samedi 30 avril 2016

Saint MAXIME d'ÉPHÈSE, martyr

Saint Maxime

Martyr ( 250)

Maxime d’Éphèse

Laïc, Martyr, Saint

† 251

L'empereur Dèce, ayant résolu d'exterminer notre sainte religion, fit publier par tout l'empire des édits qui ordonnaient aux chrétiens d'adorer les idoles. Maxime, qui était d'Asie et marchand de condition, se déclara hautement pour serviteur de Jésus-Christ. On l'arrêta aussitôt, et on le conduisit devant le proconsul Optime.

Le proconsul, après lui avoir demandé son nom, ajouta : « De quelle profession êtes-vous ? Maxime : De condition libre, mais serviteur de Jésus-Christ. Le proconsul : Quelle est votre profession? Maxime : Je suis un homme du peuple, et je vis de mon négoce. Le proconsul : Êtes-vous chrétien ? Maxime Oui, je le suis, quoique pécheur – Le proconsul : N'avez-vous pas connaissance des édits qui ont été publiés depuis peu ? Maxime : Quels édits ? et que portent-ils ? Le proconsul : Que tous les chrétiens aient à renoncer à leur superstition et à reconnaître le vrai prince à qui tout obéit, et qu'ils adorent ses dieux. Maxime : Je connais cet édit impie ; et c'est cela même qui m'a porté à confesser publiquement ma religion. Le proconsul : Puisque vous êtes informé de la teneur des édits, sacrifiez donc aux dieux. – Maxime : Je ne sacrifie qu'à un seul Dieu, et je me félicite de lui avoir sacrifié dès ma jeunesse. Le proconsul : Sacrifiez pour sauver votre vie ; car je vous déclare que si vous désobéissez, je vous ferai expirer dans les tourments. Maxime : C'est ce que j'ai toujours désiré je ne me suis fait connaître que pour avoir l'occasion de quitter promptement cette misérable vie, afin d'en posséder une qui est éternelle ».

Alors le proconsul lui fit donner plusieurs coups ; il lui disait en même temps « Sacrifiez, Maxime, sacrifiez pour vous délivrer des tourments. Maxime : Ce qu'on souffre pour le nom de Jésus-Christ n'est point un tourment, c'est une vraie consolation mais si j'avais le malheur de m'écarter de ce qui est prescrit dans l'Évangile, ce serait alors que je devrais m'attendre à des supplices éternels. Le proconsul, irrité de sa résistance, ordonna qu:il fût étendu sur le chevalet ; et pendant qu'on le tourmentait, il lui répétait souvent ces paroles : « Renonce, misérable, à cet entêtement insensé, et sacrifie enfin pour sauver ta vie. – Maxime : Je la perdrais, et c'est pour la conserver que je ne sacrifie pas. Vos bâtons, vos ongles de fer, votre feu, ne me causeront aucune douleur, parce que la grâce de Jésus-Christ est en moi ; elle me délivrera de vos mains, pour me mettre en possession du bonheur dont jouissent tant de Saints qui, dans le même combat, ont triomphé de votre cruauté ; et c'est par la vertu de leurs prières que j'obtiens cette force et ce courage que vous voyez en moi.

Le proconsul, désespérant de pouvoir vaincre le soldat de Jésus-Christ, prononça la sentence suivante « J'ordonne que Maxime, qui a refusé d'obéir aux édits, soit lapidé pour servir d'exemple aux chrétiens ». Maxime fut aussitôt enlevé par une troupe de satellites, qui le conduisirent hors de la ville, où ils l'assommèrent à coups de pierres. Son martyre arriva en 250 ou 251.

Saint Maxime est honoré par les Grecs le 14 mai, qui fut le jour de sa mort. Il est nommé sous le 30 avril dans le martyrologe romain.

SOURCE : P. Giry : Les petits Bollandistes : vies des saints. T. V. Source : http://gallica.bnf.fr/ Bibliothèque nationale de France.

SOURCE : http://nouvl.evangelisation.free.fr/maxime_dephese.htm

ACTES DE SAINT MAXIME, A ÈPHÈSE OU A LAMPSAQUE, L'AN 250.

Le martyr Maxime s'était livré lui-même ; mais on ne sait pas au juste dans quelle ville il fut mis à mort. Le proconsul d'Asie, Optimus, paraît être arrivé à Ephèse, capitale de la province, en avril 250. Presque aussitôt après, il entreprit dans sa province un voyage d'inspection, au cours duquel il visita Lampsaque; et las indications fournies par les actes ne présentent rien qui puisse trancher le litige entre l'une ou l'autre ville.

Les Actes ont une authenticité absolue.

BOLL. Act. SS. 31/III, Mart. III, 903-9055. — RUINART, Act. sinc., p. 143 et suiv. — BARONIUS, ad. ann. 254, n. 24 et suiv. — « Les actes de saint Maxime disent seulement qu'il souffrit apud Asiam, mais indiquent le 14 mai comme la date de son martyre. Or, à la même date, les saints Pierre, André et Denise fuient mis à mort à Lampsaque. (RUINART, p. 149.) A moins de sup. poser une erreur, soit dans la Passion de ces derniers martyrs soit dans celle de saint Maxime, il faut admettre que celui-ci souffrit dans la même ville. Cependant plusieurs anciens martyrologes mettent au 30 avril la fête de saint Maxime. Si cette date est celle de son martyre, il peut avoir eu lieu quand le proconsul était encore à Ephèse. » P. ALLARD, Hist. des perséc., t. II, p. 393 et suiv. — KRÜGER, Gesch. der Altchr. Litteratur, dans Grundriss der Theologischen Wissenschaften, IX» partie, p. 242, propose Ephèse.

LES ACTES DE SAINT MAXIME.

L'empereur Dèce résolut d'opprimer et d'écraser la loi chrétienne. Il décréta que, dans l'univers entier, tous les chrétiens abandonneraient le Dieu vivant et véritable et sacrifieraient aux démons ; ceux qui s'y refuseraient seraient torturés. A cette époque, un serviteur de Dieu, d'une vraie sainteté, nommé Maxime, vint se livrer lui-même. C'était un homme du peuple qui gérait un commerce. Il fut donc arrêté et traduit devant le proconsul d'Asie.

— « Comment t'appelles-tu ?

— Maxime.

— Quelle est ta condition ?

— Né libre, mais esclave du Christ.

— Quelle est ta profession ?

— Homme du peuple, vivant de mon négoce.

— Tu es chrétien ?

— Oui, quoique pécheur.

— N'as-tu pas connu les décrets récents des invincibles empereurs ?

— Lesquels ?

— Ceux qui ordonnent à tous les chrétiens d'abandonner leur vaine superstition, de reconnaître le vrai prince à qui tout est soumis, et d'adorer ses dieux.

— J'ai connu l'ordonnance impie portée par le roi de ce siècle, c'est pourquoi je me suis livré.

— Sacrifie aux dieux.

— Je ne sacrifie qu'à un seul Dieu, à qui je suis heureux d'avoir sacrifié dès l'enfance.

— Sacrifie, et tu seras sauvé ; si tu refuses, je te ferai périr dans les tourments.

— Je l'ai toujours désiré : c'est pourquoi je me suis livré afin d'échanger cette vie misérable et courte contre la vie éternelle. »

Le proconsul le fit battre de verges.

Pendant ce supplice, il dit : « Sacrifie, Maxime, et tu seras délivré de ces tortures.

— Ce qu'on souffre pour le nom de Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ n'est pas torture mais plaisir. Si je m'éloignais des préceptes de mon Seigneur, que j'ai appris dans son évangile, je n'éviterais pas des tortures, véritables celles-là, et perpétuelles. »

Le proconsul le fit suspendre au chevalet.

Pendant ce supplice, il dit : « Reviens, malheureux, de ta folie, et sacrifie afin de sauver ta vie.

— Je me sauve la vie si je ne sacrifie pas; si je sacrifie, je la perds. Ni les verges, ni les ongles de fer, ni le feu, ne me font souffrir parce que la grâce de Dieu,qui sera môn salut éternel, demeure en moi ; et cela grâce à l'intercession de tous les saints qui, combattant un pareil combat, ont triomphé de vos inepties, et nous ont laissé les exemples des vertus. »

Le proconsul dit alors : « Puisque Maxime a refusé d'obéir aux lois et de sacrifier à la grande Diane, la divine clémence a ordonné qu'il serait lapidé, afin de servir d'exemple aux autres chrétiens ».

Les valets de Satan s'emparèrent de l'athlète du Christ, tandis qu'il rendait grâces au Dieu et Père par son Fils Jésus-Christ, qui l'avait jugé digne de vaincre le diable. On le conduisit hors de la ville, et il rendit l'âme, tué à coups de pierres.

Maxime, serviteur de Dieu, a été martyrisé dans la province d'Asie, le deuxième des ides de mai, sous le règne de l'empereur Dèce et le proconsulat d'Optimus Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ règne ; à Lui soit la gloire dans les siècles des siècles. Amen.

LES MARTYRS, TOME II. LE TROISIÈME SIÈCLE. DIOCLÉTIEN. Recueil de pièces authentiques sur les martre depuis les origines du christianisme jusqu'au XXe siècle. Traduites et publiées Par le B. P. DOM H. LECLERCQ, Moine bénédictin de Saint-Michel de Farnborough. Imprimi potest FR. FERDINANDUS CABROL, Abbas Sancti Michaelis Farnborough. Die 15 Martii 1903. Imprimatur. Pictavii, die 24 Martii 1903. + HENRICUS, Ep. Pictaviensis.


