Évêque et abbé (6ème s.)
ou Dybrig, premier évêque de Llandaff, au pays de Galles.
Il sacra Saint Samson évêque.
Dans l’île de Bardsey au sud du pays de Galles, au VIe siècle, saint Dubrice, évêque et abbé, considéré comme un des fondateurs du monachisme au pays de Galles.
Saint Dubrice, est aussi nommé Dubritius, Dubric, Dyfig, Dyfrig, Devereux.
Il était né à Moccas (Moch Rhos = Lande du Porc), près de Hereford, et mourut vers 545. Certaines généalogies anciennes montrent Dubrice comme arrière-arrière-petit-fils de Macsen Wledig et d'Elen of the Ways.
Saint Dubrice était un chef religieux important, moine, dans le sud du Pays de Galles et l'ouest du Herefordshire. Sa première fondation a été Ariconium (Archenfield, Hereford), mais ses centres les plus importants étaient à Hentland (Henllan) et Moccas dans la vallée de Wye. Dubrice a attiré de nombreux disciples aux deux monastères, et à partir d'eux, il fonda de nombreux monastères et églises.
Il a été associé à Saint Illtud (Fêté au 6 Novembre) et, selon la "vita" du 7e siècle de Saint-Samson, avec l'île de Caldey où il nomma Saint Samson (Fêté le Juillet) higoumène du monastère. Plus tard, il consacra Samson évêque. Une inscription ancienne, mais incomplète, à Caldey dit "Magl Dubr" ("le serviteur tonsuré de Dubrice").
Dubrice et saint Deinol (ou Daniel fêté le 11 Septembre) furent les deux prélats qui convainquirent Saint David (Fêté le 1er Mars) d'assister au synode de Brefi. Dubrice passa les dernières années de sa vie à Ynys Enlli (Bardsey) et y mourut.
[Dans les légendes médiévales tardives, il devient l'archevêque de Caerleon (Caerlon-on-Usk) et, selon Geoffroy de Monmouth, il couronne le "Roi" Arthur à Colchester (il est le grand saint des "Idylles d'un roi"), et la politique ecclésiastique du 12ème siècle le revendique comme fondateur du siège normand de Llandaff, où il a été l'un des quatre saints titulaires de la cathédrale. La "vita" tardive écrite par Benoît de Gloucester fait valoir que Dubrice était un disciple de saint Germain d'Auxerre (Fêté le 31 Juillet), mais c'est peu probable. La légende dit également que Saint-David a démissionné en sa faveur comme métropolite du pays de Galles. ]
Les reliques de Saint Dyfrig ont été transférées de Bardsey à Llandaff en 1120. Il est le "Dubrice le grand saint, Chef de l'Eglise en Grande-Bretagne" de "L'avènement d'Arthur" de Tennyson, et le toponyme Saint Devereux dans le Herefordshire est une corruption du nom du saint.
La dédicace de l'Eglise qui lui est consacrée à Gwenddwr (Powys) et Porlock (Somerset) donnent à penser que ses disciples ont été actifs dans l'expansion du christianisme à l'ouest et au sud-ouest, éventuellement en association avec la multitude des enfants de Saint Brychan Brecknock (Fêté le 6 avril).
Dans l'art Saint Dubrice est représenté tenant deux crosses et une croix archiépiscopale. Il est vénéré dans le Herefordshire, le Monmouthshire, et dans l'île de Caldey Island (appelée Ynys Byr en Gallois, d'après le nom d'un higoumène de son monastère).
Version française Claude Lopez-Ginisty
Dubricius B (AC)
(also known as Dubritius, Dubric, Dyfig, Dyfrig, Devereux)
Born at Madley (?), near Hereford; died c. 545. Saint Dyfrig was an important church leader, probably a monk, in southeast Wales and western Herefordshire. His earliest foundation was Ariconium (Archenfield, Hereford), but his most important centers were at Hentland (Henllan) and Moccas in the Wye valley. Dyfrig attracted numerous disciples to the two monasteries, and from them founded many other monasteries and churches. He was associated with Saint Illtyd and, according to the 7th-century vita of Saint Samson, with the island of Caldey for whose monastery he appointed Saint Samson (July 28) abbot. Later he consecrated Samson bishop. An ancient, but incomplete, inscription at Caldey reads Magl Dubr ("the tonsured servant of Dubricius").
Dyfrig and Saint Deinol (Daniel) were the two prelates who convinced Saint David to attend the synod of Brefi. Dyfrig spent the last years of his life at Ynys Enlli (Bardsey) and died there.
In later medieval legends he becomes the 'archbishop of Caerleon' (Caerlon-on-Usk) and, according to the unreliable Geoffrey of Monmouth, crowns 'King' Arthur at Colchester (he is the high saint of Idylls of a King), and the ecclesiastical politics of the 12th century claimed him as founder of the Normans' see of Llandaff, where he was one of the four titular saints of the cathedral.
The later vita written by Benedict of Gloucester claims that Dyfrig was a disciple of Saint Germanus of Auxerre, but this is unlikely. Legend also inaccurately states that Saint David resigned in his favor as metropolitan of Wales.
The reputed relics of Saint Dyfrig were translated from Bardsey to Llandaff in 1120. He is the 'Dubric the high saint, Chief of the church in Britain' of Tennyson's Coming of Arthur, and the place-name Saint Devereux in Herefordshire is a corruption of the saint's name.
