mardi 29 octobre 2013

Bienheureux MARTYRS de DOUAI


Bienheureux Martyrs de Douai

Prêtres martyrs en Angleterre

Fête le 29 octobre

† XVIIe siècle

Béatifiés en 1929

Groupe de plus de 160 prêtres du séminaire anglais de Douai furent martyrisés en Angleterre et dans le Pays de Galles, durant le siècle qui suivit la fondation du célèbre collège par le Cardinal William Allen en 1568. Plus de quatre-vingt anciens élèves de Douai furent béatifiés en 1929. plusieurs diocèses anglais ont une fête collective en leur honneur.

SOURCE : http://www.martyretsaint.com/martyrs-de-douai/

Blessed Martyrs of Douai (AC)

16th and 17th centuries. During the persecution of Catholics, the sons of British Catholics had to travel to the Continent for religious studies. One of the major centers for theological study was located at Douai. More than 160 alumni priests from the English College there were martyred in England and Wales during the century following the seminary's foundation in 1568. Over 80 of them were beatified in 1929. A collective feast is kept in their honor in several English diocese, though each also has his own feast (Benedictines).


The Blessed Martyrs of Douai

A group of 160 priests trained at the English College of Douai, in France. They were martyred in England and Wales during the century following the foundation of the famed college by Cardinal William Allen in 1568. All perished at the hands of English authorities while laboring to reconvert the island. Eighty alumni of Douai were beatified in 1929.
The English College at Douai was established by William Allen, later Cardinal, on Michaelmas Day, 29th September, 1568. It offered an opportunity to form clergy for England in accordance with the system laid down by the Council of Trent.
Originally it was intended as a college home for exiles from England, a place where they could continue their studies in a way no longer possible for Catholics at the English Universities. In time Allen recognised its potential as a place for training clergy ready for the return to England when ‘the new religion’ had run its course. The new priests, however, proved unwilling to wait for that event and quickly Douai College found itself dedicated very largely to the training of missionary priests.
Between 1577, the date of the martyrdom of St Cuthbert Mayne, the college’s protomartyr, and 1680, the date of the execution of Thomas Thwing, the college’s last martyr, one hundred and fifty eight college members, priests and layman, secular and religious, met with a martyr’s death.
The College was suppressed in 1793, and the collegians imprisoned for thirteen months at Doullens, Picardy. They were released in November 1794, returning to Douai for only a few months before obtaining permission to return to England. They found their first refuge at Old Hall Green, Ware, and dedicated the new work of the college to St Edmund of Canterbury on his feast day, November 16th, 1794

Names of The Blessed Martyrs of Douai

1577

Cuthbert Mayne

1578

John Nelson, Thomas Sherwood

1581

Everard Hanse, Edmund Campion, Ralph Sherwin, Alexander Briant

1582

John Payne, Thomas Ford, John Shert, Robert Johnson, William Fylby, Luke Kirby, Laurence Richardson, Thomas Cottam, William Lacy, Richard Kirkman, James Hudson Thompson

1583

William Hart, Richard Thirkeld, John Slade, John Bodey

1584

George Haydock, James Fenn, Thomas Hemerford, John Nutter, John Munden

1585

Thomas Alfield, Hugh Taylor

1586

Edward Stranchan, Nicholas Woodfen, Richard Sergeant, William Thomson, Robert Anderton. William Marsden, Francis Ingolby, John Finglow, John Sandys, John Lowe, John Adams, Richard Dibdale

1587

Thomas Pilchard, Edmund Sykes, Robert Sutton, Stephen Rousham, John Hambley, Alexander Crow

1588

Nicholas Garlick, Robert Ludlam, Richard Sympson, William Dean, William Gunter, Robert Morton, Hugh More, Thomas Holford, James Claxton, Thomas Felton, Robert Wilcox, Edward Campion, Christopher Buxton, Ralph Crocket, Edward James, John Robinson, William Hartley, John Hewett, Robert Leigh, William Way, Edward Burden

1589

John Amias, Robert Dalby, George Nichols, Richard Vaxley, Thomas Belson, William Spenser

1590

Christopher Bales, Miles Gerard, Francis Dickinson, Edward Jones, Anthony Middleton, Edmund Duke, Richard Hill, John Hogg, Richard Holiday