Maximus of Ephesus M (RM)

Died May 14, c. 251. Maximus, a citizen of Ephesus, was a merchant by profession. On the publication of the edict of Decius against the Christians in 250, he presented himself to Proconsul Optimus as a Christian and was martyred. His proconsular Acta are still state that when Optimus asked his name and state in life, Maximus responded: "I am born free, but am the slave of Jesus Christ."


Optimus: "What is your profession?"

Maximus: "I am a plebeian, and live by my dealings."

Optimus: "Are you a Christian?"

Maximus: "Yes, I am, though a sinner."

Optimus: "Have not you been informed of the edicts that are lately arrived?"

Maximus: "What edicts, and what are their contents?"

Optimus: "That all the Christians forsake their superstition, acknowledge the true prince whom all obey, and adore his gods."

Maximus: "I have been told of that impious edict, and it is the occasion of my appearing abroad."

Optimus: "As then you are apprised of the edicts, sacrifice to the gods."

Maximus: "I sacrifice to none but that God to whom alone I have sacrificed from my youth, the remembrance of which affords me great comfort."

Optimus: "Sacrifice as you value your life: if you refuse to obey, you shall expire in torments."

Maximus: "This has ever been the object of my desires: it was on this very account that I appeared in public, to have an opportunity offered me of being speedily delivered out of this miserable life, to possess that which is eternal."

Then the proconsul commanded him to be beaten, and in the meantime said to him, "Sacrifice, Maximus, and you shall be no longer tormented."

Maximus: "Sufferings for the name of Christ are not torments, but comfortable unctions; but if I depart from his precepts contained in the Gospel, then real and eternal torments would be my portion."

Next, Optimus ordered him to be stretched on the rack, and while he was tortured, said to him, "Renounce, wretch, your obstinate folly, and sacrifice to save your life."

Maximus: "I shall save it if I do not sacrifice; I shall lose it if I do. Neither your clubs, nor your our iron hooks, nor your fire, give me any pain, because the grace of Jesus Christ dwells in me, which will deliver me out of your hands to put me in possession of the happiness of the saints, who have already, in this same conflict, triumphed over your cruelty. It is by their prayers I obtain this courage and strength which you see in me."

Optimus: "I command that Maximus, for refusing to obey the sacred edicts, be stoned to death, to serve for an example of error to all Christians."

Saint Maximus was immediately seized by the executioners and carried outside the city walls, where they stoned him to death. The Greeks honor him on May 14; the Roman Martyrology today (Benedictines, Husenbeth).


April 30

St. Maximus, Martyr

From his original acts in Surius, Baronius, Henschenius, Ruinart, Fleury, Tillemont, &c

A.D. 251

MAXIMUS was an inhabitant of Asia, and a merchant by profession. Decius having formed an impious but vain design of extirpating the Christian religion, published edicts over the whole empire to enforce idolatry, commanding all to adore idols. Maximus having openly declared himself a Christian, he was immediately apprehended, and brought before Optimus, the proconsul of Asia, who, after asking him his name, inquired also after his condition. He replied:—“I am born free, but am the slave of Jesus Christ.” Proconsul.—“What is your profession?” Maximus.—“I am a plebeian, and live by my dealings.” Proconsul.—“Are you a Christian?” Maximus.—“Yes, I am, though a sinner.” Proconsul.—“Have not you been informed of the edicts that are lately arrived?” Maximus.—“What edicts? and what are their contents?” Proconsul.—“That all the Christians forsake their superstition, acknowledge the true prince whom all obey, and adore his gods.” Maximus.—“I have been told of that impious edict, and it is the occasion of my appearing abroad.” Proconsul.—“As then you are apprised of the edicts, sacrifice to the gods.” Maximus.—“I sacrifice to none but that God to whom alone I have sacrificed from my youth, the remembrance of which affords me great comfort.” Proconsul.—“Sacrifice as you value your life: if you refuse to obey you shall expire in torments.” Maximus.—“This has ever been the object of my desires: it was on this very account that I appeared in public, to have an opportunity offered me of being speedily delivered out of this miserable life, to possess that which is eternal.” Then the proconsul commanded him to be bastinadoed, and in the mean time said to him, “Sacrifice, Maximus, and thou shalt be no longer tormented.” Maximus.—“Sufferings for the name of Christ are not torments, but comfortable unctions: 1 but if I depart from his precepts contained in the gospel, then real and eternal torments would be my portion.” The proconsul then ordered him to be stretched on the rack, and while he was tortured said to him: “Renounce, wretch, thy obstinate folly, and sacrifice to save thy life.” Maximus.—“I shall save it if I do not sacrifice; I shall lose it if I do. Neither your clubs, nor your iron hooks, nor your fire give me any pain, because the grace of Jesus Christ dwelleth in me, which will deliver me out of your hands to put me in possession of the happiness of the saints, who have already in this same conflict triumphed over your cruelty. 2 It is by their prayers I obtain this courage and strength which you see in me.” The proconsul then pronounced this sentence on him: “I command that Maximus, for refusing to obey the sacred edicts, be stoned to death, to serve for an example of terror to all Christians.” St. Maximus was immediately seized by the executioners and carried without the city walls, where they stoned him on the 14th of May. Thus his acts. The Greeks honour him on the day of his death: the Roman Martyrology on the 30th of April. He suffered in 250 or 251.

Note 1. Hæc non sunt tormenta, sed sunt unctiones. [back]

Note 2. Omnium sanctorum orationibus qui in hac colluctatione certantes, vestras superaverunt insanias, nobisque virtutum exempla reliquerunt. Ruin, p. 145. [back]

Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73).  Volume IV: April. The Lives of the Saints.  1866.

jeudi 28 avril 2016

Sainte VALÉRIE de MILAN, martyre

Mosaïque de la basilique Saint-Apollinaire Le Neuf de Ravenne (Italie), VIe siècle

Sainte Valérie de Milan

Martyre ( 171)

et son mari saint Vital de Ravenne (culte supprimé en 1969), martyrs à Ravenne, parents supposés des saints Gervais et Protais.

Dénoncé comme chrétien, Vital fut jeté au fond d'un puits et étouffé sous un tas de pierres et de sable.
A quelque temps de là, Valérie fut battue et torturée au point qu'elle succomba à ses blessures deux jours plus tard.




En Italie, on se souvient en ce jour de sainte Valérie. Rappelons pour celles qui portent ce beau nom, toujours en vogue, qu'elle était l'épouse de saint Vital martyr à Ravenne au 2ème siècle. Valérie rejoindra Milan où, comme lui, elle subit le martyre pour la foi au Christ.

En France, un culte relie une autre sainte Valérie, martyre, à celui de saint Martial évêque de Limoges au 3ème siècle. Vers l'an 1000, les moines de saint Martial envoyèrent les reliques des deux saints en leur prieuré de Chambon dans la Creuse. 

Valère et Valérie, en latin, sens de : brave, vaillant, valeureux.

Rédacteur: Frère Bernard Pineau, OP

Reliques de Sainte Valérie,  Saint Joseph Co-Cathedral, Thibodaux, Louisiana

Valeria of Milan M (RM)

1st century? Allegedly, Valeria was the mother of SS. Gervase and Protase and wife of Saint Vitalis. She is said to have been martyred in Milan; however, she appears to be a fictitious character. The casket which once contained her supposed relics is in the British Museum (Attwater2, Benedictines, Farmer). In art, Saint Valeria is depicted with her sons, Gervasius and Protasius, and her husband Saint Vitalis of Milan. She may be shown being beaten with clubs for refusing to sacrifice to pagan gods. She is venerated in Milan (Roeder). 

SOURCE : http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0428.shtml


Saint Valeria of Milan

Also known as
  • Valerie of Milan
Profile

Wife of Saint Vitalis of Milan. Mother of Saint Gervase and Saint Protase. Martyred for given decent burial for Christian martyrs, and then refusing to sacrifice to pagan gods. Some modern writers contend that she may have been a character in a work of fiction mistaken for history.



Santa Valeria


Martirologio Romano: A Ravenna, commemorazione di san Vitale: in questo giorno, come si tramanda, sotto il suo nome fu dedicata a Dio la celebre basilica in quella città. Egli insieme ai santi martiri Valeria, Gervasio, Protasio e Ursicino è da tempo immemorabile venerato per l’impavida fede tenacemente difesa.

Santi VITALE, VALERIA e URSICINO 


Vitale e Valeria, genitori dei santi Gervasio e Protasio, anch’essi martiri, sono celebrati insieme il 28 aprile. In particolare s. Vitale ha avuto, una raffigurazione nell’arte molto vasta, a lui sono dedicate la basilica di S. Vitale in Ravenna, con i suoi magnifici mosaici, la chiesa omonima a Venezia, dove è raffigurato vestito da soldato a cavallo che solleva uno stendardo, con lancia, spada e mazza, strumento del martirio della sua sposa Valeria. Ancora a lui è dedicata la chiesa di S. Vitale a Roma, con gli affreschi narranti il suo martirio. 