Church dedications to him at Gwenddwr (Powys) and Porlock (Somerset) suggest that his disciples were active in the expansion of Christianity to the west and southwest, possibly in association with the multitudinous children Saint Brychan of Brecknock (Attwater, Benedictines, Doble, Delaney, Farmer).
In art Saint Dubricius is depicted holding two croziers and an archiepiscopal cross. He is venerated in Herefordshire, Monmouthshire, and Caldey Island (Roeder).
- Dubricius of Caerleon
- Dubricius of Llandaff
- Devereux of…
- Dubric of…
- Dubrice of…
- Dubricus of…
- Dubritius of…
- Dybrig of…
- Dyffryg of…
- Dyfrig of…
Related to Saint Brychan of Brycheiniog. One of the founders of monastic life in Wales. He founded monasteries in Gwent and England with his main centers in Henllan and Moccas. Worked with Saint Teilo of Llandaff and Saint Samson of York who he appointed as abbot on Caldey Island. Bishop of Llandaff, Wales, consecrated in by Saint Germanus of Auxerre. Archbishop of Caerleon, Wales, a seat he turned over to Saint David of Wales. In his later years he retired to the Isle of Bardsey to live as a prayerful hermit.
St. Dubricius, Bishop and Confessor
HOW great soever the corruption of vice was which had sunk deep into the hearts of many in the degenerate ages of the ancient Britons before the invasion of the English Saxons, God raised amongst them many eminent saints, who, by their zealous exhortations and example, invited their countrymen by penance to avert the divine wrath which was kindled over their heads. One of the most illustrious fathers and instructors of these saints was St. Dubricius, who flourished chiefly in that part which is now called South-Wales. 1 He erected two great schools of sacred literature at Hentlan and Mochrhes, both places, situate upon the river Wye or Vaga, which waters Brecknockshire, Radnorshire and Monmouthshire. In this place St. Samson, St. Theliau, and many other eminent saints and pastors of God’s church, were formed to virtue and the sacred ministry under the discipline of St. Dubricius; and persons of all ranks and conditions resorting to him from every part of Britain, he had a thousand scholars with him for years together. It was this great master’s first study, to cultivate well his own soul, and to learn the interior sentiments of all virtues by listening much to the Holy Ghost in close solitude and holy meditation on divine things. He was consecrated the first archbishop of Llandaff, by St. Germanus, in a synod about the year 444, and was afterwards constituted archbishop of Cærleon, which dignity he resigned to St. David in the synod of Brevi in 522. After this, St. Dubricius retired into the solitary island of Bardsey or Euly, on the coast of Cærnarvonshire, where he died and was buried: twenty thousand saints (that is, holy hermits and religious persons) are said in Camden and others to have been interred in that island. The bones of St. Dubricius were afterwards removed to Llandaff. See Alford’s Annals, Leland’s Itinerary, and St. Dubricius’s life, written, as some maintain, by St. Theliau’s own hand, in the Llandaff register. Also his life compiled by Benedict, a monk of Gloucester, in 1120, in Wharton’s Anglia Sacra, t. 2. p. 654.
Note 1. Sir William Dugdale, in his Antiquities of Warwickshire, tells us that St. Dubricius fixed his episcopal chair some time at Warwick; and that, during his residence there, the most agreeable solitude, since called Guy’s Cliff, on the side of a rock upon the banks of the Avon, about a mile from Warwick, was the place of his frequent retreats from the world, and that he there built the oratory which was dedicated, not in honour of St. Margaret, as Camden mistakes, but of St. Mary Magdalen. For this, our antiquarian quotes the rolls and a manuscript history of John Rous, or Ross, a nobleman, and famous chantry priest of this place in the days of Edward IV. in whose history, now published by Hearne, are found some curious anedcotes, but blended with many traditionary fables and groundless conjectures. Guy’s Cliff is so called from Guy, the famous English champion against the Danes, in the reign of King Athelstan, commonly called earl of Warwick, though the chief governor or magistrate was then usually called earldorman, the title of earl being introduced a little later by the Danes. His warlike exploits are obscured by having been made the subject of ballads and romances; which also happened to our great King Arthur, and to the famous outlaw and captain of robbers, Robin Hood, who ranged in Sherwood forest in the time of Richard I. Guy, after many gallant achievements, renounced his honours and riches, and led an austere poor life in this place, under the direction of an old virtuous hermit, who lived in a cell or cave which he had hewn in the side of this rock. Guy died in a neighbouring cell in the year 929, of his age the seventieth. Guy’s tower, at Warwick, was so called from Guy Beauchamp, earl of Warwick; and the curious monuments of other powerful earls who resided in that strong castle (which was very advantageous in the old civil wars, by its situation near the centre of England) are, by the vulgar, very falsely ascribed to this Guy, the champion, afterwards the palmer or pilgrim, and the hermit. Many hermits in succeeding times served God in this delightful solitude, and a great number of cells with innumerable crosses cut in the sides, in the hard rock, are still seen there. Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, founded at Guy’s Cliff, a chantry, which establishment was confirmed by Henry VI. The church is still standing; but serves for an open stable to shelter the cattle, which cover with ordure the very place where the high altar stood. In the nave two great stone statues are still standing, the one representing Guy, the other, Colborn, the Danish champion, whom he slew in a single combat near Winchester. [back]
Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73). Volume XI: November. The Lives of the Saints. 1866.
SOURCE : http://www.bartleby.com/210/11/142.html