Baptême de Clovis 1er, roi des Francs, par Saint Rémi,
représenté derrière la Basilique Saint Rémi à Reims (1896).
Évêque de Reims
Évêque de Reims (✝ 530)
Au propre de France, Rémi est fêté le 15 janvier (dies natalis).
Au propre du diocèse de Reims, il est fêté le 1er octobre, jour de la "translation" des reliques pour y être vénéré par les rémois à l'emplacement où s'élèvera l'actuelle basilique (attesté dès 585 - installation d'un monastère vers 750-760).
Issu d'une grande famille gallo-romaine de la région de Laon, il avait pour mère sainte Céline. A 22 ans, il est choisi comme évêque de Reims et son activité missionnaire s'étend jusqu'à la Belgique. Il fonde les diocèses de Thérouanne, Laon et Arras, crée tout un réseau d'assistance pour les pauvres et joue un rôle de médiateur auprès des Barbares. Quand le chef franc Clovis prend le pouvoir, saint Rémi lui envoie un message "Soulage tes concitoyens, secours les affligés, protège les veuves, nourris les orphelins."
La reine sainte Clotilde, tout naturellement, se tournera vers saint Rémi et vers un autre évêque contemporain, saint Vaast, pour acheminer le roi vers la foi. Après le baptême de Reims, saint Rémi restera, jusqu'à sa mort, l'un des conseillers écoutés du roi et sera l'un des artisans, en Gaule, du retour à la vérité catholique des Burgondes après le bataille de Dijon et des Wisigoths à Vouillé, deux populations contaminées par l'arianisme.
Au 13 janvier au martyrologe romain: À Reims, vers 530, la naissance au ciel de saint Remi, évêque, qui, après avoir lavé le roi Clovis dans la fontaine baptismale et l’avoir initié aux sacrements de la foi, il convertit au Christ le peuple des Francs. Il quitta cette vie, célèbre par sa sainteté après plus de soixante ans d’épiscopat. (En France, sa mémoire est célébrée le 15, jour de sa mise au tombeau.)
Secourez les malheureux, protégez les veuves, nourrissez les orphelins… Que votre tribunal reste ouvert à tous et que personne n’en sorte triste ! Toutes les richesses de vos ancêtres, vous les emploierez à la libération des captifs et au rachat des esclaves. Admis en votre palais, que nul ne s’y sente étranger ! Plaisantez avec les jeunes, délibérez avec les vieillards !
Lettre de saint Rémi au roi Clovis - 482
SOURCE : http://magnificat.ca/cal/fr/saints/saint_remi.html
Saint Remy et Clovis Ier. Cote : Français 241 ,
Fol. 266v. Jacobus de Voragine, Legenda aurea (traduction de Jean de Vignay),
France, Paris, XIVe siècle, Richard de Montbaston.
SOURCE : http://www.abbaye-saint-benoit.ch/voragine/tome03/148.htm
Plaque de reliure en ivoire, Reims, dernier quart du IXème siècle. Musée de Picardie à Amiens.
Scènes de la vie de St Remi :
au registre supérieur, St Remi ressuscite une jeune fille ;
au centre : la Main de Dieu remplit deux flacons ;
au registre inférieur, le baptême de Clovis avec le miracle de la Sainte Ampoule.
- Apostle of the Franks
- Remigius of Reims
- 13 January
- 1 October (translation of relics)
- 15 January (France, general calendar)
- 3rd Sunday in September (Arignano, Italy)
Born to the Gallo-Roman nobility, the son of Emilius, count of Laon, and of Saint Celina; younger brother of Saint Principius of Soissons; uncle of Saint Lupus of Soissons. A speaker noted for his eloquence, he was selected bishop of Rheims (in modern France) at age 22 while still a layman, and served his diocese for 74 years. He evangelized throughout Gaul, working with Saint Vaast. Spiritual teacher of Saint Theodoric. Converted Clovis, king of the Franks, baptising him on 24 December 496; this opened the way to the conversion of all the Franks and the establishment of the Church throughout France. Blind at the time of his death.