Le prime notizie che si hanno di Vitale e Valeria provengono da un opuscolo scritto da Filippo, che si nomina ‘servus Christi’ e a cui sono intitolati i più antichi nuclei di vita cristiana a Milano, come l’hortus Philippi e la domus Philippi; detto opuscolo fu rinvenuto accanto al capo dei corpi dei martiri Gervasio e Protasio, ritrovati da s. Ambrogio nel 396. 

L’opuscolo oltre a narrare il martirio dei due fratelli, descrive anche quello dei due genitori Vitale e Valeria e del medico ligure, forse operante a Ravenna Ursicino, vissuti e morti nel III secolo; Vitale è un ufficiale che ha accompagnato il giudice Paolino da Milano a Ravenna. 

Scoppiata la persecuzione contro i cristiani, accompagna, incoraggiandolo Ursicino condannato a morte, il quale durante il tragitto verso il luogo dell’esecuzione, era rimasto turbato dall’orrore di trovarsi davanti alla morte violenta. Ursicino viene decapitato e decorosamente sepolto dallo stesso Vitale, dentro la città di Ravenna. 

Lo stesso Vitale viene arrestato e dopo aver subito varie torture per farlo apostatare dal cristianesimo, il giudice Paolino ordina che venga gettato in una fossa profonda e ricoperto di sassi e terra; così anch’egli diventa un martire di Ravenna e il suo sepolcro nei pressi della città, diviene fonte di grazie. 

La moglie Valeria avrebbe voluto riprendersi il corpo del marito, ma i cristiani di Ravenna glielo impediscono, allora cerca di ritornare a Milano, ma durante il viaggio incontra una banda di villani idolatri, che la invitano a sacrificare con loro al dio Silvano; essa rifiuta e per questo viene percossa così violentemente, che portata a Milano, muore tre giorni dopo. 

I giovani figli Gervasio e Protasio, vendono tutti i loro beni, dandoli ai poveri e si dedicano alle sacre letture, alla preghiera e dieci anni dopo vengono anch’essi martirizzati; il già citato Filippo ne cura la sepoltura. 
Molti studiosi ritengono che la narrazione sia in parte fantasiosa, riconoscendo nei personaggi citati, altre figure di martiri omonimi venerati sia a Milano che a Ravenna; l’antica chiesa di S. Valeria a Milano, distrutta nel 1786, per gli studiosi non era che la ‘cella memoriæ’ della primitiva area cimiteriale milanese, intitolata appunto alla gens Valeria. 

In ogni modo il racconto leggendario o veritiero è documentato da celebri monumenti anche di notevole antichità. La basilica ravennate consacrata il 17 maggio 548, è dedicata oltre che a S. Vitale anche ai suoi figli Gervasio e Protasio, le cui immagini sono poste sotto la lista degli apostoli, mentre un altare laterale è dedicato a s. Ursicino. 

Nei mosaici di S. Apollinare Nuovo poi sono rappresentati tutti i cinque personaggi; dall’11° al 14° posto della fila dei santi vi sono i quattro uomini e al nono posto della fila delle sante c’è Valeria. 

Numerosi documenti e Martirologi li nominano durante i secoli, specie s. Vitale e s. Ursicino martiri a Ravenna. A Milano sorsero le tre chiese che data la loro vicinanza, confermarono la stretta parentela dei martiri, come era uso costruire allora, la chiesa di S. Vitale, la chiesa di S. Valeria (poi distrutta) e S. Ambrogio dove riposano i due fratelli gemelli Gervasio e Protasio.



Autore: Antonio Borrelli


mercredi 27 avril 2016

Bienheureux JACQUES de BITETTO, religieux franciscain

Bienheureux Jacques Illirico

laïc franciscain ( 1496)

Le bienheureux Giacomo Illirico da Bitetto, laïc profès franciscain (1400 - 1496).

À Bitetto dans les Pouilles, vers 1485, le bienheureux Jacques, religieux de l’Ordre des Mineurs, né en Dalmatie, d’une humilité remarquable.


Martyrologe romain


Blessed James of Bitetto, OFM (AC)

James received the habit of Saint Francis at Zara, but served as a lay brother at Bitetto, near Bari in southern Italy. James possessed heroic humility and reached the heights of heaven in his contemplation. During the process of beatification, a fellow friar testified that he had seen James levitate during prayer and heard him accurately predict the future.

While James was the cook of the abbey at Conversano (18 miles from Bari), he would contemplate the cooking fire and see the fires of hell or the spark of God's love that ignites hearts. Often he would be found in the kitchen, motionless, rapt in ecstatic contemplation. This happened one morning as he was fixing beans for that night's dinner. He stood with his hand in the beans, tears streaming down his face into the vessel before him. Thus he was found by the duke on whose estate the monastery was founded. King Ferdinand I's courtier watched in amazement before declaring, "Blessed are the religious brethren whose meals are seasoned with such tears." Later that day James, learning of the duke's presence, went to him and asked what he would like for his dinner. The nobleman replied that he wanted nothing but some of the beans seasoned with James' tears.

Eventually James was sent back to Bitetto where he died and where his incorrupted body remains. Many miracles attributed to James' intercession have been recorded (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

Blessed Jakov Varingez

Also known as
  • Giacomo de Bitetto
  • Giacomo of Bitetto
  • Giacomo Varingez
  • Giacomo Veringuez
  • James of Bitetto
  • James of Dalmatia
  • James of Illyricum
  • James of Sclavonia
  • James of Zara
  • James the Illyrian
  • James the Slav
Profile

Son of Leonardo and Beatrice Varingez. Jakov re-located to Bari, Italy to escape Turkish invaders. There he felt a call to religious life and joined the Order of Friars Minor at the friary of Bitetto, Italy; he lived there nearly all the rest of his life. He served as cook, almsbeggar, gardener, porter, and sacristan. Known for being continually in prayer, he was given to ecstasies, noted as a miracle worker and for the ability to levitate. In his 80’s he worked with victims of the plague of 1482.

Born


Beato Giacomo da Bitetto Francescano


Zara, Dalmazia, 1400 ca - 1485/90

Della vita di fra Giacomo si hanno solo alcuni flash. Nato a Zara nel 1400 circa, lo lo ritroviamo giovane frate francescano nel convento di San Pietro a Bari. Visse poi a Conversano e Cassano delle Murge come cuciniere, ortolano e frate cercatore. La nobile famiglia degli Acquaviva lo prese a benvolere. Ma - gtiunto in età avanzata al convento di San Francesco di Bitetto - fu lui a salvare uno dei membri della potente famiglia, il conte Andrea. Questi, inseguito da sicari del re di Napoli, contro cui aveva congiurato, si era infatti rifugiato nel convento. Per sdebitarsi gli Acquaviva fecero costruire la strada che collega il luogo di preghiera con la città. Il frate, che aveva un'intensa vita contemplativa, si prodigò nella carità per i poveri: sia nella peste del 1483, sia nelle numerose siccità. Morto tra il 1485 e il 1490, il corpo vent'anni dopo fu trovato incorrotto. È beato dal 1700. La festa porta a Bitetto molti emigrati. (Avvenire)

Martirologio Romano: A Bitetto in Puglia, beato Giacomo Varinguer da Zara, religioso dell’Ordine dei Minori.

Nato nel 1400 circa a Zara, capitale della Dalmazia da Leonardo e daBeatrice Varinguez. Venuto a Bari all'età di 18-20 anni dimorò nel conventodi S. Pietro. A Bitetto arrivò negli anni 1438-39. Dimorò in Conversano eCassano delle Murge per poi ritornare di nuovo a Bitetto. 

Si narra che mentre ilBeato Giacomo se ne stava in orazione dinanzi alla cappella della Vergine,una lepre, inseguita da levrieri e cacciatori corre a ripararsi sotto il suoabito, scampa il pericolo ed è dal Beato Giacomo presa in braccio,accarezzata e benedetta.

"Fai una via che dalla città porta al convento"disse il Beato Giacomo al Duca D'Atri e in una notte la strada fu bella efatta. 

Prima di morire il Beato Giacomo piantò in terra, nel piccologiardino di agrumeti, il suo bastone di legno di ginestra, che crebbe inalbero maestoso. Dopo due secoli seccò, ma se ne conserva ancora nellostesso sito il tronco. 

Morì fra il 1485/90 il 27 aprile.

Il Beato Giacomo è conosciuto e venerato soprattutto dagli abitanti deipaesi di Toritto,Grumo Appula, Bitritto e la stessa Bitetto ed è assai noto fra gli emigrati,soprattutto in America del Nord, partiti assai numerosi per tutto ilNovecento da questi paesi.


Autore: Leonardo Acquaviva


jeudi 21 avril 2016

Sainy CONRAD de PARZHAM, frêre capucin et confesseur



Conrad von Parzham (dans le siècle Johann Birndorfer) naît le 22 décembre 1818 à Venushof de Parzham, près de Passau en Bavière. Dernier d'une fratrie de douze enfants, vécut une jeunesse simple, aimant la nature en aidant ses parents, de pieux cultivateurs bavarois.

Orphelin à seize ans, il tenta par la suite de poursuivre des études au monastère bénédictin de Deggendorf à Metten, participant avec les moines aux travaux agricoles. Il vivait dans un pays qui conservait ses traditions populaires, profondément chrétiennes. Il était robuste et droit.

