jeudi 17 novembre 2016

Sainte HILDA (HILD) de WHITBY, abbesse bénédictine


Sainte Hilda

Abbesse en Angleterre ( 680)

Baptisée vers l'âge de quatorze ans, elle quitta le Nord de l'Angleterre pour prendre le voile dans le monastère de Chelles en France où sa sœur était déjà religieuse. A la mort de cette dernière, elle retourna dans son pays où elle fonda un monastère à Hartlepool puis à Whitby. Elle a laissé le souvenir d'une abbesse rigoureuse et bonne.

À Whitby en Angleterre, l’an 680, sainte Hilda, abbesse, qui reçut de saint Paulin d’York la foi et les sacrements du Christ et, préposée au soin d’un monastère, s’attacha avec beaucoup d’ardeur à établir la vie régulière des moines et des moniales, à maintenir la paix et la charité, à veiller au travail et à la lecture des saintes Écritures, au point qu’elle paraissait avoir accompli sur terre les œuvres du ciel.

Martyrologe romain



Sainte Hilda (Hild), Abbesse de Whitby

Née en Northumbrie en 614; morte à Whitby en 680.
Hilda était la petite-nièce du roi Edwin de Northumbrie et la fille d'Hereric. Hild est la forme correcte de son nom et signifie "bataille". Elle fut baptisée avec son oncle par saint Paulin à York en 627, elle avait alors 13 ans. Elle vécut la vie d'une noble dame jusqu'à ses 20 ans, puis elle décida de rejoindre sa soeur sainte Hereswithe au monastèer de Chelles, et de devenir moniale en France. En 649, saint Aidan lui demanda de revenir en Northumbrie et de devenir abbesse d'un monastère double, c'est à dire avec des femmes et des hommes dans des quartiers séparés, bâtit à Hartlepool, sur la rivière Wear.

Après quelques années, sainte Hilda partit pour devenir abbesse du monastère double de Whitby à Streaneshalch, qu'elle gouvernera pour le restant de ses jours. Elle aura à diriger parmi les moines des gens comme le futur évêque saint Jean de Beverley, le gardien de troupeau Caedmon (qui deviendra le premier poète religieux Anglais), le futur évêque saint Wilfrid d'York et 3 autres futurs évêques.

Lors du Synode qu'elle fit convoquer à Whitby en 664, pour se décider entre les coutumes ecclésiastiques Celtiques et Romaines, sainte Hilda soutînt le parti Celtique. Cependant, elle et ses commuanutés se soumirent à la décision du Concile de Whitby pour observer la règle et les coutumes Romaines. Son influence fut certainement un des facteurs décisifs pour préserver l'unité de l'Eglise Anglaise.

Hilda était connue pour sa sagesse spirituelle, et son monastère pour le haut niveau d'érudition et pour ses moniales. Saint Bède se répand en louanges enthousiastes concernant l'abbesse Hilda, une des plus grandes Anglaises de tous les temps : elle fut la conseillère aussi bien des dirigeants que des simples gens; elle insistait sur l'étude de la Sainte Ecriture, et sur une préparation adéquate pour la prêtrise; l'influence de son exemple de paix et de charité s'étendra bien au delà des murs de son monastère; tous ceux qui la connaissaient l'appelaient "ma Mère", tant étaient grandes sa piété et sa grâce". (Attwater, Bénédictins, Delaney, Encyclopaedia).

Saint Hilda est représentée dans l'art tenant l'abbaye de Whitby en ses mains, avec une couronne sur sa tête ou à ses pieds.

Parfois on la représente 

(1) transformant des serpents en pierres; 

(2) arrêtant par la parole des oiseaux sauvages qui ravagaient ses maïs; ou

(3) son âme étant emportée au Ciel par les Anges (Roeder).