1591

Robert Thorpe, Momford Scott, George Beesley, Roger Dickinson, Edmund Genings, Eustace White, Polydore Plasden

1592

William Patenson, Thomas Pormont

1593

Edward Waterson, James Bird, Anthony Page, Joseph Lampton, William Davies

1594

William Harrington, John Cornelius, John Boste, John Ingram, Edward Osbaldeston

1595

Robert Southwell, Alexander Rawlins, Henry Walpole, William Freeman

1597

William Andleby

1598

Peter Snow, Christopher Robinson, Richard Horner

1599

Matthias Harrison

1600

Christopher Wharton, Thomas Sprott, Robert Nutter, Edward Thwing, Thomas Palasor

1601

John Pibush, Mark Barkworth, Roger Filcock, Thurston Hunt

1602

James Harrison, Thomas Tichborne, Robert Watkinson, Francis Page

1603

William Richardson

1604

John Sugar

1607

Robert Drury

1608

Matthew Flathers, George Gervase

1610

Roger Cadwallador, George Napier, Thomas Somers

1612

Richard Newport, John Almond

1616

Thomas Atkinson, John Thulis, Thomas Maxfield, Thomas Tunstal

1618

William Southerne

1628

Edmund Arrowsmith

1641

William Ward, Ambrose Edward Barlow

1642

Thomas Reynolds, Alban Roe, John Lockwood, Edmund Catherick, Edward Morgan, Hugh Green

1643

Henry Heath

1644

John Duckett

1645

Henry Morse, John Goodman

1646

Edward Bamber

1654

John Southworth

1679

Nicholas Postgate, John Wall, John Kemble

1680

Thomas Thwing

SOURCE : http://www.ucatholic.com/saints/the-martyrs-of-douai/

Douai

(Town and University of Douai)

(DOUAY, DOWAY)

The town of Douai, in the department of Nord, France, is on the River Scarpe, some twenty miles south of Lille. It contains about 30,000 inhabitants and was formerly the seat of a university. It was strongly fortified, and the old ramparts have only been removed in recent years. The town flourished in the Middle Ages, and the church of Notre-Dame dates from the twelfth century.

To English Catholics, the name Douai will always be bound up with the college founded by Cardinal Allen during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, where the majority of the clergy were educated in penal times, and to which the preservation of the Catholic religion in England was largely due. Several other British establishments were founded there — colleges for the Scots and the Irish, and Benedictine and Franciscan monasteries — and Douai became the chief centre for those who were exiled for the Faith. The University of Douai may be said to date from 31 July, 1559, when Philip II of Spain (in whose dominions it was then situated) obtained a Bull from Pope Paul IV, authorizing its establishment the avowed object being the preservation of the purity of the Catholic Faith from the errors of the Reformation. Paul IV died before he had promulgated the Bull, which was, however, confirmed by his successor, Pius IV, 6 January, 1560. The letters patent of Philip II, dated 19 January, 1561, authorized the establishment of a university with five faculties; theology, canon law, civil law, medicine, and arts. The formal inauguration took place 5 October, 1562, when there was a public procession of the Blessed Sacrament, and a sermon was preached in the market-place by the Bishop of Arras.

There were already a considerable number of English Catholics living at Douai, and their influence made itself felt in the new university. In its early years, several of the chief posts were held by Englishmen, mostly from Oxford. The first chancellor of the university was Dr. Richard Smith, formerly Fellow of Merton and regius professor of divinity at Oxford; the regius professor of canon law at Douai for many years was Dr. Owen Lewis, Fellow of New College, who had held the corresponding post at Oxford; the first principal of Marchiennes College was Richard White, formerly Fellow of New College; while Allen himself, after taking his licentiate at Douai in 1560, became regius professor of divinity. It is reasonable to suppose that many of the traditions of Catholic Oxford were perpetuated at Douai. The university was, however, far from being even predominantly English; it was founded on the model of that of Louvain, from which seat of learning the majority of the first professors were drawn. The two features already mentioned — that the university was founded during the progress of the Reformation, to combat the errors of Protestantism, and that it was to a considerable extent under English influences — explain the fact that William Allen, when seeking a home for a projected English college abroad, turned his eyes towards Douai. The project arose from a conversation which he had with Dr. Vendeville, then regius professor of canon law in the University of Douai, and afterwards Bishop of Tournai, whom he accompanied on a pilgrimage to Rome in the autumn of 1567; and the foundation took definite shape when Allen made a beginning in a hired house on Michaelmas Day, 1568. His object was to gather some of the numerous body of English Catholics who, having been forced to leave England, were scattered in different countries on the Continent, and to give them facilities for continuing their studies, so that when the time came for the re-establishment of Catholicism, which Allen was always confident could not be far distant, there might be a body of learned clergy ready to return to their country. This was of course a very different thing from sending missionaries over in defiance of the law while England still remained in the hands of the Protestants. This latter plan was an afterthought and a gradual growth from the circumstances in which the college found itself, though eventually it became its chief work.