A 23 ans, il entra dans le Tiers-Ordre franciscain. Il était spécialement dévoué à son rosaire et assistait à la messe quotidienne. Il aurait pu continuer à vivre une vie heureuse et paysanne ; mais à 31 ans refusant le mariage, cet homme distribua sa part d'héritage à ses frères et à diverses institutions religieuses.

Il entra chez les Capucins de Sainte-Anne d'Altötting. Il fit son noviciat à Laufen. Ensuite il devint jardinier du couvent et fit sa profession en 1852, sous le nom de Conrad.

Devenu portier du Couvent d' Altötting, toujours calme et patient, le Frère Conrad, heureux de vivre dans ce sanctuaire marial, menait une vie humble et recueillie. Sa dévotion à Notre Dame et ses conseils furent bientôt connus de la population locale qui se pressait aux portes du couvent. Sa réputation dans toute la Basse-Bavière se développa à une époque, où eut lieu un réveil du Catholicisme bavarois.

Craignant de perdre son autonomie, face aux puissances protestantes (la Prusse), la Bavière puisait aux sources de la tradition catholique, dans un mouvement de charité et de dévotions populaires. Cet élan de piété allait de pair avec une prospérité grandissante. Notre époque, où les richesses matérielles détournent souvent de la Foi, est bien différente de celle du royaume bavarois d'alors...

Mais il existait bien sûr des souffrances matérielles et morales que le Frère Conrad tentait de soulager avec patience et ténacité, sous le regard de la Vierge. Il avait mission de distribuer aux pauvres les produits agricoles et le pain du couvent et bien sûr de la bière, brassée au couvent, qu'il voulait légère. Il accueillait d'incessants groupes de pèlerins. De nombreuses conversions eurent lieu aussi.
Il collabora aussi à l'œuvre du « Liebeswerk » destinée à l'enfance abandonnée.

C'est ainsi que se déroula une vie simple dédiée aux humbles travaux. Le 18 avril 1894, se sentant fatigué, il se coucha pour se préparer dit-il à l'éternité ; il rendit son âme le 21 avril.

Konrad von Parzham a été béatifié par Pie XI (Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, 1922-1939) en 1930 et canonisé quatre ans plus tard.

Sources principales : alexandrina.balasar.free.fr ; wikipédia.org (« Rév. x gpm »).

©Evangelizo.org 2001-2016

SOURCE : http://levangileauquotidien.org/main.php?language=FR&module=saintfeast&id=3506&fd=0


Saint Conrad de Parzham

Frère capucin ( 1894)

Confesseur. 

Jusqu'à l'âge de trente ans, il travailla avec ses parents dans leur ferme de Porzham en Basse-Bavière. Puis il alla se présenter au couvent des Capucins qui desservaient le célèbre sanctuaire marial de Notre-Dame d'Altötting. Ils le reçurent comme frère convers ou laïc vivant au monastère. Ils firent de lui le portier du couvent pendant 44 ans, accueillant avec sourire et patience fournisseurs, visiteurs et pèlerins. Beaucoup de religieux et de religieuses reconnurent qu'ils devaient leur vocation grâce à quelques-unes des paroles tombées de ses lèvres quand ils venaient en pèlerins ou en commerçants. Un bénédictin curieux a calculé qu'en raison de quarante coups de sonnettes par jour, saint Conrad dut accomplir près de 500.000 actes de vertu dans sa vie d'accueil.


Conrad de Parzham

Capucin, Saint

1818-1894
Né le 22 décembre 1818 à Venushof de Parzham, près de Passau en Bavière, Jean Birndorfer, dernier d' une fratrie de douze enfants, vécut une jeunesse simple, aimant la nature en aidant ses parents, de pieux cultivateurs bavarois.
Orphelin à seize ans, il tenta par la suite de poursuivre des études au monastère bénédictin de Deggendorf à Metten, participant avec les moines aux travaux agricoles. Il vivait dans un pays qui conservait ses traditions populaires, profondément chrétiennes. Il était robuste et droit.
A 23 ans, il entra dans le Tiers-Ordre franciscain. Il était spécialement dévoué à son rosaire et assistait à la messe quotidienne. Il aurait pu continuer à vivre une vie heureuse et paysanne ; mais à 31 ans refusant le mariage, cet homme distribua sa part d'héritage à ses frères et à diverses institutions religieuses. Il entra chez les Capucins de Sainte-Anne d'Altötting. Il fit son noviciat à Laufen. Ensuite il devint jardinier du couvent et fit sa profession en 1852, sous le nom de Conrad.
Devenu portier du Couvent d' Altötting, toujours calme et patient, le Frère Conrad, heureux de vivre dans ce sanctuaire marial, menait une vie humble et recueillie. Sa dévotion à Notre Dame et ses conseils furent bientôt connus de la population locale qui se pressait aux portes du couvent. Sa réputation dans toute la Basse-Bavière se développa à une époque, où eut lieu un réveil du Catholicisme bavarois. Craignant de perdre son autonomie, face aux puissances protestantes (la Prusse), la Bavière puisait aux sources de la tradition catholique, dans un mouvement de charité et de dévotions populaires. Cet élan de piété allait de pair avec une prospérité grandissante. Notre époque, où les richesses matérielles détournent souvent de la Foi, est bien différente de celle du royaume bavarois d' alors...
Mais il existait bien sûr des souffrances matérielles et morales que le Frère Conrad tentait de soulager avec patience et ténacité, sous le regard de la Vierge...Il avait mission de distribuer aux pauvres les produits agricoles et le pain du couvent et bien sûr de la bière, brassée au couvent, qu'il voulait légère. Il accueillait d'incessants groupes de pèlerins. De nombreuses conversions eurent lieu aussi.
Il collabora aussi à l'œuvre du "Liebeswerk" destinée à l'enfance abandonnée.
C'est ainsi que se déroula une vie simple dédiée aux humbles travaux. Le 18 avril 1894, se sentant fatigué, il se coucha pour se préparer dit-il à l'éternité... Il rendit son âme le 21 avril.
Il fut béatifié par Pie XI en 1930 et canonisé quatre ans plus tard.


St Conrad of Parzham


Feast Day– April 22

St Conrad of Parzham, whose baptismal name was John, was the son of the devout and honest couple George Birndorfer and Gertrude Niedermayer. He was born on a farm near the town of Parzham in Bavaria in the year 1818.

From his earliest years, St Conrad of Parzham gave indications of his future sanctity by his modesty and love of solitude. The fervor of his devotion was noticeable especially when he prayed in church, the distant location of which was no hindrance to his visiting it frequently even in inclement weather.
St Conrad of Parzham was inflamed with great love for the Blessed Virgin, and each day fervently recited the rosary. On feast days he frequently made a journey to some remote shrine of the Mother of God. During such pilgrimages, always made on foot, he was constantly engaged in prayer, and when he returned in the evening, he was usually still fasting.

Having spent his youthful years on the farm, closely united to God by means of interior union with Him, St Conrad of Parzham decided at the age of 31 to bid farewell to the world. After disposing of a very large inheritance, he received permission to be admitted as a lay brother among the Capuchins.

Immediately after his profession he was sent to the convent of St. Anne in the city of Altoetting. This place is particularly renowned among all others in Germany for its shrine of the Mother of Mercy, and hundreds, even thousands of the faithful come there daily. Because of the great concourse of people in this city, the duty of the porter at the friary is a very difficult one.

As soon as he arrived, this charge was given to Conrad, who retained it until his death. Diligent at his work, sparing in words, bountiful to the poor, eager and ready to receive and help strangers, Brother Conrad calmly fulfilled the task of porter for more than 40 years, during which time he greatly benefited the inhabitants of the city as well as strangers in all their needs of body and soul.

Among the virtues he practiced, he loved silence in a special way. His spare moments during the day were spent in a nook near the door where it was possible for him to see and adore the Blessed Eucharist. During the night he would deprive himself of several hours of sleep, to devote the time to prayer either in the oratory of the brothers or in the church. Indeed, it was quite generally believed that he never took any rest, but continually occupied himself in work and exercises of devotion.

On a certain feast day, when he had ministered to a large number of pilgrims, he felt his strength leaving him. He was obliged to manifest his weakness to his superior. Obedience sent him to bed. Only three days later, little children, to whom the news of Conrad's sickness had not been given lest they be overly saddened, gathered as by instinct around the friary, reciting the rosary.

As Blessed Father Francis had died to the music of the birds he loved, so his son died with the voices of the children, these lovely creatures of God, ringing in his ears.

On April 21, 1894, the Capuchin porter heard the sound of the Bell for which he had so patiently waited. For the last time he ran to the Door. But this time the Door was literally his Christ.

His heroic virtues and the miracles he performed won for him the distinction to be ranked among the Blessed by Pope Pius XI in the year 1930. Four years later, the same pope, approving additional miracles which had been performed, solemnly inscribed his name in the list of saints.

*from: The Franciscan Book of Saints, ed. by Marion Habig, ofm.


  
Châsse de Saint Conrad de Parzham
Bruder Konrad-Kirche Altötting (Landkreis Altötting, Oberbayern)


Conrad of Parzham, OFM Cap. (AC)

Born in Parzham (near Passau), Bavaria, Germany, December 12, 1818; died April 21, 1894; beatified in 1930; canonized in 1934. John Birndorfer, as he was known in the world, belonged to those reflective peasant souls who are led by their work with nature almost automatically to preoccupation with the supernatural. For him to be alone in the fields was to be alone with God.