17 novembre

Baptisée vers l'âge de quatorze ans, elle quitta le Nord de l'Angleterre pour prendre le voile dans le monastère de Chelles en France où sa sœur était déjà religieuse. En 649, saint Aidan lui demanda de revenir en Northumbrie et de devenir abbesse d'un monastère double, c'est à dire avec des femmes et des hommes dans des quartiers séparés, bâtit à Hartlepool, sur la rivière Wear. Après quelques années, sainte Hilda partit pour devenir abbesse du monastère double de Whitby à Streaneshalch, qu'elle gouvernera pour le restant de ses jours. Hilda était connue pour sa sagesse spirituelle, et son monastère pour le haut niveau d'érudition et pour ses moniales. Saint Bède se répand en louanges enthousiastes concernant l'abbesse Hilda, une des plus grandes Anglaises de tous les temps : elle fut la conseillère aussi bien des dirigeants que des simples gens ; elle insistait sur l'étude de la Sainte Ecriture, et sur une préparation adéquate pour la prêtrise ; l'influence de son exemple de paix et de charité s'étendra bien au delà des murs de son monastère; tous ceux qui la connaissaient l'appelaient "ma Mère", tant étaient grandes sa piété et sa grâce. (Attwater, Bénédictins, Delaney, Encyclopaedia)



Christopher Whall. Aidan of Lindisfarne visite Sainte Hilda. 

 
Saint Hilda (614-680) fut higoumène de la grande abbaye de Whitby dans le nord de l'Angleterre au VIIe siècle. Elle était la fille de Hereric, neveu du roi Edwin de Northumbrie, et comme son grand-oncle, elle devint chrétienne par la prédication de saint Paulin d'York, vers l'an 627, quand elle avait treize ans.
Mûe par l'exemple de sa sœur Hereswith, qui était devenue moniale à Chelles, en Gaule, Hilda se rendit en East Anglia, dans l'intention de suivre sa sœur à l'étranger. Mais saint Aidan la rappela dans son propre pays, et après avoir mené une vie monastique pendant un certain temps sur la rive nord de la Wear et ensuite à Hartlepool, où elle dirigea un monastère double de moines et de miniales avec beaucoup de succès, Hilda s'engagea finalement à remettre de l'ordre un monastère à Streaneshalch, lieu auquel les Danois, un siècle ou deux plus tard donnèrent le nom de Whitby.
 
Sous la règle de sainte Hilda, le monastère de Whitby devint très célèbre. Les Saintes Ecritures étaient plus spécialement étudié là-bas, et pas moins de cinq des moines devinrent évêques, parmi lesquels saint Jean, évêque de Hexham, et de Saint Wilfrid, évêque d'York.
À Whitby, en 664, eut lieu le célèbre synode qui confirma, entre autres choses, le mode de calcul de la date de Pâques. La renommée de sagesse sainte Hilda était si grande, que de loin et de près, des moines et même des personnages royaux venaient la consulter.
Sept ans avant sa mort, la sainte fut frappée d'une fièvre grave qui ne la quitta point, jusques au moment où elle rendit le dernier soupir, mais, malgré cela, elle ne négligea aucun de ses devoirs envers Dieu ou envers ses enfants spirituels. Elle décéda paisiblement après avoir reçu les très Saints Mystères du Christ, et le tintement de la cloche du monastère fut entendu par miracle à Hackness à vingt kilomètres de là, où une religieuse également dévote nommée Begu vit l'âme de sainte Hilda emportée au Ciel par les anges.
La vie de sainte Hilda est racontée par Bède dans son Histoire de l'Église et des peuples d'Angleterre.
La vénération de sainte Hilda dans les temps anciens, est attestée par l'inscription de son nom dans le calendrier de saint Willibrord, écrit au début du VIIIe siècle.
Selon une tradition, ses reliques furent transportées à Glastonbury par le roi Edmond, une autre tradition veut que saint Edmond apporta ses reliques à Gloucester.
Sa fête est fixée au dix-septième jour de Novembre.