Allen's personality and influence soon attracted a numerous band of scholars, and a few years after the foundation of the college the students numbered more than one hundred and fifty. A steady stream of controversial works issued form Douai, some by Allen himself, others by such men as Thomas Stapleton, Richard Bristowe, and others almost equally well known. The preparation of the Douay Bible was among their chief undertakings. It is estimated that before the end of the sixteenth century more than three hundred priests had been sent on the English mission, nearly a third of whom suffered martyrdom; and almost as many had been banished. By the end of the persecution the college counted more than one hundred and sixty martyrs. Allen had at first no regular source of income, but depended on the generosity of a few friends, and especially upon the neighbouring monasteries of Saint-Vaast at Arras, Anchin, and Marchiennes, which, at the suggestion of Dr. Vendeville, had from time to time subscribed towards the work. Many private donations were also received from England. After a few years, seeing the extreme need of the college and the importance of the work it was doing, Allen applied to Pope Gregory XIII, who in 1565 granted a regular pension of one hundred gold crowns a month, which continued to be paid down to the time of the French Revolution. Allen himself gave his whole salary as regius professor of divinity. The work of the college was not allowed to proceed without opposition, which at one time became so strong that Allen's life was in danger, and in 1578 the English were all expelled from Douai. The college was established temporarily at Reims; but possession was retained of the house at Douai, and in 1593 it was found possible to return there. By this time Allen had been called to reside in Rome, where he died 16 Oct., 1594. Under his successor, Dr. Richard Barrett, the work was extended to include a preparatory course in humanities, so that it became a school as well as a college. In 1603 under Dr. Worthington, the third president, a regular college was built, opposite the old parish church of St-Jacques, in the Rue des Morts, so called on account of the adjoining cemetery. The town at this time formed a single parish. In the eighteenth century it was divided into four parishes, and the present church of St-Jacques dates from that time.

The English College was the first to be opened in connexion with the university. The Collège d'Anchin was opened a few months later, endowed by the Abbot of the neighbouring monastery of Anchin, and entrusted to the Jesuits. In 1570 the Abbot of Marchiennes founded a college for the study of law. The Abbot of Saint-Vast founded a college of that name. Later on, we find the College of St. Thomas Aquinas, belonging to the Dominicans, the Collège du Roi, and others. The remaining British establishments were all exclusively for ecclesiastics. The Irish College was originally a Spanish foundation. It was established before the end of the sixteenth century, and endowed with 5,000 florins a year by the King of Spain. The course of studies lasted six years and the students attended lectures at the university. The Scots' College has an unfortunate notoriety in consequence of the long dispute between the Jesuits and the secular clergy which centred round it in later times. It was established in 1594, not as a new foundation, but as the continuation of a secular college at Pont- à-Mousson in Lorraine, which, owing to the unhealthfulness of the site, had to seek a new home. In 1506, however, it moved again, and it was not till after several further migrations that it settled finally at Douai in 1612. The college was devoid of resources, and it was due to the zealous efforts of Father Parsons in Rome and Madrid, and of Father Creighton in France and Flanders, that numerous benefactions were given, and it was placed on a permanent footing. For this reason, the Jesuits afterwards claimed the property as their own, although it was admitted that in its early years secular clergy had been educated there. Appeals and counter-appeals were made, but the question was still unsettled when the Jesuits were expelled from France in 1764. The French Government, however, recognized the claims of the Scotch secular clergy and allowed them to continue the work of the college under a rector chosen from their own body. The Benedictine and Franciscan houses at Douai were near together and were both bound up in their history with the restoration of the respective orders in England. The Franciscan monastery was founded mainly through the instrumentality of Father John Gennings, the brother of the martyr. It was established in temporary quarters in 1618, the students for the time attending the Jesuit schools; but by 1621 they had built a monastery and provided for all necessary tuition within their own walls. The Benedictines began in 1605, in hired apartments belonging to the Collège d'Anchin, but a few years later, through the generosity of Abbot Caravel of the monastery of Saint-Vaast, they obtained land and built a monastery, which was opened in 1611. The house acquired a high reputation for learning, and many of the professors of the university were at different times chosen from among its members.