When at the age of 31, he realized that God was calling him to a monastic life, he left Parzham, renounced his prosperous farm, and joined the Capuchins as a lay brother. After taking his solemn vows he was sent to the monastery of Altötting, Germany. Beside the monastery is a shrine of the Mother of God, annually visited by several hundred thousands of pilgrims. In such a cloister, where the bell never rests, the doorkeeper's job is unusually heavy.

For 41 years, Brother Conrad attended to the cloister door and performed his duties with perfect tact and care and with imperturbable patience, always humble, pious, helpful, unassuming, and diligent. No one ever saw him irritable or churlish. No one ever heard from his lips malicious gossip or frivolous judgment or even an idle word, although he had dealings with innumerable people in the course of many years. His occupation made such demands on him that he often did not find time to eat with the brothers.

His self-sacrificing charity towards pilgrims and the poor, children and itinerant journeymen won him the hearts of the people, and the striking answers to his prayer caused people to recommend themselves to his good offices in prayer.

Three days before his death he recognized that he was no longer able to cope with the throngs at the door and relinquished his office (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Schamoni). 


Saint Conrad of Parzham

Also known as
  • Conrad Birndorfer
  • Hansel Birndorfer
  • Johann Birndorfer
  • Johannes Birndorfer
  • John Birndorfer
  • Konrad….
  • Corrado….
Profile

Youngest of nine children born to a farming family in a region recovering from the Napoleonic wars. His mother died when he was 14. Devoted from an early age to solitary prayer and peacemaking, he was a familiar site at all the churches and shrines in his region, often waiting at the door at sunrise for first Mass.

Capuchin tertiary at age 31; Capuchin novice at age 33, taking the name Conrad. Assigned to the shrine of Our Lady of Altotting. For more than 40 years Conrad was a porter, admitting people to the friary, obtaining supplies, dispensing alms, encouraging all to open themselves to God, and generally assisting the thousands who came to the friary on pilgrimages. Worked with local children, teaching them the faith and practices, and supported charities for them. Noted for the gifts of prophesy and of reading people’s hearts.

Three days before his death he realized he could no longer perform his duties, and relinquished the position; he then celebrated Mass, and took to his sick bed for the last time. Local children whom he had taught the rosary recited it outside his window until the end.

Born

Saint Konrad of Parzham

(Altötting)

Based on the original German 
of Rector Georg Albrechtskirchinger



A New Gift from God

In the little known village of Parzham, Germany, around the year 1800, there lived and worked a farmer – Bartholomew Birndorfer. The tiny village lay in the valley of the Rott (Rottal), a stream that flows into the torrential river Inn, whose waters flow, in turn, into the river Danube. "Bartl" was a wealthy farmer. The old saying fit him well: "In Rottal dwells the pride of the farmer – his beautiful horses – his field – his timber." Bartl had twenty-two cows, ten horses and one hundred twenty-five acres of fertile soil all around his comfortable log cabin with its flat shingle roof. But hard times came when a devastating and unruly Freemasonic revolution swept over the land. The government siezed the monasteries and confiscated their goods. The so-called "Freethinking Enlightenment" spread doubts against the Faith, mocked piety and, in many families, lessened the bond of good morals and holy virtues. The wars of the tyrant Napoleon raged in Europe; in 1809 Rottal, too, was laid waste. Continual torrential rains in 1816 and 1817 caused a painful famine. Not until 1818 was there a turn for the better – a real year of plenty. As often as a full cartload of crops arrived at the barn, the farmer with his wife and children would kneel down, pray three Our Father's and thank God for His gifts with tears of joy.

The graces of this year were not to come to an end until another child was born to the Birndorfer family. It was the 22nd of December, shortly after midnight. Later that same day the baby boy was taken by horse-drawn sleigh through deep snow to the parish church and was baptized with the name Johannes Evangelist. Arriving again at home, his mother clasped her "Hansel" in her arms and thanked the Lord of life and death affectionately for this child of God, which the Lord had given her. She was happy about the beautiful name. Would it have some mysterious significance? At any rate, year after year and day after day, through vivid stories of the Boy Jesus, she would make that Holy Life come alive for her little boy, so that he would imitate the example held out to him and taste the delights of divine love.

Pious Childhood

The blonde-haired, blue-eyed Hansel was thriving visibly. After his cradling, he began making expeditions across the floor. He soon found his way everywhere. In the kitchen he would play with fir-cones and sticks. He waddled through every room. He got acquainted with the chickens, the dog and cat, the cattle and horses. The household brought up Hansel as it had brought up the other children. He enjoyed the best visual instructions. Farm life and Christian example were both placed before his senses. When poor people or hired hands came, tired and worn, to ask a night's lodging, Hansel would fetch milk and bread for them. He took his place with the house occupants for daily prayers and the Rosary. Often he was found praying in a quiet nook. No one disturbed him there, neither the farm-hands nor the maids. He had no patience for any indecency in the children at the village square. All the adults were amazed how recollected Hansel was at prayer and that his intense devotion was so obvious on his countenance. No wonder everyone was so fond of him and called him a little angel!

At age six Hansel became a student. He learned reading, writing and arithmetic, Bible History and the "Canisi" – as this little catechism was called – in which St. Peter Canisius had condensed the truths of the Catholic Religion into short and clear lessons. Attentive and diligent, Hansel took in every subject with a laudable persistence. Once he brought home an award for receiving a high grade on a test. During this school year, Hansel also distinguished himself as quite a special person. On the half-hour's journey to the school in Weng, he would sometimes go apart from his noisy comrades and would silently and secretly pray several Our Father's. Sometimes he would induce a fellow-student to offer Our Heavenly Mother a Rosary. When a quarrel and fight broke out, Hansel would intervene and make peace. When he did not succeed, he regarded it as better to just be on his way. Children acting rowdy with each other or speaking in a shameful manner would call out when they saw little Johannes, "Quiet! Quiet! Hansel Birndorfer is coming!" Their bad words would stick in their throats. Cursing gave pain to his soul. Should he hear any blasphemy, he would fall to his knees, weep and beg the Lord God for mercy on the blasphemer. Whoever saw this was deeply moved. Gradually such blasphemies were held back in his presence. Throughout the parish and school, people would ask, "What kind of boy is this?" And they would receive the answer, "He is an angel among men."

After finishing school, Hans advanced step-by-step in the hard work of farming. He worked in the stable; he mowed the meadows; he drew the plow. Although still young in years, he already viewed his life and his world as a bridge over the river of time to God, the Eternal. So he never forgot throughout all his occupations, to maintain his union with the Lord of Heaven and Earth. Good intention and the worship of God ennobled his work. Under the hottest sunshine, Hans wore nothing on his head. One day, his father feared he would suffer a heat-stroke. So, a few days later, he admonished him to wear a hat. The boy answered, "Father, shouldn't someone take his hat off when he is going to pray?" His father replied, after a short consideration, "Yes, of course. But tell me, do you pray the whole time you are working?" As Hansel answered this question in the affirmative, his father was astonished, but said nothing to dissuade him from this. He saw that work in union with God made his son happy.

Grief and pain soon associate themselves with happiness. Hans was fourteen years old when death took away from him his exemplary, quiet mother. Only two years later, his good father also was carried away from the farm to the cemetery in Weng. His mother dead! His father dead! What great, bitter sorrow! Hans wept pitiably.

The Young Man

An orphaned farm, an estate being inherited, in Bavarian villages puts the whole community in turmoil. Everyone asks, "What will happen to the farm now?"

The brothers and sisters took over the inheritance together. For the time being, Hans, the youngest of them, eagerly and willingly looked after the work of the two hired hands. No one was more punctual, conscientious and dutiful. He worked from early morning until late evening. He also brightened every workday through the thought that all work must be a divine service and tend to God's greater glory. He strove continually to give more time to interior recollection, contemplation and prayer. Sometimes one might have seen him in a cart, the reins in his right hand and an open prayer book in his left. Once, while he was absorbed in spiritual reading, the reins lay limp. The horses went off the road and the wagon tipped over, spilling the whole load. In complete tranquility he loaded it up again. At home he spoke of his accident. His brothers and sisters were of the opinion that "...prayer is certainly good; but it is not necessary to pray all the time!" Hans only answered, "But it's not forbidden either." They were astonished at his intense conviction and were silent; they knew that, in fact, many a cart had tipped over when no one was praying.

When there was a break in the farm work, Hans liked to withdraw back into the hay barn. On its door he had hung pictures of the Savior and his patron Saints. Before them he used to thank the Creator who provided the grass for fodder and cattle, and he would say a little prayer of petition.

On the eve of Holydays he would sit, now and then, on the bench in front of the house and just meditate there. He would think about the numberless creatures of the earth and gigantic forms in the heavens, about the sun, moon and stars, about the great Almighty God. One evening an old maid-servant sat down nearby. She tried to coax him to come and have a talk with her. Hans, distracted from his contemplation, nodded his head, mumbled a little and let her talk. But as soon as she began to gossip about people and slander them, he cut her off: "It's not good to gossip about people. It is wiser to pray the Rosary. May God preserve you." He got up and went to his room.