Version française Claude Lopez-Ginisty
d'après

SOURCE : http://orthodoxologie.blogspot.ca/2010/04/sainte-hilda-higoumene-der-whitby-680.html

Hilda (Hild) of Whitby, OSB Abbess (AC)

Born in Northumbria in 614; died at Whitby in 680.
Hilda was a grandniece of King Edwin of Northumbria and daughter of Hereric. Both she and her uncle were baptized by Saint Paulinus at York in 627, when she was 13. She lived the life of a noblewoman until 20 years later she decided to join her sister Saint Hereswitha at the Chelles Monastery as a nun in France. In 649, Saint Aidan requested that she return to Northumbria as abbess of the double monastery (with both men and women, in separate quarters) in Hartlepool by the River Wear.
After some years Saint Hilda migrated as abbess to the double monastery of Whitby at Streaneshalch, which she governed for the rest of her life. Among her subject monks were Bishop Saint John of Beverly, the herdsman Caedmon (the first English religious poet), Bishop Saint Wilfrid of York, and three other bishops.
At the conference she convened in 664 at Whitby abbey to decide between Celtic and Roman ecclesiastical customs, Saint Hilda supported the Celtic party. Nevertheless, she and her communities adhered to the decision of the Council of Whitby to observe the Roman rule and customs. Her influence was certainly one of the decisive factors in securing unity in the English Church.
Hilda became known for her spiritual wisdom and her monastery for the caliber of its learning and its nuns. Saint Bede is enthusiastic in his praise of Abbess Hilda, one of the greatest Englishwomen of all time: she was the adviser of rulers as well as of ordinary folk; she insisted on the study of Holy Scripture and on proper preparation for the priesthood; the influence of her example of peace and charity extended beyond the walls of her monastery; 'all who knew her called her Mother, such were her wonderful godliness and grace' (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).
 
Saint Hilda is represented in art holding Whitby Abbey in her hands with a crown on her head or at her feet. Sometimes she is shown (1) turning serpents into stone; (2) stopping the wild birds from ravaging corn at her command; or (3) as a soul being carried to heaven by the angels (Roeder).

SOURCE : http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/1117.shtml



James Clark. Sainte Hilda

St. Hilda

Abbess, born 614; died 680. Practically speaking, all our knowledge of St. Hilda is derived from the pages of Bede. She was the daughter of Hereric, the nephew of King Edwin of Northumbria, and she seems like her great-uncle to have become a Christian through the preaching of St. Paulinus about the year 627, when she was thirteen years old.

Moved by the example of her sister Hereswith, who, after marrying Ethelhere of East Anglia, became a nun at Chelles in Gaul, Hilda also journeyed to East Anglia, intending to follow her sister abroad. But St. Aidan recalled her to her own country, and after leading a monastic life for a while on the north bank of the Wear and afterwards at Hartlepool, where she ruled a double monastery of monks and nuns with great success, Hilda eventually undertook to set in order a monastery at Streaneshalch, a place to which the Danes a century or two later gave the name of Whitby.
Under the rule of St. Hilda the monastery at Whitby became very famous. The Sacred Scriptures were specially studied there, and no less than five of the inmates became bishops, St. John, Bishop of Hexham, and still more St. Wilfrid, Bishop of York, rendering untold service to the Anglo-Saxon Church at this critical period of the struggle with paganism. Here, in 664, was held the important synod at which King Oswy, convinced by the arguments of St. Wilfrid, decided the observance of Easter and other moot points. St. Hilda herself later on seems to have sided with Theodore against Wilfrid. The fame of St. Hilda's wisdom was so great that from far and near monks and even royal personages came to consult her.
 
Seven years before her death the saint was stricken down with a grievous fever which never left her till she breathed her last, but, in spite of this, she neglected none of her duties to God or to her subjects. She passed away most peacefully after receiving the Holy Viaticum, and the tolling of the monastery bell was heard miraculously at Hackness thirteen miles away, where also a devout nun named Begu saw the soul of St. Hilda borne to heaven by angels.
 