- 13 January 533 of natural causes
- interred on 15 January 533
- relics transferred to the Basilica Saint-Rémy 1 October 1049
- against epidemics
- against fever
- against plague
- against religious indifference
- against snakes
- against throat pain
- Dhuy, Belgium
- Rheims, France, archdiocese of
- Rheims, France, city of
- Arignano, Italy
- Book of Saints, by the Monks of Ramsgate
- Catholic Encyclopedia
- Golden Legend: Life of Saint Remigius
- Golden Legend: Translation of Saint Remigius
- Lives of the Saints, by Father Alban Butler
- Lives of the Saints, by Father Francis Xavier Weninger
- New Catholic Dictionary
- Pictorial Lives of the Saints
- Saints of the Day, by Katherine Rabenstein
- Catholic Culture
- Catholic Harbor
- Catholic Online
- Catholic Tradition
- Champions of Catholic Orthodoxy
- Dictionary of Christian Biography, by Henry Wace
- New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
- Regina Magazine
- Saint Peter’s Basilica Info
- “Saint Remigius of Rheims“. CatholicSaints.Info. 26 July 2020. Web. 13 January 2021. <https://catholicsaints.info/saint-remigius-of-rheims/>
Born at Cerny near Laon, France, c. 437; died at Rheims on January 13, 530. The name St. Rémy is intimately connected with that of King Clovis of the Franks, the bloodthirsty general and collector of vases. Rémy was the son of Count Emilius of Laon and Saint Celina, daughter of Principius, bishop of Soissons. Even as a child Rémy was devoted to books and God. These two loves developed the future saint into a famous preacher. Saint Sidonius Apollinaris, who knew him, testified to his virtue and eloquence as a preacher.
SOURCE : http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/1001.shtml
Dom Rivet proves (Hist. Lit. t. 1,) that the Celtic tongue gave place in most parts to the Roman, and seems long since extinct, except in certain proper names, and some few other words. Samuel Bochart, the father of conjectures, (as he is called by Menage in his Phaleg,) derives it from the Phenician. Borel (Pref. sur les Recherches Gauloises) and Marcel (Hist. de l’Origine de la Monarchie Françoise, t. 1, p. 11,) from the Hebrew. The latter ingenious historian observes, that a certain analogy between all languages shows them to have sprang from one primitive tongue; which affinity is far more sensible between all the western languages. St. Jerom, who had visited both countries, assures us, that in the fourth age the language was nearly the same that was spoken at Triers and in Galatia. (in Galat. Præf. 2, p. 255.) Valerius Andræas (in Topogr. Belgic. p. 1,) pretends the ancient Celtic to be preserved in the modern Flemish; but this is certainly a bastard dialect derived from the Teutonic, and no more the Celtic than it was the language of Adam in Paradise, as Goropius Becanus pretended. The received opinion is, that the Welch tongue, and that still used in Lower Brittany (which are originally the same language) are a dialect of the Celtic, though not perfectly pure; and Tacitus assures us, that the Celtic differed very little from the language of the Britons (Vitâ Agricolæ, c. 11,) which is preserved in the Welch tongue.
Dom Pezron, in his Antiquities of the ancient Celtes, has given abundant proofs that the Greek, Latin, and Teutonic have borrowed a great number of words from the Celtic, as well as from the Hebrew and Egyptian. M. Bullet, royal professor of the university of Besançon, has thrown great light on this subject; he proves that the primeval Celts, and Scytho-Celts, have not only occupied the western regions of Europe, but extended themselves into Spain and Italy; that in their progress through the latter fine country, they met the Grecian colonies who were settled in its southern provinces; and that having incorporated with one of those colonies on the banks of the Tyber, the Latin tongue had in course of time been formed out of the Celtic and Greek languages. Of this coalition of Celts and Grecians in ancient Latium, and of this original of the Latin language, that learned antiquary has given unexceptionable proofs, and confirms them by the testimonies of Pliny and Dionysius of Halicarnassus.