There stood his home altar. It was simply arranged. On the table was a small case with a picture of the Mother of God; above it was a crucifix; in front a flickering oil lamp; on either side candlesticks with white candles, besides several paper flowers and little fir boughs. Here he lay the offering of his bodily fatigue and his self-discipline. Here he examined his conscience every evening. Here he gazed at the picture of the Throne of God before him and held conversation with the Lord God. Here he read, in the still of the night, the Holy Scriptures. Sometimes a rooster would crow, the sun would rise up and break through the clouds of night with its beams of light, and the man of prayer would go to his day's work as fresh and strong as if he had slept the entire night. And his sister Therese would find his bed still made.

Almost every morning, Hans went to church. Whether it snowed or rained, whether a gale blew or the stream through which he had to wade swelled and overflowed its banks – nothing could hinder him from attending Mass in Weng or St. Wolfgang. Sometimes he stood from 3:30 a.m. in the church courtyard, or, in really bad weather, in the little vestibule in the front of the church and waited until the sacristan came and unlocked it.

The first day of the Christian week was for Hans fully and completely the day of the Lord and of the victory of Christ. Just at the crack of dawn, he would make a holy hour at the church in Griesbach. There he would go to confession and, at the quiet early morning Mass, would receive the Body of the Lord. Then he would go to Weng for the Parish High Mass, and then back home. In the afternoon he liked to go to the Devotions at Birnbach, although it was an hour's journey from Parzham. He was always the first to arrive at the church. He took his place in the front pew of the Gospel side, next to the wall, and prayed with intense attention. After the Devotions, when all the people were gone, he conversed with the Savior. He knelt before the altar and remained up to two hours before the Blessed Sacrament. And thus on Sundays, streams of divine grace would flow into his heart and assist his work throughout the week.

Other young men sought their Sunday relaxation in the public houses. Only once did Hans attend a theater performance by the Birnbach Youth Union, of which he was a member. It so happened that right in the middle of the play, he let out a hearty laugh. The sound grated on the ears of the audience and seemed to echo, as the embarassing event stuck in his memory.

The most beautiful leisure time Hans experienced was when he went on pilgrimage, alone or with like-minded persons, to the Mother of God at the beloved Shrine of Altötting or to the Church of Maria Hilf, situated in the countryside high above the city of Passau and the river Inn. Such pilgrimages were physically very fatiguing. Between 1:00 and 2:00 a.m. they would get up and walk six hours, fasting and praying all the way until the journey's end. When they were not actually praying, they would speak of life's struggles on the side of God. Hans, usually so quiet, found words to edify his companions with the Mysteries of Redemption. After visiting the miraculous image, they would go to confession and receive Holy Communion, and give thanks to God for temporal blessings and spiritual graces. For a mid-day rest, they would sit on the bank of a stream near the church and eat whatever they had brought with them. Afterwards, they would visit the church again, pray until the departure time and then again walk six hours back, with joyful hearts, until they had their home soil under their feet.

On St. Leonhard's day, Hans went every year to the Solemn Blessing of Horses at Aigen am Inn. At this pilgrimage church there labored a Father Dullinger. Hans chose this priest to be his spiritual director. Through him, he got to know better about the various Religious Orders. One by one, he examined their particular obligations: perpetual adoration, celebration of daily Mass, sacrifice for the conversion of sinners, prayer to assist and console the faithful departed, assistance for those struggling to preserve purity and virginity, intimate devotion to Mary, as well as worship of the Most Holy Trinity. As a member of the Third Order which St. Francis had founded for lay people, the Franciscan spirit grew in him. For nine years Hans went every fourteen days over the hills to his confessor, and back again. Each time it was a march of ten hours, and on the whole it required a determined step to advance on the mysterious path to this destination, which God had determined, but which Hans did not yet clearly see.

At the Crossroads

All at once the news broke into his quiet, hardworking, interior life. Two sisters and a brother had left and married. The others still cultivated the farm together. Nothing had changed much. But a sadness set in, invisible yet palpable. The farm was still a bachelor home. A bachelor home is unnatural for a farmer. An unmarried farmer lives only for himself. A real farm is anchored in the family. Only through marriage does the family live on, the farm prosper and farm life remain worth enduring and happy.

One evening, this sadness burst out around the farm house. His brothers and sisters demanded that Hans get married and take over the farm. Hans laid his elbows on the table, closed his eyes, clasped his hands in front of his face and thought over the situation. He looked back on days gone by, when his father and mother were keeping house at the farm and the children, quiet and happy, were unconcerned about the future. When his parents were alive, they had often said, "Son, we are leaving the farm to you. The future heir is soon liable to be unsettled. You can change that by marriage. The Birndorder Family must continue to live on this farm." The demand had surprised Hans. He knew that, having grown up with animals, crops and soil, he had become a good farmer, that he had received a great talent for farming and that he truly had enjoyed it. On the other hand, he found in himself another talent: the beautiful life of union with God, with Christ and with Mary. In worth and rank it was higher than the stars. And thus Hans stood at the crossroads: the cloister or the farm. He made the most important decision of his life. Slowly he let his arms sink to the table, opened his eyes, raised his head high and spoke in a firm voice, "The family can live on in another line. The house and farm will still stand. My life should be to listen to God and Him alone. I am going into a cloister. Now you know. The good God has not forgotten me. He has already prepared a place for me." The die was cast. His brothers and sisters quietly surrendered to their fate.

Shortly thereafter a letter arrived. It announced that the Capuchins in Altötting were willing to accept Hans Birndorfer into the Order. Hans was overjoyed. He recalled the words of Christ: "If thou wouldst be perfect, go, sell all thou hast and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in Heaven. And come, follow Me." According to this request, his family paid him for his portion of the property. Thereafter he gave one portion of the money to the poor of the neighborhood and the other he donated for the expansion of the cemetery in Weng. Now he was stripped of all possessions, like St. Francis of Assisi. The way to his new goal was free. He bid farewell to his home and his parents' graves and began his journey to Altötting.

Time of Probation

With his entrance into the Capuchin family, Hans Birndorfer received a new name – Konrad. The coming months would show whether he had really turned his back on the world and whether he could endure being totally dependent on the charity and mercy of other men.

For a good year and a half, he was given to the Porter of St. Anne's Cloister as an assistant. He overcame the difficulties that arose with patience and humility. In the meantime, he wrote to his family: "When I first came it was somewhat difficult to be among so many Brothers. It was a long time before I could call them all by name. Now, thanks be to God, I can not only remember their names but also where their cells are, in case I have to fetch them." Suddenly, to his regret, he was transferred to Burghausen on the Salzach. Here he had to care for a sick priest. Here also he encountered the elderly Tirolian, Gabriel Engel. This Father had, in fifteen tireless years, re-established the Capuchin Order in Bavaria, where it had withered up after the decade-long troubles of the "Cloister Storm" of the "Enlightenment". This genuine reformer became for Konrad at that time a tremendous example of manly virtue and Religious observance.

The two year pre-school was soon at an end. Konrad had been observed long enough for it to be known that he was fit for the Religious Life. Now he would be sent to the little Cloister at Laufen on the Salzach. At that time the Novitiate for lay brothers was there. Konrad was solemnly clothed with the brown cowl and the long hood. It was September 17, 1851. With the clothing began the decisive year of probation for the new Religious – the Novitiate. There he would learn to know exactly the obligations of the Order and how to fulfill them. And the community would examine him – whether he was really suited for the Religious life in general, and for the Capuchin Order in particular. Konrad wrote his former home: "Pray very hard for me, that I may get through this year successfully; that I may not just wear the habit, but rather obtain the spirit of a true Capuchin brother."

He himself prayed and worked untiringly for this goal. This meant: to learn to embrace the Holy Rule with the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience; to make diligent progress in Christian doctrine and in contemplative prayer; to root out weaknesses and faults and to cultivate virtues, and in particular to obey without any interior resistance. There was manual labor in addition. Konrad worked as an assistant to the gardener. Much of his new way of life came easy to him. It was harder to always deny his own will, even to the point of abandoning well-cultivated good habits, if the Novice-Master demanded it. Often it cost him a struggle, which brought humiliations and penances with it.

At the end of the year of probation, Konrad wrote down together his experiences and reflections. He set up a plan of life for himself with eleven headings:

1.      I will really accustom myself to live always in the presence of God and ask myself often, would I do this or that if my confessor or superior saw me? How much more so in the presence of God and my guardian angel.

2.      I will often ask myself when crosses and sorrows come: Konrad, why are you here?

3.      I will avoid leaving the cloister as much as I can, except when charity towards neighbor demands it, or on account of obedience or health, or on pilgrimage or some good purpose.

4.      I will truly strive to preserve fraternal charity in myself and others. I will thus watch over myself, that I may utter no word that would be contrary to charity. Their faults, failings and weaknesses I will patiently endure; and I will, as far as is possible, cover them with the mantle of charity, when it is not otherwise a duty to disclose them to my superior, in order to put an end to them.

5.      I will observe silence exactly and perpetually as far as is possible. I well be very sparse in speech, and this in order to avoid many faults and that I may be able to converse with God so much the better.

6.      At meals I will always, as much as possible, remain in the presence of God, always keep myself in check and deny myself those foods which I desire the most; rather I will take that especially which I like the least in order to practice mortification. And I will always avoid eating anything outside meal times.

7.      I will always go promptly to choir, as soon as I hear the bell, when I am not otherwise hindered.

8.      I will avoid the opposite sex as much as possible, unless obedience imposes a duty in which I must deal with women. I will be rather serious and keep custody of my eyes.