Returning now to the English College, we come upon the unfortunate disputes between the seculars and regulars in the seventeenth century. Dr. Worthington, though himself a secular priest, was under the influence of Father Parsons, and for a long time the students attended the Jesuit schools and all the spiritual direction was in the hands of the society. A visitation of the college, however, laid bare many shortcomings in its administration and in the end Worthington was deposed. His successor, Dr. Kellison (1613-1641), succeeded in restoring the reputation of the college, while he gradually arranged for the necessary tuition to be given within its walls. In the latter half of the seventeenth and the early years of the eighteenth century, the English College went through a troubled time. During the presidency of Dr. Hyde (1646-1651), the University of Douai obtained certain controlling rights over the college, which claim, however, he successfully withstood. His successor, Dr. George Leyburn (1652-1670), fell out with the "Old Chapter", in the absence of a bishop, governing the Church in England. He attacked one Mr. White (alias Blacklo), a prominent member of their body, and procured a condemnation of his writings by the University of Douai. In the end, however, he himself found it necessary to retire in favour of his nephew, Dr. John Leyburn, who was afterwards vicar Apostolic. Hardly was the dispute with the "Blackloists" (as they were called) finished, when a further storm of an even more serious nature arose, the centre being Dr. Hawarden who was professor of philosophy and then of theology at the English College for seventeen years. His reputation became so great that when a vacancy occurred in 1702 he was solicited by the bishop, the chief members of the university, and the magistrates of the town to accept the post of regius professor of divinity. His candidature, however, was opposed by a party headed by the vice-chancellor. The Jesuits also declared against him, accusing him, and through him the English College, of Jansenism. In the end, Dr. Hawarden retired from Douai and went on the mission in England; and a visitation of the college, made by order of the Holy See, resulted in completely clearing it of the imputation. In 1677, Douai was taken by Louis XIV, and since that date has been under French control, except for the short time that it was held by the English after the siege of the Duke of Marlborough in 1710; but it was retaken by the French the following year.

During the rest of the eighteenth century, there were no important political changes until the Revolution broke out. The hopes which the English Catholics had rested on the Stuart family had now vanished, and the only prospect open to them lay in their foreign centres of which Douai was the chief. To these centres they devoted the greater part of their energy. Under the presidency of Dr. Witham (1715-1738) who is considered a second founder, the English College at Douai was rebuilt on a substantial scale and rescued from overwhelming debt; it had lost nearly all its endowment in the notorious Mississippi scheme, or "South Sea Bubble". The Irish College was rebuilt about the middle of the century, and the English Benedictine monastery between 1776 and 1781. But all were destined to come to an end a few years after this, under the Reign of Terror.