In its original the Celtic, like all other eastern tongues, after the confusion at Babel, was confined to between four and five hundred words, mostly monosyllables. The wants and ideas of men being but few in the earliest times, they required but few terms to express them by; and it was in proportion to the invention of arts, and the slow progress of science, that new terms have been multiplied, and that signs of abstract ideas have been compounded. Language, yet in its infancy, came only by degrees to the maturity of copious expression, and grammatical precision. In the vast regions occupied by the ancient Celts, their language branched out into several dialects; intermixture with new nations on the continent, and the revolutions incident to time produced them; and ultimately these dialects were reduced to distinct tongues, so different in texture and syntax, that the tracing them to the true stock would not be easy, had we not an inerrable clue to lead us in the multitude of Celtic terms common to all. The Cumaraeg of the Welch and Gadelic of the Irish, are living proofs of this fact. The Welch and Irish tongues preserved to our own time in ancient writings, are undoubtedly the purest remains of the ancient Celtic. Formed in very remote periods of time, and confined to our own western isles, they approached nearer to their original than the Celtic tongues of the continent; and according to the learned Leibnitz, the Celtic of Ireland (a country the longest free from all foreign intermixture) bids fairer for originality than that of any other Celtic people.
It is certain that the Irish Celtic, as we find it in old books, exhibits a strong proof of its being the language of a cultivated nation. Nervous, copious, and pathetic in phraseology, it is thoroughly free from the consonantal harshness, which rendered the Celtic dialects of ancient Gaul grating to Roman ears; it furnishes the poet and orator very promptly with the vocal arms, which give energy to expression, and elevation to sentiment. This language, in use at present among the common people of Ireland, is falling into the corruptions which ever attend any tongue confined chiefly to the illiterate vulgar. These corruptions are increasing daily. The Erse of Scotland is still more corrupt, as the inhabitants of the Highlands have had no schools for the preservation of their language for several ages, and as none of the old writings of their bards and senachies have been preserved. The poems therefore published lately by an able writer under the name of Ossian, are undoubtedly his own, grafted on traditions still sung among his countrymen; and similar to the tales lathered on Oisin, the son of Fin-mac-Cumhal, sung at present among the common people of Ireland. It was a pleasing artifice. The fame of composition transferred to old Ossian, returned back in due time to the true author; and criticism, recovered from the surprise of an unguarded moment, did him justice. The works of Ossian, if any he composed, have been long since lost, not a trace remains; and it was soon discovered that the Celtic dialect of a prince, represented by Mr. Macpherson as an illiterate bard of the third century, could not be produced in the eighteenth, and that a publication of those poems in modern Erse would prove them modern compositions; for further observations on the ancient Celtic language, and on the poems of Ossian, we refer the reader to O’Conor’s excellent Dissertations on the history of Ireland, Dublin, 1766.
Bonamy (Diss. sur l’Introduct. de la Langue Lantine dans les Gauls, Mémoires de l’Acad. des Inscriptions, vol. 24,) finds fault with Rivet for making his assertion too general, and proves that the Franks kept to their own old Teutonic language for some time at court, and in certain towns where they were most numerous; and always retained some Teutonic words even after the Latin language of the old inhabitants prevailed; but he grants, that out of thirty French words it is hard to find one that is not derived from Latin. Rivet would probably have granted as much; for he never denied but some few French words are of Teutonic extraction; or that the Franks for some time retained their own language amongst themselves, though they also learned usually the old Latin language of the Gauls, amongst whom they settled, which is evidently the basis of all the dialects spoken in France, except of that of Lower-Brittany, and a considerable part of the Burgundian; yet there is everywhere some foreign alloy, which is very considerable in Gascony, and part of Normandy. Even the differences in the Provençal and others are mostly a corrupt Latin. [back]