9.      I will always fulfill obediences exactly and promptly and especially I will make every possible effort to seek to deny my own will in all things.

10.  I will truly strive both to observe minor points of the Rule as well as to overcome as much as possible every deliberate imperfection. I will never deviate from the Holy Rule even so much as an inch, come what may!

11.  I will always strive to have a truly intense devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and will truly strive to imitate her virtues.

These resolutions, composed with deliberation and full trust in the assistance of Jesus and Mary, contained nothing too ponderous to fulfill. No heroism was promised. With caution, in view of human weakness and external circumstances, sensible limits were established – such as with the words: "I will make every possible effort..."; "...as much as I can." Good intentions! Is not the road to Hell paved with them? Resolutions must be firm. Let us see what Konrad really accomplished and what virtues he developed – as much as he could!

The 4th of October, 1852, the Feast of St. Francis, was Konrad's Profession Day. He knelt on the step of the altar, placed his hands in those of his superior and spoke the solemn oath of his irrevocable dedication to God: "I vow and promise Almighty God, the Most Blessed Virgin Mary, St. Francis, all the Saints and you, Father, for the rest of my life to observe the Rule of the Friars Minor, living in obedience, without possessions, and in chastity." The Novitiate was completed.

The New Occupation

A few days later, the Father Guardian from Laufen spoke after the morning Mass, "Konrad, God calls you! You are to go at once to Altötting to the Cloister of St. Anne. There you will take over the office of Porter." Konrad knelt down, begged a blessing for the journey and set off across the countryside through Shusters Rappen. When he arrived at the pilgrimage town, he was assailed by a great fear. He had hoped to be permitted to live in silent solitude behind cloister walls. So many people, of different rank and station, of different character and intention, asked here for information and help. Would he not from one fault, slip and fall into many others? In his distress, Konrad went first to the church and begged Christ for His grace. Then he rang the bell and thus announced the commencement of his service.

The beginning was hard. The office of Porter at Altötting proved to be the most difficult and troublesome in all Bavaria. And so it was the greatest responsibility that an Order could give to a Brother. That a man with only one year's membership in the Order was chosen for the office, was taken by some of the older Brothers as a personal insult. Envy worked through their hearts. As soon as Konrad arrived, they were really nasty towards him. They weren't going to tolerate him in the cloister. For several days they would not even give him a cell. Truly he had become the least and poorest of all. At first they considered his piety and eagerness to serve as acts of hypocrisy. Their malevolent speech reached the ears of the Father Guardian. He tested him before everyone, when he said sharply, "Brother Konrad is about to find out that he is just a charity-case for us." These words must have been a slap in the face to a man of honor, who had left a beautiful farm to serve God alone. But, contrary to expectations, Konrad did not stomp out. He accepted the humiliation with a bow of the head. He didn't even bat an eye. A more cheerful glimmer shone on his countenance. This noble self-control convinced his superiors and reconciled him with his brethren. He had left on all a lasting good impression.

A great deal of work was packed into the course of a day for the Porter, which for him consisted of twelve to sixteen working hours. Konrad received the mail and carried it to Father Guardian. He administered the donations for the House and recorded the Mass stipends with the requested intention.

Merchants brought to him their wares and bills. Pilgrims left with him their religious items – such as candles, Rosaries and Happy Death Crucifixes – to be blessed, and beseeched him to fetch a priest for confession. Visitors would ask him to bring one of the Capuchins – a relative or friend – to the parlor to speak with them. He would offer hospitality to benefactors and clerics.

The poor of the village, children and vagrants who came begging were given bread and soup or beer. And all these tasks Konrad performed without resentment or complaint, without agitation or anger. He worked ever with an unalterable patience, with a joyful countenance, with a friendly tone of voice. There were days when the bell summoned the porter to the cloister door two hundred times! And how Konrad obeyed it! When it rang, he would break off from praying or speaking, or even set the mouthful of food back on to his plate, just as he was bringing it to his mouth. Yes, it was the same when he had to go and fetch one of the Fathers – he would hasten instantly back to the porter's station, even two or three times, as often as the bell was rung. The sound of the bell was for him the voice of God.

It was astonishing, with what love Konrad cared for the poor. To the Brothers who baked the bread, he often made the request, "I beseech you, put something together wherewith the poor can really have something good." As soon as the cloister family had finished a meal, Konrad would go to the kitchen and take whatever he could find that was still edible to the porter's station, to give to the hungry. If someone would reproach him on this account, he would answer with an intimate and full trust in God, "What a man gives to the poor is all returned to him." Sometimes the cook had nothing more to give, or he kept back some available sausage, fearing that some of the Brothers would not have enough at the next meal. When this happened, Konrad would say, "Then I'll eat nothing," take his portion and give it away. No one knows how many baskets of bread, pitchers of beer and bowls of soup Konrad carried away and distributed in the course of his religious life. But the people gave him forever the characteristic name – Father of the Poor.

All the poor children of Altötting knew Brother Konrad very well. Day after day they would run to the monastery portal, and impetuously ring the bell. As soon as they saw Brother Konrad standing in the cloister entrance, they would hush their chatter, fold their hands and pray with him the Hail Mary devoutly. He became stern if any of them rushed through it. He would warn them with the saying, "Above all else, we Capuchins must pray!" After the prayer the little ones would call out cheerfully, "Please, Brother Konrad!" Then he would give each child a loaf of bread. One or the other would receive some good counsel along with it. Then they would run off with a happy, "God bless you!" Everyone in the pilgrimage town acknowledged him to be the Children's Friend. And the little boys and girls continued to love him long after their childhood years.

Immersed in God

As porter, Konrad demonstrated a heroic devotion and loyalty. At all times and until his last days, he was at the service of everyone who claimed his attention, with a constantly steady willingness and love. This virtue sprang from his religious spirit, from his intense union with God.

Where did his heart dwell? Nearby the porter station, under a stairway, is the tiny, dark Alexius Cell, barely large enough for a kneeler. A narrow crack in the wall afforded a view of the tabernacle in the monastery chapel. In this stairway cell, Konrad knelt before his Beloved and adored the Son of God, hidden and ignored in the Blessed Sacrament. There one would find him in the free minutes between the business of the day. There he would make his first holy hour, every day at 3:30 in the morning. And when everyone else had gone to their evening's rest, he would speak yet longer with God by the dim light of a candle. Nevertheless he would go punctually at midnight to the communal chanting of Matins in Choir, the daily morning offering of the Capuchins.

The same love he had toward the Blessed Sacrament, we find in Konrad also toward our Crucified Redeemer. Out of his deep devotion to the Passion and Death of Christ, Brother Konrad drew strength and salvation. Compelled by this love for the Cross, he daily made at midday the holy Way of the Cross. In his cell hung a crucifix with a painful countenance. Before this image he was accustomed, especially in the evening, to contemplate and meditate in silence. He often took it down from the wall and held it in his hands, whispering fervent prayers to his beloved Savior, and perceiving what He would answer. In a letter to his sister, Resl, Konrad wrote, "The Cross is my book. One glance at the Cross teaches me how I ought to act in every circumstance. There I learn patience and humility and meekness and to carry every cross; yes, to me the cross is sweet and light."
The disciple of Christ and friend of the Cross at the cloister door in Altötting was also a Marian Knight – a tender devotee of the Blessed Virgin Mary. How often and with what recollection he recited daily the beautiful Ave Maria! The Little Rosary of the Immaculate Conception was always hanging from the middle finger of his left hand. As a rule he prayed daily the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary. What a grace-filled experience it was for him to daily serve Mass at 4:30 a.m. in the Chapel of Grace (Gnadenkapelle). And at midday he would go regularly to the Gnadenkapelle, kneel motionless and pray before the miraculous image (Gnadenbild) of Our Lady of Altötting in deep recollection of soul. What a beautiful scene before God and man! Many people saw Konrad's prayers to the Mother of God like fiery spheres issuing out of his mouth.

A sense of piety and of continual worship of God shown forth on Konrad's countenance. It indicated a constant, steady expression of cheerfulness; it gave continuous testimony of the peace and joy of his soul, which he found in God.

To His Dying Breath

Certainly, the course of years takes its toll on the body. The innumerable privations and overburdenings that he had demanded from his body had left scars. Furrows had burrowed across his face; his hair had turned white; he was tormented by aches and pains; his back was hunched over. Konrad was becoming weak. Everything he did was painful. He was always cold. His limbs grew stiff. His knees shook. 75 winters lay behind him.

On April 18, 1894, Brother Konrad tapped along, supported by a strong cane, on his way to the Gnadenkapelle. It was the last time he would ever serve Mass beneath the statue of Our Lady of Altötting. On returning to the monastery, he managed to drag himself around for a few more hours. But in the afternoon he had to tell his superior, "Father Guardian, it's the end!" The doctor came and said to Konrad, "That's just too hard a job for you at your age, down there in that cold hallway. You're completely worn out." Without a complaint the dying man endured his pain and weakness. On the third day, Saturday, April 21, he received Extreme Unction. In the evening the infirmarian gave him another spoonful of medicine and said, "Now I have to go and check on our sick Brother Benjamin." Konrad replied, "Of course, you may go. I won't be needing you any more." At 7:00 p.m. the cloister family assembled together for Night Prayers. Someone knocked at the main door. Shortly thereafter the porter's bell rang. Konrad thought the assistant porter had not been able to hear the metallic voice. In obedience to the bell, the dutiful old man lifted himself with his last ounce of strength. He took the candlestick with the burning candle in his trembling hand, staggered and tottered to the door of his cell and altogether collapsed. A novice coming that way and finding him, called immediately for help. Capuchins came hurrying to the spot. They carried the dying man to his cot. A Father recited the prayers for the dying. The Ave bell rang peacefully from the bell-tower of Altötting. Konrad smiled, looked heavenward with joyful eyes and departed this life. It was between 7:00 and 8:00 in the evening, the time when he had always prayed to Our Lady as the "Help and Consolation of the Dying".