As a town, Douai suffered less than many others at the beginning of the Revolution. The university kept up its Catholic character to the end, and it was one of the five typical Catholic universities to which Pitt appealed for an authoritative declaration as to the Catholic doctrine on the "deposing power" of the pope. During the Reign of Terror, however, it suffered the same fate as many similar establishments. When all the clergy of the town were called upon in 1791 to take the "Civic Oath", the members of the British establishments claimed exemption in virtue of their nationality. The plea was allowed for a time; but after the execution of Louis XVI, when war was declared between England and France, it was not to be expected that this immunity would continue. The superiors and students of most of the British establishments took flight and succeeded in reaching England. The members of the English College, with their president, Rev. John Daniel, remained in the hope of saving the college; but in October, 1793, they were taken to prison at Doullens in Picardy, together with six Anglo- Benedictine monks who had remained for a similar purpose. After undergoing many dangers and hardships, they were allowed to return to Douai in November, 1794, and a few months later, by the exertions of Dr. Stapleton, President of St. Omer (who with his students had likewise been imprisoned at Doullens), they were set at liberty and allowed to return to England. The English collegians never returned to Douai. The Penal Laws had recently been repealed, and they founded two colleges to continue the work of Douai — Crook Hall (afterwards removed to Ushaw) in the North, and St. Edmund's, Old Hall, in the South. The Roman pension was divided equally between these two until the French occupied Rome in 1799, when it ceased to be paid. Both these colleges exist at the present day. After the Revolution, Bonaparte united all the British establishments in France under one administrator, Rev. Francis Walsh, an Irishman. On the restoration of the Bourbons, a large sum of money was paid to the English Government to indemnify those who had suffered by the Revolution; but none of this ever reached Catholic hands, for it was ruled that as the Catholic colleges were carried on in France for the sole reason that they were illegal in England, they must be considered French, not English, establishments. The buildings, however, were restored to their rightful owners, and most of them were sold. The Anglo-Benedictines alone retained their ancient monastery; and as the community of St. Gregory was then permanently established at Downside, they handed over their house at Douai to the community of St. Edmund, which had formerly been located in Paris. These Benedictines carried on a school at Douai until 1903, when in consequence of the Associations' Law passed by the Government they were forced to leave. They returned to England, and settled at Woolhampton, near Reading.

Sources

DODD, Church History of England; IDEM, ed. TIERNEY, R. C., Hist. of Eng. Col., Douay, ed. DODD (1713); BUTLER, Reminiscences (1822); KNOX, Douay Diaries (1878); IDEM, Letters of Cardinal Allen (1882); J. GILLOW, Haydock Papers (1888); H. GILLOW, Chapels of Ushaw; WARD, History of St. Edmund's College (1893); HUSENBETH, Eng. Colleges and Convents on the Continent (1849); CAMERON, The Catholic Church in Scotland (Glasgow, 1869); BOYLE, Irish College in Paris (1901); BURT, Downside (1902); THADDEUS, Franciscans in England (1898); Calendar of English Martyrs (1876); DAUCOISNE, Etablissements Britanniques à Douai (Douai, 1881); HANDECŒUR, Histoire du Collège Anglais, Douai (Reims, 1898); TAILLIAR, Chroniques de Douai (1875); Catholic Magazine (1831). Also many unpublished MSS. in the Westminster archives, and in those of the "Old Brotherhood" (formerly the "Old Chapter").

Ward, Bernard. "Douai." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 29 Oct. 2015 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05138a.htm>.


Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by WGKofron. With thanks to Fr. John Hilkert, Akron, Ohio.


Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. May 1, 1909. Remy Lafort, Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York.

Saturday, October 29, 2011

The Martyrs of Douai, 1577-1680

In the Archdiocese of Westminster in London, today is the feast of the Martyrs of Douai College which was transplanted from the Spanish Netherlands to London:


The English College at Douai was established by William Allen, later Cardinal, on Michaelmas Day, 29th September, 1568. It offered an opportunity to form clergy for England in accordance with the system laid down by the Council of Trent. 



Originally it was intended as a college home for exiles from England, a place where they could continue their studies in a way no longer possible for Catholics at the English Universities. In time Allen recognised its potential as a place for training clergy ready for the return to England when 'the new religion' had run its course. The new priests, however, proved unwilling to wait for that event and quickly Douai College found itself dedicated very largely to the training of missionary priests.



Between 1577, the date of the martyrdom of St Cuthbert Mayne, the college's protomartyr, and 1680, the date of the execution of Thomas Thwing, the college's last martyr, one hundred and fifty eight college members, priests and layman, secular and religious, met with a martyr's death.


The College was suppressed in 1793, and the collegians imprisoned for thirteen months at Doullens, Picardy. They were released in November 1794, returning to Douai for only a few months before obtaining permission to return to England. They found their first refuge at Old Hall Green, Ware, and dedicated the new work of the college to St Edmund of Canterbury on his feast day, November 16th, 1794.

The webpage lists the martyrs by year--the class of 1588 was the largest: Nicholas Garlick, Robert Ludlam, Richard Sympson, William Dean, William Gunter, Robert Morton, Hugh More, Thomas Holford, James Claxton, Thomas Felton, Robert Wilcox, Edward Campion, Christopher Buxton, Ralph Crocket, Edward James, John Robinson, William Hartley, John Hewett, and Robert Leigh.