It is an idle conceit of many painters, with Chifflet, to imagine from the figures of bees found in this monument, that they were the arms of France above seven hundred years before coat-armoury was thought of, which was a badge of noble personages first invented for the sake of distinction at the tilts and tournaments. A swarm of bees following a leader was a natural emblem for a colony seeking a new settlement. Some think the fleur-de-lis to have been first taken from some ill-shaped half figures of bees on old royal ornaments. See Addition aux Dissertations concernant le Nom Patronimique de l’Auguste Maison de France, showing that it never had a name but in each branch that of its appanage or estate. Amsterdam, 1770, with a second Diss. Extrait concernant les Armes des Princes de la Maison de France. The figure of the lis in the arms of France seems borrowed from the head of the battle-axe called Francische, the usual weapon of the ancient Franks; for it perfectly resembles it, not any of the flowers which bear the name of lis or iris; though some reduce it to the Florentine iris, others to the March lily. See their figures in the botanists. On the tomb of Queen Fredegundes in the abbey of St. Germain-des-Prez, fleur-de-luces or de-lis, are found used as ornaments in the crown and royal robes; and the same occurs in some other ornaments, as we find them sometimes employed in the monuments of the first English Norman kings, &c. See Montfaucon, Antiquités de la Monarchie Francoise, t. 1, p. 31. But Philip Augustus, or rather Lewis VII. was the first that took them for his coat of arms; and Charles VI. reduced their number to three. According to Le Gendre, Clodion began to reign over the Franks in 426, Merovæus in 446, Childeric in 450, and his son Clovis I. or the Great in 481. The Romans sometimes entered into treaties with them, and acknowledged them their allies. The King of the Franks, probably Childeric, with his army, joined Aëtius against the Huns, and was a powerful succour to him in the entire overthrow which he gave to Attila in 481.
Clovis conquered all Gaul, except the southern provinces, which were before seized, part by the Burgundians, and part by the Goths. The western empire was extinguished in 476, when the city of Rome and all Italy fell into the hands of Odoacer, king of the Turcilingi and the Heruli, who marched thither out of Pannonia. Nevertheless, Syagrius, son of the Roman governor Ægidius in Gaul, still kept an army on foot there, though without a master, there being no longer any Roman emperor. Clovis, who passed the five first years of his reign in peace, marched against him in 486, defeated him in a great battle near Soissons, and afterwards, in 489, caused his head to be cut off. Extending his conquests, he possessed himself of Tongres in 491, and of Rheims in 493, the same year in which he married St. Clotildis. After the battle of Tolbiac, in 496, he subdued the whole country as far as the Rhine; and in 497 the Roman army about the Loire, and the people of Armorica, who were become independent and had received new colonies from Britain, submitted to him. In 507 he vanquished and slew Alaric, king of the Visigoths, with his own hands, in a single combat at the head of the two armies near Poitiers, and conquered all the provinces that lie between the Loire and the Pyreneans; but being discomfited by Theodoric before Arles in 509, he left the Visigoths in possession of Septimania, now called Languedoc, and the neighbouring provinces; and the Burgundians, possessed of those territories which they had seized one hundred years before. The Abbé Dubos (Histoire Critique de l’Etablissement de la Monarchie Françoise dans les Gauls, 2 vols. quarto) endeavours to prove that the Franks became masters of the greater part of Gaul, not as invaders, but by alliances with the Romans. It is certain they gained the friendship of most of the old inhabitants, pretending they came only to rescue and protect them in their liberties; and their government was more mild and desirable than that of the Goths or Burgundians, to whom the Gauls must have otherwise been left a prey. Neither did the Franks extirpate the conquered Gauls, but mixed with them, and even learned their language. Nor did they deprive the old inhabitants of their private estates, except in some particular cases; these forfeited estates given to the Francs were called Salic lands, and subject to the Salic law, by which all contests about them were to be determined by a combat of the parties and their friends. The other estates enjoyed by the Franks consisted of civil benefices, after the Roman custom, from which that word was applied to ecclesiastical livings. These benefices were governments, lucrative dignities, or estates conferred only for the life of the grantee. Under the second race of kings in France many powerful persons made these benefices hereditary in their families, in imitation of the Lombards, from whom fiefs and the feudatory laws (things unknown among the Romans) were derived. By these fiefs the kingdoms of Italy, Germany, and France were extremely weakened; the kings in France began from the twelfth century to recover such alienations, and abolish all petty sovereignties in their dominions; a great project, which was not entirely completed till within our memory.
“Hauriat hinc populus vitam de sanguine sacro,
Injecto æternus quem fudit vulnere Christus.