"Take thy rest now, thou tireless hero of charity, of fortitude and of faith! True, thou hast never crossed the Alps, nor sailed across the sea. Rather, thou wert for more than forty years a continuous watchman out of obedience; but with this obedience, thou didst elevate the lowest of offices to serve as a knight of Christ, and it was on this account the equal of the noblest of undertakings!" (Pope Pius XII)

The Dead Lives!

In the Imitation of Christ, we read: "He is truly great, who has great love." He is great, who always fulfills his duties perfectly out of love for God. This was fully and completely valid in the case of the Capuchin Brother Konrad of Parzham. The Church therefore, on Pentecost Sunday, 1934, after due deliberation and much prayer, proclaimed and declared that he is a Saint.

"Brother Konrad's tomb, truly a tomb of the living! It teaches and admonishes, consoles and heals, and leaves a life that had withered in full bloom again! This tomb is adorned with an altar full of glory; hymns of praise and thanksgiving are sung before it; all around it shine burning lights, and a jubilant festive joy fills the Christian people who find in Brother Konrad a new, powerful patron Saint – Konrad is the shining ornament of Bavaria and all the German people, as well as for the universal Church of Christ!" (Pope Pius XII)

Holiness consists in forming our day out of the love for Christ. Holiness is our life's work, our contribution to society, the necessary step we take towards achieving eternal salvation. The saintly life is for us an example and a mirror, light and help.

Saint Konrad of Parzham, pray for us!

SOURCE : http://www.salvemariaregina.info/Martyrologies/Konrad.html

San Corrado (Giovanni Evangelista) Birndorfer da Parzham Cappuccino


Venushof, Parzham, 22 dicembre 1818 - Altötting (Bassa Baviera), 21 aprile 1894

Nacque a Venushof in Parzham il 22 dicembre 1818 da una famiglia di ricchi contadini dalla spiccata devozione. Penultimo di dodici fratelli, rimase orfano a 16 anni. Da subito si dedicò alla vita spirituale secondo la tradizione cattolica bavarese frequentando assiduamente la celebrazione eucaristica quotidiana. Ma coltivò nella sua vita anche tutte le forme della più autentica pietà popolare della sua regione, la Baviera. Conosciamo poco dell'infanzia ma sappiamo per certo che a 19 anni tentò, senza esito, di studiare nel ginnasio dei benedettini di Metten a Deggendorf. Era il 1841, invece, quando professò la regola del Terz'Ordine francescano e nel 1849 entrò tra i cappuccini di Altötting come terziario. Durante il noviziato a Laufen fu incaricato di aiutare l'ortolano e il giardiniere del convento. Il 4 ottobre 1852 emetteva la professione solenne e fu rimandato ad Altötting con l'ufficio di portinaio del convento di Sant'Anna, che ora è dedicato allo stesso san Corrado, dove rimase fino alla morte, avvenuta il 21 aprile 1894. (Avvenire)

Etimologia: Corrado = consigliere audace, dal tedesco

Martirologio Romano: Ad Altötting nella Baviera in Germania, san Corrado (Giovanni) Birndorfer da Parzham, religioso dell’Ordine dei Frati Minori Cappuccini, che svolse per oltre quarant’anni l’umile servizio di portinaio e, sempre generoso verso i poveri, non congedò mai nessun bisognoso senza prima offrirgli benigne parole di cristiano conforto.

Nella numerosissima schiera di santi, beati e venerabili della grande Famiglia Francescana, spiccano singolari figure di frati, pieni di santa umiltà e semplicità, i quali raggiunsero questa meta, adempiendo con scrupolo e carisma personale, all’umile compito di portinaio del convento in cui vissero per lungo tempo o addirittura tutta la loro vita religiosa.

E come s. Serafino da Montegranaro (12 ottobre), s. Pasquale Baylon (17 maggio), il beato Mariano da Roccacasale (31 maggio), tutti francescani e il beato Andrea Bassette canadese della “Congregazione della Santa Croce” (6 gennaio), anche san Corrado da Parzham, trascorse tutta la sua vita di cappuccino, facendo il portinaio del suo convento di Altötting in Germania.

Era nato il 22 dicembre 1818 nella fattoria di Venushof in Parzham presso Passau (Baviera), penultimo dei 12 figli dei coniugi Birndorfer, al battesimo ebbe il nome di Giovanni Evangelista.

A 16 anni era già orfano di entrambi i genitori; dalle scarne testimonianze venne descritto come un ragazzo mite, allegro, dolcissimo, amante della natura, sano e forte per i lavori dei campi a cui si dedicò.

Amava il lavoro e mentre dissodava il terreno, recitava il rosario che teneva sempre legato al polso; pur essendo figlio del padrone, lavorava volentieri con e fra i dipendenti, diffondendo serenità, armonia e gioia.

Appena poteva, si raccoglieva in preghiera, devota, solitaria e prolungata, nelle varie chiese e santuari del circondario e spessissimo si accostava alla santa Eucaristia; a 19 anni tentò di frequentare il ginnasio dei Benedettini di Metten a Deggendorf, ma senza esito; nel 1841 a 23 anni, professò la Regola del Terz’Ordine Francescano. 

Avrebbe dovuto amministrare l’azienda ereditata dai genitori, ma sentendosi chiamato alla vita religiosa, vi rinunziò; divise la sua parte ereditata tra i poveri e alcune Istituzioni ecclesiastiche e a 31 anni nel 1849, Giovanni Evangelista Birndorfer bussò alla porta del convento cappuccino di S. Anna ad Altötting.

Fece il noviziato a Laufen e qui ebbe l’incarico di aiutare l’ortolano e il giardiniere del convento; nei primi tre anni fu impegnato nella formazione alla vita cappuccina, perfezionando le virtù e lo spirito di preghiera.

Il 4 ottobre 1852, si consacrò per sempre al Signore, facendo la professione religiosa e prendendo il nome di Corrado; poi fu rimandato al convento-santuario di Altötting nella sua Baviera destinato all’ufficio di portinaio.

In quest’umile ma delicata funzione, visse per ben 41 anni fino alla morte, contento di vivere in quel luogo, sede dell’antico Santuario della Madonna, centro e riferimento della religiosità e pietà bavarese.

Fra Corrado da Parzham svolse il suo compito, in apparenza monotono e senza importanza, con tatto e zelo, con fedeltà e poche parole, sempre calmo e paziente, mai annoiato, nervoso o triste, sempre pronto all’obbedienza e disponibile; edificava i confratelli ed i pellegrini del Santuario mediante l’esercizio della carità e di una inalterabile pazienza.

Ben presto in tutta la Bassa Baviera, si diffuse la fama di quel “santo portinaio” e alla porta del convento di S. Anna, ora dedicato a San Corrado, cominciarono a suonare la tipica campanella, molte persone per chiedere proprio all’umile frate aiuto e conforto; ormai tutti sapevano che il suo cuore era sempre aperto ad accogliere i fedeli.

Devoto della Vergine e dell’Eucaristia, dotato di doni straordinari, come la profezia, operò un risveglio di fede nelle province circostanti, un padre Pio da Pietrelcina dell’epoca.

Al portinaio del convento cappuccino, era affidato anche il compito di distribuire il cibo ai poveri, e lui, sempre con la corona in mano, lo faceva con soddisfazione, illuminandosi nel volto, riflettendo l’esempio del Poverello d’Assisi.

Era la sua ‘felicità terrena’, distribuiva minestra, pane e carne ai poveri, agli accattoni, ai garzoni operai, ai ragazzi, andando in cucina a scegliere i pezzi migliori; sordo alle esortazioni a moderare la sua generosità.

“Tutto ciò che si dà ai poveri, ritorna nuovamente dentro con abbondanza”, era la sua risposta ai confratelli; cooperò anche all’opera benefica ‘Liebeswerk’, in favore dell’infanzia abbandonata e in pericolo; la sua generosità si allargava ai numerosi pellegrini del santuario, ai quali distribuiva birra e pane, raccomandando però al confratello fra Deodato, addetto alla birreria del convento, di farne “molta e leggera”.

Lavorò fedelmente fino alla fine; il 18 aprile 1894 al termine di una giornata stressante, si mise a letto “per prepararsi all’eternità”. Morì all’alba del 21 aprile 1894 a 76 anni.

Dopo l’approvazione dei miracoli attribuiti alla sua intercessione, papa Pio XI lo dichiarò Beato il 15 giugno 1930 e cosa insolita per i processi di canonizzazione, dopo solo quattro anni, il 20 maggio 1934 lo stesso pontefice lo proclamò Santo.

La festa liturgica è il 21 aprile, giorno del suo trapasso.

Autore:
Antonio Borrelli