piccolo saggio di devoti pensieri distribuiti per ogni decina del Rosario, con riferimento alla triplice accentuazione: mistero, riflessione ed intenzione”: in una scrittura limpida e chiara c’è il succo delle riflessioni che egli veniva maturando nella personale preghiera del S. Rosario. “Nell’atto che ripetiamo le Avemarie, quanto è bello contemplare il campo che germina, la messe che s’innalza…”, diceva con efficace metafora presa da quel mondo contadino a lui così familiare. “Ciascuno avverte nei singoli misteri l’opportuno e buon insegnamento per sé, in ordine alla propria santificazione e alle condizioni in cui vive”. 

Papa Giovanni auspicava che il Rosario venisse recitato ogni sera in casa, nelle famiglie riunite, in ogni luogo della terra. Ma quanti oggi si radunano per fare questo? Il vento gelido della secolarizzazione ha finito per spazzare via questa antica consuetudine. Le case assomigliano oggi a isole di solitudine e incomunicabilità e se ci si riunisce è per celebrare i rituali del “caminetto” televisivo che mescola con la stessa indifferenza massacri etnici e telequiz, futilità e orrori.

(…)Il suo paese natale da oltre un trentennio è meta incessante di pellegrinaggi. Lo si era immaginato come un papa di transizione, che sarebbe passato in fretta, presto dimenticato, ma non è stato così. Per un disegno provvidenziale di Dio la giovinezza della Chiesa si è realizzata attraverso l’opera di un vecchio. Fu veramente un dono inatteso del Cielo. 

Attento ai segni dei tempi, Papa Giovanni promosse l’ecumenismo e la pace. Uomo del dialogo e della viva carità, fece sentire a tutti gli uomini, anche ai non cattolici e ai lontani, l’amicizia di Dio. La sua spiritualità, delicata e robusta al tempo stesso, aveva, come abbiamo visto, le sue radici in Maria. A Lei sempre si rivolgeva, in Lei confidava. Non si staccava mai da Lei, né mai si macerava nel dubbio: la sua fede era limpida e sorgiva, riposava in Maria, attraverso il Rosario. 

Anche il miracolo, la guarigione “clinicamente inspiegabile” di una suora malata di cancro, grazie a cui è ora elevato alla gloria degli altari, si è realizzato nel segno di Maria. Suor Caterina Capitani, delle Figlie della Carità, era affetta da un tumore allo stomaco che l’aveva ridotta in fin di vita. Papa Giovanni era morto da soli tre anni e la suorina con le consorelle l’aveva pregato a lungo, con grande insistenza e fiducia. Quel giorno, era il 25 maggio 1966, il “Papa buono” le apparve e le disse di non temere, perché sarebbe stata guarita, aggiungendo: “Me l’avete strappato dal cuore questo miracolo”. 
Prima di scomparire però le fece una grande raccomandazione: di pregare sempre il rosario. Era il suo chiodo fisso durante la vita, era il segreto della sua santità nell’alba eterna che non conosce tramonto.
Il Martirologium Romanum pone la data di culto al 3 giugno, mentre le diocesi di Bergamo e di Milano celebrano la sua memoria l'11 ottobre, anniversario dell'apertura del Concilio Vaticano II avvenuta nel 1962.

La festa liturgica è iscritta nel Calendario Romano generale all'11 ottobre, con il grado di memoria facoltativa.



Autore: Maria Di Lorenzo



Discours à la lune du Bon pape Jean XXIII : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p5ZikW3oWas