Remigius reddit Domino sua vota sacerdos.”
Hincmar. in vità Remigii
This chalice was sold in Hincmar’s time for the ransom of captives taken by the Normans. [back]
Note 18. Conc. t. 4, p. 1318. Spicileg. t. 5, p. 110. [back]
Note 19. S. Greg. Tur. Hist. l. 2, c. 34. [back]
Note 20. In the Gombette law, framed by this Gondebald, king of Burgundy, art. 45, the first mention is made of duels, to which men were commanded to refer those contests which they refused to determine by oaths. The Lombard laws in Italy authorized the same, but only with a buckler and clubs, cum fustibus et clypeo. This execrable practice became more pernicious when more dangerous weapons were used, and it was usurped by private authority; and though it was of barbarous extraction, unknown to all civilized nations most renowned for true valour, (as the Jews, Greeks, and Romans,) and itself the basest as well as the most horrible and unnatural crime, it has been able, by maxims equally shocking to reason and religion, to pass, by a false prostitution of those names, for a test of courage, and a point of honour; especially since the challenge sent by Francis I. of France to the Emperor Charles V. whom he could no longer face with an army, as Spelman takes notice. [back]
Note 21. Conc. t. 4, p. 1572, from Hincmar. and Flodoard, c. 16. [back]
Note 22. See Hist. Littérar. de la Fr. t. 1, 2, 3. [back]
Note 23. Gall. Chr. Nov. t. 9, p. 13, et 220. [back]
Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73). Volume X: October. The Lives of the Saints. 1866.
SOURCE : http://www.bartleby.com/210/10/011.html
All’epoca, la Gallia è un arcipelago di isole e isolette cattoliche, in un mare formato da Burgundi e Visigoti di fede ariana, mentre le campagne sono ancora pagane, come a loro modo pagani sono anche i Franchi, condotti in Gallia dal re Childerico. Meno evoluti degli altri popoli, i Franchi sono però dei grandi combattenti (non portano elmo né corazza) e hanno reso buoni servizi militari a Roma in passato.
Morto nel 482 Childerico, gli succede il figlio Clodoveo quindicenne. A lui Remigio, vescovo cattolico in territorio franco, scrive lettere rispettose e insieme autorevoli. Una di esse dice: "Vegliate a che il Signore non distolga lo sguardo da voi. Consigliatevi con i vostri vescovi. Divertitevi con i giovani, ma deliberate coi vecchi". Da un lato lo ammonisce, dall’altro riconosce la sua sovranità: un muoversi anche da politico, che è inevitabile per Remigio, "evangelizzatore a vita" tra i Franchi.
E’ un aiuto prezioso per Clodoveo, perché favorisce l’adesione degli altri vescovi e dei gruppi galloromani. Così il re giungerà a essere padrone del Paese, dopo la vittoria del 507 a Vouillé sui Visigoti, dando così l’inizio alla dinastia dei Merovingi. Ma non c’è soltanto la politica. Su di lui influisce fortemente in senso religioso la moglie Clotilde, che è già cattolica; influisce Remigio, che lo istruisce personalmente nella fede. E molti atti successivi del re Clodoveo rivelano una religiosità personale autentica. Si arriva così al suo battesimo, per opera del vescovo, a Reims, in un giorno di Natale di un anno incerto. Alcuni sostengono fosse il 497. In un’iscrizione della fine del XV secolo a Reims si legge: "L’an de grace cinq cent le roy Clovis – receut a Reims par saint Remy baptesme". Saremmo allora al 500.
Ma dopo quel Natale, quale che sia, riprende il lungo, feriale lavoro di Remigio per annunciare il Vangelo a chi non è re né principe; senza poeti e cronisti al seguito. Una fatica durata quasi settant’anni, secondo una tradizione. Un’immersione totale nei suoi doveri, oscuramente portata avanti, e di cui si parlerà soltanto dopo la sua morte, quando Remigio sarà acclamato santo direttamente dalla voce popolare.
Autore: Domenico Agasso
SOURCE : http://www.santiebeati.it/dettaglio/72600