The bookends (just to switch metaphors) are St. Cuthbert Mayne and St. Thomas Thwing:

St. Cuthbert Mayne was the first Englishman prepared for the priesthood at Douai and he is the protomartyr of the English seminaries established on the Continent. Born in Devonshire, he was ordained an Anglican minister but became Catholic in the early 1570's while at Oxford. He returned to England in 1575, serving in Cornwall, and was arrested a year later. One of the charges against him was that he had an Agnus Dei, an image of Jesus as the Lamb of God, blessed by the pope. He was hung, drawn and quartered in Cornwall on November 29, 1577.



St. Thomas Thwing suffered during the Popish Plot hysteria in 1680. From 1664 to 1679 he served as a missionary priest in England. He and other members of Sir Thomas Gasciogne's household, including the master, were accused of a conspiracy to kill King Charles II and brought to London for trial. The others were acquited but he was found guilty and condemned; the King pardoned him but the House of Commons demanded his execution. Of course he was innocent of any charges of conspiracy; he was guilty of being a Catholic priest.



One could research each of the names on that list and read a common, yet individual pattern of vocation, service, suffering, and martyrdom. At the bottom of the list of names, there is a quote from William Allen, founder of Douai College--


"Joy in the Lord because the victory won by Christ's confessors predominates over earthly sorrow
at the grievousness of their suffering."

SOURCE : http://supremacyandsurvival.blogspot.ca/2012/10/the-martyrs-of-douai-in-london.html

Blessed Laurence Richardson,
Thomas Cottam 

& William Filby MM (AC)

Died 1582; beatified in 1886. These three were martyred at Tyburn together with Saint Luke Kirby.

Laurence Richardson was born at Great Crosby, Lancashire, England. He was educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, and after his conversion to Catholicism, studied for the priesthood at Douai. He was ordained in 1577 and sent to the English mission, where he changed his name from Johnson to Richardson.

Thomas Cottom was born at Dilworth, Lancashire, in 1549, and like Richardson, was educated at Brasenose, converted to Catholicism, and studied for the priesthood at Douai. He finished his studies in Rome, was ordained, and received into the Society of Jesus. He returned to England in 1580, but was arrested upon landing at Dover and imprisoned in the Tower, where he waited two years to be hanged.

William Filby was born in Oxfordshire and educated at Lincoln College, Oxford. He, too, was a convert to the faith, but attended the seminary at Rheims, where he was ordained in 1581. The following year he was martyred (Benedictines).


Luke Kirby, Priest M (RM)

Born at Bedale, Yorkshire, England; died at Tyburn near London, May 30, 1582; canonized by Pope Paul IV in 1970 as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales. Saint Luke graduated from Cambridge, converted to Catholicism, and, in 1576, went to Douai to study for the priesthood. After further study in Rome, he was ordained in 1577 and sent on the English mission in 1580. Soon after his arrival he was arrested and charged with conspiring against the queen, though in reality because he was a Catholic priest. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London, subjected to the terrible torture known as "the scavenger's daughter," and then hanged, drawn, and quartered with Blessed Laurence Richardson, Thomas Cottam and William Filby (Benedictines, Delaney).

SOURCE : http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0530.shtml

Blessed Christopher Buxton, Robert Wilcox, Robert Widmerpool, Edward James, Ralph Crockett, and John Robinson MM (AC)

Died 1588; beatified in 1929. These Reformation martyrs were all hanged, drawn and quartered in England. Christopher Buxton was born in Tideswell, Derbyshire. Following his education in Rheims and Rome, he was ordained to the priesthood in 1586 and served two years until his death at Canterbury.



Edward James was another Derbyshire native, born in Breaston. After completing his undergraduate studies at St. John's College in Oxford and converting to Catholicism, he studied for the priesthood at Rheims and Rome. He ministered to his flock for five years prior to his execution at Chichester.

John Robinson, born in Ferrensby, Yorkshire, was a widower when he entered the seminary in Rheims. He was ordained there in 1585. Three years later he was executed for his priesthood at Ipswich.

Ralph Crockett, like Edward James, was martyred at Chichester. He was born in Barton-on-the-Hill, Cheshire. Crockett was a schoolmaster in Norfolk and Suffolk after finishing his studies at Christ's College (Cambridge) and Gloucester Hall (Oxford). Later he prepared to serve God's people in the priesthood at Rheims. He, too, was ordained in 1586 and was martyred two years later.