With St. Hilda is intimately connected the story of Caedmon, the sacred bard. When he was brought before St. Hilda she admitted him to take monastic vows in her monastery, where he most piously died.
 
The cultus of St. Hilda from an early period is attested by the inclusion of her name in the calendar of St. Willibrord, written at the beginning of the eighth century. It was alleged at a later date the remains of St. Hilda were translated to Glastonbury by King Edmund, but this is only part of the "great Glastonbury myth." Another story states that St. Edmund brought her relics to Gloucester. St. Hilda's feast seems to have been kept on 17 November. There are a dozen or more old English churches dedicated to St. Hilda on the northeast coast and South Shields is probably a corruption of St. Hilda.
Thurston, Herbert. "St. Hilda." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 19 Nov. 2016 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07350a.htm>.

Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Michael C. Tinkler.
Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. June 1, 1910. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York.


Hilda de Whitby Abbess and Peacemaker

Hilda (known in her own century as "Hild") was the grandniece of King Edwin of Northumbria, a kingdom of the Angles. She was born in 614 and baptized in 627 when the king and his household became Christians. In 647 she decided to become a nun, and under the direction of Aidan she established several monasteries. Her last foundation was at Whitby. It was a double house: a community of men and another of women, with the chapel in between, and Hilda as the governor of both; and it was a great center of English learning, one which produced five bishops (during Hilda's lifetime??). Here a stable-boy, Caedmon, was moved to compose religious poems in the Anglo-Saxon tongue, most of them metrical paraphrases of narratives from Genesis and the Gospels.

The Celtic peoples of Britain had heard the Gospel well before 300 Ad, but in the 400's and 500's a massive invasion of Germanic peoples (Angles, Jutes, and Saxons) forced the native Celts out of what is now England and into Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. The invaders were pagans, and missionaries were sent to them in the north and west by the Celts, and in the south and east by Rome and other churches on the continent of Europe.
Roman and Celtic traditions differed, not in doctrine, but on such questions as the proper way of calculating the date of Easter, and the proper style of haircut and dress for a monk. It was, in particular, highly desirable that Christians, at least in the same area, should celebrate Easter at the same time; and it became clear that the English Church would have to choose between the old Celtic customs which it had inherited from before 300, and the customs of continental Europe and in particular of Rome that missionaries from there had brought with them. In 664 the Synod of Whitby met at that monastery to consider the matter, and it was decided to follow Roman usage.
Hilda herself greatly preferred the Celtic customs in which she had been reared, but once the decision had been made she used her moderating influence in favor of its peaceful acceptance. Her influence was considerable; kings and commoners alike came to her for advice. She was urgent in promoting the study of the Scriptures and the thorough education of the clergy. She died 17 November 680.

PRAYER (traditional language)

O God, whose blessed Son became poor that we through his poverty Might be rich: deliver us from an inordinate love of this world, that, following the example of thy servant Hilda, we may serve thee with singleness of heart, and attain to the riches of the world to come; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.

O God of peace, by whose grace the abbess Hilda was endowed with Gifts of justice, prudence, and strength to rule as a wise mother over the nuns and monks of her household, and to become a trusted and reconciling friend to leaders of the Church: Give us the grace to respect and love our fellow Christians with whom we disagree, that our common life may be enriched and thy gracious will be done, through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.

PRAYER (contemporary language)

O God, whose blessed Son became poor that we through his poverty Might be rich: deliver us from an inordinate love of this world, that, following the example of your servant Hilda, we may serve thee with singleness of heart, and attain to the riches of the world to come; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.

O God of peace, by whose grace the abbess Hilda was endowed with Gifts of justice, prudence, and strength to rule as a wise mother over the nuns and monks of her household, and to become a trusted and reconciling friend to leaders of the Church: Give us the grace to respect and love our fellow Christians with whom we disagree, that our common life may be enriched and your gracious will be done, through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.

Unless otherwise indicated, this biographical sketch was written by James E. Kiefer and any comments about its content should be directed to him. The Biographical Sketches home page has more information.