Robert Widmerpool, educated at Oxford, was a Nottingham gentleman schoolmaster. He was martyred at Canterbury with Fr. Wilcox.

Robert Wilcox was born at Chester and educated at Rheims, where he was ordained in 1585. He died for his priesthood at Canterbury (Benedictines).



Blessed Antony Middleton & Edward Jones MM (AC)

Died 1590; beatified in 1929. Antony Middleton was born at Middleton Tyas, Yorkshire, England, and educated for the secular priesthood at Rheims, France. Edward Jones was born in the diocese of Saint Asaph, Wales, and educated at Douai. He labored as a missionary priest in England from 1635 until his death. Both were hanged, drawn, and quartered at Clerkenwell, London, for being priests (Benedictines). 

SOURCE : http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0506.shtml


Blessed John Cornelius, SJ, Thomas Bosgrave,
John Carey, and Patrick Salmon MM (AC)


Died at Dorchester, England, 1594; beatified in 1929.



John Cornelius was born at Bodmin of Irish parents. He became a fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, and a student at Rheims and then at Rome, where he was ordained a priest in 1583. He worked for ten years on the English mission at Lanherne and became a Jesuit only in 1594.

Thomas Bosgrave was a gentleman, the nephew of Sir J. Arundel. Martyred with Cornelius and Bosgrave were two of Bosgrave's servants: John Carey and Patrick Salmon. They were accused of sheltering priests.

The Act of 1585 made it high treason to have been ordained a Roman Catholic priest and simple treason to aid a priest. The penalty for laypeople dealing with the outlawed priest was liable to vary according to local custom--some may have gotten off fairly lightly. On the other hand, a man might be hanged for buying a priest a tankard of ale.

John Cornelius was condemned for his priesthood. Thomas Bosgrave had taken off his hat and crammed it on the head of Mr. (Father) Cornelius, when the Jesuit was being carried away as a prisoner-- "The honor I owe to your function may not suffer me to see you go bareheaded." Mr. Bosgrave was instantly arrested, led away, and hanged together with Mr. Cornelius.

(Note: At that time in England, priests were addressed 'mister.' It was not until the mid-19th century that the Irish Catholic practice of using 'father' became customary in England) (Benedictines, Undset).


Blessed William Andleby and Companions (AC)

Died York, England, 1597; beatified in 1929. William Andleby was born at Etton, near Beverley, and educated at Saint John's College, Cambridge. After his conversion to Catholicism, he studied for the priesthood at Douai and was ordained in 1577. He labored in Yorkshire for twenty years--longer than many of his contemporaries. He was martyred together with three Catholic laymen: Edward Fulthrop, Thomas Warcop, and Henry Abbot.



Edward Fulthrop was a Yorkshire gentleman who also converted to Catholicism. Thomas Warcop, another gentleman of Yorkshire, was hanged for sheltering priests. Another convert, Henry Abbot, a native of Howden in Yorkshire, was executed because of his conversion (Benedictines).

SOURCE :  http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0704.shtml

Blessed John Duckett and Ralph Corby (Corbington), SJ MM (AC)

Died 1644; beatified in 1929. Fathers Duckett and Corby were martyred at Tyburn outside London, England because they were Catholic priests. John Duckett was born in Underwinder, near Sedbergh, Yorkshire, and educated for the priesthood at Douai. After his ordination in 1639, he ministered to the Catholics at Durham.

Ralph Corbington was born in Maynooth (near Dublin), Ireland. His entire family, including his father, mother, sisters, and brothers, all took religious vows. He received his initial education at Saint-Omer, then studied theology at Seville and Valladolid, Spain. In 1631, he was admitted to the Jesuits at Flanders, ordained, and sent to the English Mission at Durham, where he served Catholics for 12 years before his martyrdom. There is a rumor that the Jesuits unsuccessfully tried to negotiate his release in return for the release of a Scottish colonel being held prisoner in Germany. An attempt was also made to claim that the law could not apply to Father Ralph because he was not a citizen of England.

Despite precautions taken to destroy the bodies of the martyrs, the hand of John Duckett and pieces of both their clothing were recovered by the faithful; however, no one knows the current location of these first and second degree relics (Benedictines, Montague).